Polluted Runoff (Nonpoint Source Pollution)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Last updated August 18, 2003
Annotated Bibliography

Alexander, G.R., and E.A. Hansen. 1986. Sand bed load in a brook trout stream. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 6:9-23.

An experimental introduction of sand sediment into Hunt Creek in the northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan that increased the bed load 4-5 times resulted in a significant reduction of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) numbers and habitat. The brook trout population declined to less than half its normal abundance. The growth rate of individual fish was not affected. Population adjustment to the poorer habitat was via a decrease in brook trout survival rates, particularly in the egg to fry to fall fingerling stages of their life cycle. Habitat for brook trout and their food organisms became much poorer, as judged by the drastic reductions of both. Stream morphometry changed considerably, the channel becoming wider and shallower and, sand deposition aggraded the streambed and eliminated most pools. The channel became a continuous run rather than a series of pools and riffles. Water velocities increased as well as did summer water temperatures. Relatively small sand bed-load concentrations of only 80 ppm had a profound effect on brook trout and their habitat.

American Fisheries Society. 1980. Position Paper on Management and Protection of Western Riparian Stream Ecosystems. American Fisheries Society, Western Division, Tualatin, OR. 24 pp.

The Western Division AFS presents this position statement to address the issue of management, maintenance, and protection of riparian stream ecosystems in the western United States. This paper was developed by the Riparian Habitat Committee of the WDAFS. It is the WDAFS intent that this paper be used not only by fisheries scientists, but also by those in other disciplines to develop an understanding of the relationships that exist between land uses, fish and wildlife habitat requirements, and stream ecology within riparian habitat zones. The WDAFS and the AFS urge objective consideration of the information presented herein. Includes information in grazing, mining, water development and irrigation, road construction, agriculture and urbanization, timber harvest, and recreational uses. Also includes a review of riparian stream ecosystem knowledge.

American Fisheries Society. 1982. The Best Management Practices for the Management and Protection of Western Riparian Stream Ecosystems. American Fisheries Society, Western Division, Tualatin, OR. 45 pp.

In 1976 streamside nutrient-enrichment experiments were conducted using wooden troughs. Triling of the PO4- concentration, with or without a similar increase of NO3-, increased algal biomass on the troughs by 8 times after 35 days. Increasing NO3- alone had no appreciable effect on algal growth. A sloughing of algal biomass in August 1976 is believed to have been due to the instability of the heavy algal mat on the troughs and to the very poor light conditions that prevailed throughout August. Visual observation indicated that the relatively heavy algal population in Carnation Creek rapidly declined concurrent with the decline in the troughs, and Frangilaria vaucheriae replaced Achnmanthes minutissima as dominant on the phosphorus enriched trough. No shift to green or blue-green algal dominated assemblages occurred despite alteration of the N:P ratio. The dynamics of species succession, distribution, and growth, with and without nutrient addition, are discussed.

Aquatic and Wetland Consultants, Inc. 1991. A Conceptual Habitat Restoration Design Plan for Boulder Creek - 55th Street to 61st Street. Aquatic and Wetland Consultants, Inc., Boulder, CO, 7 pp. + appendices.

This report was prepared at the request of Mr. John Barnett, Tributary Greenway Coordinator, City of Boulder. It addresses Boulder Creed Reach 3-A extending between 55th Street and 61st Street. The intent of this project was to provide a design plan for a continuation of the Boulder Creek corridor project which was previously ended at 55th Street. The overall goal of this project was to produce a creative stream, riparian, and wetland conceptual design plan that could be implemented in the future when funds become available. Specific objectives included utilization of selected best management practices (BMPs) and techniques that would increase: 1) streambank stabilization, and thereby decrease bank erosion, channel downcutting, and sediment transport; 2) holding water carrying capacity and standing stock (numbers and biomass); 3) high quality pool habitat and provide over-winter and low flow aquatic life survival; 4) riffle substrate structure (roughness) that would favor increased invertebrate productivity (fish food); and 5) potential for establishment of a healthy and functional stream, riparian and wetland ecosystem. It was intended to meet these objectives by preparing: 1) a conceptual design plan identifying types and specific locations of recommended enhancements; 2) plan and cross section typical drawings; 3) preliminary cost estimates; and 4) details on nonstandard construction techniques.

Armour, C.L., D.A. Duff, and W. Elmore. 1991. The effects of livestock grazing on riparian and stream ecosystems. Fisheries 16(1):7-11.

An American Fisheries Society position statement on livestock grazing and its effects on riparian and streamside ecosystems, particularly on federally owned lands. Big game, small game, non-game habitats and 19,000 miles of sport fishery streams have declined in quality due to poor management practices, including overgrazing. This poor management can lead to actual elimination of riparian areas by channel widening, channel aggradation or lowering of the water table. Actions needed to alleviate this problem could include complete and accurate stream and riparian area inventories, an increase in grazing fees, and promotion of awareness of the ecology of aquatic-riparian ecosystems and the processes that regulate these ecosystems.

Arthur D. Little, Inc. 1973. Report on Channel Modifications, Volume I & II. Prepared for the Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

These volumes are a final report to assess environmental, economic, financial and engineering aspects of channel modifications, and the availability and use of alternatives, as planned and carried out by the Corps of Engineers, Soil Conservation Service, Tennessee Valley Authority and the Bureau of Reclamation. This assessment has drawn upon the public record and literature, observations in the field of 42 projects in 18 States, and discussions with at least 558 people in 30 public meetings throughout the Nation. The report is in three separate bindings. Volume I describes the procedures used in carrying out the assignment, summarized findings and presents nine chapters on the contractual elements of the work. Volume II, Part One, and Volume II, Part Two, each contain 21 field evaluation reports.

Avery, E.L. 1978. The Influence of Chemical Reclamation on a Small Brown Trout Stream in Southwestern Wisconsin. Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI, Technical Bulletin No. 110.

The present study was initiated to more thoroughly quantify effects of chemical treatment and total fish removal on a domesticated brown trout population, the sport fisher, and the aquatic invertebrate community in a small southwestern Wisconsin trout stream. A culvert-type fish barrier was installed in the middle of the study zone prior to chemical treatment to determine its effectiveness in preventing reinvasion of forage fishes and to quantitatively document added benefits this practice might have over and above those derived from chemical treatment alone.

Babcock, W.H. 1982. Tenmile Creek - A Study of Stream Relocation. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Fisheries Research Section, Special Report No. 52, 22 pp.

After input from various interested agencies, three miles of creek were relocated to facilitate the construction of Interstate 70 through Tenmile Canyon west of Denver. The 0.5 million dollar project was designed to provide fish habitat of equal value to that present before construction or, if possible, to improve this habitat. Construction techniques were designed to minimize damage to flora and fauna. After the channels were excavated, rock and log fish habitat structures were constructed. Two years after construction, a 4 percent chance flood occurred at the project area which made almost 75 percent of the habitat structures ineffective. Pool- riffle ratios and quantity and quality of spawning areas remained essentially unchanged throughout the period. Population estimates indicated an increase in the number of fish in the postconstruction period compared to preconstruction numbers. Fish biomass estimates for the project area were comparable for the two periods. Aquatic invertebrate populations were unchanged as indicated by comparison of three pre- and postconstruction indices.

Baker, D.B. 1989. Environmental extension: a key to nonpoint-source pollution abatement. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 44(1):8.

The importance on soil, water, and air resources to our future quality of life and prosperity cannot be overestimated. Continuing stewardship of these resources will involve ongoing development of ever better best management practices and continuing assessment of the environmental impacts of ever more intensive land use activities. Environmental extension, by conveying to all of us state--of--the--art-and-science methods and current assessments of environmental conditions, will play increasingly important roles in environmental protection for the future. Article stresses cooperative education to abate nonpoint source pollution problems.

Beamish, F.W.H. and A. Tandler. 1990. Ambient ammonia, diet and growth in lake trout. Aquatic Toxicology 17:155-166.

Juvenile lake trout were exposed to ambient free (un-ionized) concentrations of 0, 99, 198 and 297 g NH3N 1-1 for 60 days and fed one of two diets which were similar in energy concentration. Diet did not influence food intake at ammonia concentrations of 0, 99, and 198 g NH3N 1-1. Food intake was unaffected by ammonia concentrations of 0 and 99 g NH3N 1-1 and was only temporarily reduced when ammonia was 198 g NH3N 101. Trout exposed to 297 g NH3N 1-1 consumed significantly less food than fish exposed to the lower concentrations of ammonia. Food intake did not differ with diet during the first 30 days of exposure to 297 NH3N 1-1 but during the final 30 days, it was higher for trout fed the low protein diet. Growth, measured as a change in live body weight was not influenced by ammonia concentrations of 0, 99, and 198 g NH3N 1-1 but declined significantly at 297 g NH3N 10-1. Weight gain tended to be larger for trout fed the high protein diet. Efficiency of protein-N gain was greater for trout fed the low protein diet, presumably as a consequence of a sparing effect afforded by high dietary lipid. Efficiency of protein-N gain was significantly reduced among lake trout exposed to the highest concentration of ammonia. Mortalities were observed only among trout exposed to the highest concentration of ammonia.

Beaumont, P. 1978. Man's impact on river systems: a world-wide view. Area 10:38-41.

An analysis of dam building activity throughout the world since 1840 revealing the pre-eminent position of North America. Three periods of increasing activity are identified culminating in a remarkable spate of dam construction between 1950 and 1970.

Binns, N.A. 1986. Stabilizing Eroding Stream Banks in Wyoming: A Guide to Controlling Bank Erosion in Streams. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, WY. 42 pp.

A non-technical booklet summarizing stream bank stabilization methods in a format useable by the average landowner. Topics include erosion, erosion mechanics, rock and rock devices, tree revetments, trout habitat, gabions, log cribs, unacceptable methods, alteration consequences, and sources of advice.

Bissonnette, P. 1985. Bellevue experiences with urban runoff quality control strategies. Perspectives on Nonpoint Source Pollution: Proceedings of a Conference. Kansas City, MO, May 19-22, 1985. pp. 279-280.

The Bellevue Storm and Surface Water (SSW) Utility was formed out of the city's and citizen's commitment to preserve it's network of streams and lakes. Established in 1974, the SSW Utility's mission is to manage the storm and surface water system in Bellevue to maintain a hydrologic balance, prevent property damage, and protect water quality for the health, safety, and enjoyment of citizens and for the preservation and enhancement of wildlife habitat. This mission has been impaired by urban runoff. It is essential that the state-of-the-art for runoff quality and treatment programs progress to the point that runoff pollution abatement strategies can be followed with confidence.

Bormann, F.H., G.E. Likens, and J.S. Eaton. 1969. Biotic regulation of particulate and solution losses from a forest ecosystem. BioScience 19(7):600-610.

Major losses of nutrients from terrestrial ecosystems result from two processes: particulate matter removal accomplished by erosion and transportation in surface drainage water, and solution removal accomplished by dissolution and transportation of solutes by surface and subsurface drainage water. Knowledge of these two processes is important to our understanding of the relationships between interconnected terrestrial and lotic ecosystems. In a larger sense, this information contributes to a more detailed understanding of fluvial denudation of the landscape and the relative importance of removal of solutes and particulate matter in this basic geologic phenomenon.

Boulder, City of - Department of Public Works/Utilities. 1990. Boulder Creek Basin Planning to Reduce Nonpoint Source Pollution by Using Best Management Practices. Department of Public Works/Utilities, City of Boulder, CO, 27 pp + appendices.

The City of Boulder proposed to control nonpoint source (NPS) pollution within the Boulder Creek Basin extending form the Indian Peaks Wilderness headwaters to the confluence with Coal Creek, a creek mainstem length of 40.8 miles. The objectives of the project include: 1) controlling NPS pollution using Best Management Practices (BMP's), 2) providing cost-effective water quality improvement singly and in combination with the 75th Street Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP), and 3) achieving the state use classification. The proposal follows initiation of a Phase I NPS Pollution Demonstration Project located downstream from the WWTP. Funding of $125,000 was split on a 60/40 basis by the State NPS Pollution Control Program and the City of Boulder. The project has generated high community interest, high NPS pollution visibility, and nearly a quarter million dollars of donated time, labor, and materials suggesting an approximate total project worth of $426,000. A Phase II Demonstration Project has been initiated as of 1 January 1990 and is funded similarly to Phase I. The Boulder Creek basin, for planning purposes, has been divided at the Boulder Canyon mouth into an upper (mountain) basin and a lower (plains) basin. Upper basin (upstream of City limits) NPS pollution includes: 1) 16 miles of State Highway sanding operations (3,000 tons/year including 7.5% salt), 2) mineral and gravel mining, and 3) sediment from a 1989 forest fire on Sugar Loaf Mountain. Lower basin NPS pollution includes: 1) highway street and road sanding operations (15,000 tons/year including 15% salt), 2) NPS drainage (18 sources) such as irrigation ditch return flows and 30 to 40 storm sewers, 3) channelization (70% requiring 7.8 miles of berm removal), 4) streambank erosion (72 locations totalling 2.1 miles), 5) overgrazing and gravel mining resulting in loss of the riparian canopy. The project has been divided into five one-year phases that include management, final design, construction, supervision and monitoring at an average yearly cost of $489,000 split on a 60/40 basis (state = 60% = @293,000; city = 40% = $195,600). Reported observations and documentation indicate that a final water quality management plan for the basin should include point source and NPS pollution controls. Neither control type alone can result in a stream that consistently meets its intended uses or water quality standards. Recommended BMPs will permit NPS pollution control, result in physical, biological and chemical habitat reclamation, and facilitate attaining the aquatic life use in the lower basin.

Boulder, City of - Department of Public Works/Utilities. 1990a. The Boulder Creek Watershed (Basin) Project for Nonpoint Source Pollution Control - Project Implementation Plan. Department of Public Works/Utilities, City of Boulder, CO, 55 pp. + appendices.

The Boulder Creek Watershed Project Implementation Plan (PIP) is a proposal to reduce and control nonpoint source (NPS) pollution within the Boulder Creek Basin extending from the Indian Peaks Wilderness headwaters to the confluence with Coal Creek. Specific state-approved best management practices (BMPs) that have the capability of providing cost-effective water quality improvement individually and in combination have been selected for implementation. The Boulder Creek Watershed PIP calls for a dendritic (branching) approach to the identification and resolution of water quality issues. Because degraded quality conditions within Boulder Creek are due to both deficiencies of the main channel and to deficiencies within the drainage network entering the creek, Boulder Creek itself is the first order concern. Riparian enhancement efforts such as the City's Phase I and Phase II lower Boulder Creek restoration projects, have restored lost functions to the main channel of the creek and have reduced the impact of degraded riparian zones. When first-order impacts are reduced in this manner, the relative effect of second-order impacts can be assessed and quantified. In addition, tributary channels can be assessed in terms of riparian function loss and in relation to inputs from third-order systems (i.e., surface drainage and subsurface flows). Third order systems are more likely to involve non-riparian agricultural or urban use areas. Best Management Practices (BMPs) developed for these areas will differ from those required to address first-order impacts and will draw more heavily on the resources and knowledge of traditional land use management agencies within those areas.

Boulder, City of - Department of Public Works/Utilities. 1991. Final Revised Project Implementation Plan (PIP) for Phase III Reach 5(a): The Boulder Creek Watershed Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Project. Department of Public Works/Utilities, City of Boulder, CO, 26 pp.

The overall goal of the Boulder Creek Project Implementation Plan (PIP) is to improve the physical, chemical and biological integrity and beneficial uses of Boulder Creek in a cost effective manner. Specific objectives include: 1) controlling NPS pollution in the Boulder Creek basin using state-of-the-art BMPs, 2) providing cost effective water quality improvement singly and in combination with the WWTP, and 3) achieving the state use classification. Specific NPS pollution for Subreach 5(a) include: 1) sediment, nutrient, debris and other inputs caused by loss of riparian zone function (i.e., entrapment), 2) sediment, nutrient, debris and other inputs caused by destabilization and eroded streambanks following loss of riparian vegetation by long-term overgrazing, 3) unstable erodible streambank berms cause by channelization which support noxious weeds and preclude growth of functional riparian vegetation, 4) an overly wide, shallow channel following channelization, and 5) degradation of water quality by overheating and excessive aquatic plant growth within the overly wide, shallow channel.

Boulder, City of - Department of Public Works/Utilities. 1991a. Project Implementation Plan (PIP) for Phase IV an V Reach 6 (a/b): The Boulder Creek Watershed Nonpoint Pollution Control Project. Department of Public Works/Utilities, City of Boulder, CO, 29 pp.

The overall goal of the Boulder Creek Project Implementation Plan (PIP) is to improve the physical, chemical and biological integrity and beneficial uses of Boulder Creek in a cost effective manner. Specific objectives include: 1) controlling NPS pollution in the Boulder Creek basin using state-of-the-art BMPs, 2) providing cost effective water quality improvement singly and in combination with the WWTP, and 3) achieving the state use classification. Specific NPS pollution for Subreach 5(a) include: 1) sediment, nutrient, debris and other inputs caused by loss of riparian zone function (i.e., entrapment), 2) sediment, nutrient, debris and other inputs caused by destabilization and eroded streambanks following loss of riparian vegetation by long-term overgrazing, 3) unstable erodible streambank berms cause by channelization which support noxious weeds and preclude growth of functional riparian vegetation, 4) an overly wide, shallow channel following channelization, and 5) degradation of water quality by overheating and excessive aquatic plant growth within the overly wide, shallow channel.

Bradt, P.T., and G.E. Wieland, III. 1978. The Impact of Stream Reconstruction and a Gabion Installation on the Biology and Chemistry of a Trout Stream. Completion Report for Grant No. 14-34-0001-6225, U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Water Research and Technology.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a gabion installation and stream reconstruction in a 2 km section of rechanneled stream. The Bushkill Creek, supporting a naturally reproducing brown trout population in Northampton County, Pennsylvania, was sampled bi-weekly biologically, chemically and physically for sixteen months. Prior to the sampling, stream reconstruction efforts included both a gabion (rock current deflectors) installation to narrow an deepen the streambed and tree and shrub planting to cover bare banks and provide eventual shade. The stream bed was open to sunlight and primary productivity, as evidenced by larger algae populations, increased in the rechanneled area. The following benthic macroinvertebrate parameters significantly increased also through the rechanneled area: diversity index, biomass, total numbers, and number of taxa. The following chemical parameters increased significantly throughout the rechanneled area: conductivity, dissolved oxygen, percent oxygen saturation and alkalinity. Orthophosphate decreased significantly and flow velocity increased significantly. Limestone springs contributed to the increase in conductivity and alkalinity. Increased photosynthesis and turbulence contributed to the increase in dissolved oxygen and oxygen saturation. The gabions deepened and narrowed the stream channel resulting in a cooler stream in summer.

Brookes, A. 1988. Channelized Rivers: Perspectives for Environmental Management. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY. 326 pp.v

An introduction to and case studies of human impact on rivers. These impacts include channelization, engineering methods and designs, environmental legislation, the physical and biological effects of channelization, consequences to downstream reaches, new construction procedures, and mitigation, enhancement and restoration techniques (rehabilitation) of rivers.

Brouha, P. and R. Barnhart. 1982. Progress of the Brown's Creek Fish habitat development project. In: R. Wiley (ed.) Proc. of Rocky Mt. Stream Habitat Management Workshop. Sept. 7-10, 1982, Jackson, WY. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Laramie, WY.

A direct and rapid restoration method is stream habitat improvement in major spawning and rearing tributaries. Various projects show that fish populations respond to an increase in shelter and food. This paper is a case study of the improvement of The Upper Browns Creek watershed in northwestern California 35 miles southwest of Redding in the Shasta-Trinity National Forest. Brown, G.W. 1989. Forestry and Water Quality. O.S.U. Book Stores, Inc., Second Edition, Corvallis, OR.
A textbook for forestry management classes. The objective of this text is to illustrate the interaction between man and his management of the forest, the hydrologic cycle, and the quality of water in forest streams. It is intended as a text for use by students at the senior or graduate level in professional courses dealing with forestry, environmental sciences, or natural resources policy. Professional natural resource managers may also find it useful, especially the literature citations, in development of policy and operational guidelines or in preparation of environmental impact statements. Understanding how water quality is affected by natural factors and man's manipulation of the forest requires an understanding of hydrologic processes on forest land. Contains information on problems and solutions for the subjects of erosion and sedimentation, water temperature, dissolved nutrients, chemicals and water quality, dissolved oxygen, and pathogenic organisms. Brown, G.W. and J.T. Krygier. 1967. Changing water temperature in small mountain streams. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 22:242-244.
Land use effects on the water temperature of small mountain streams have been considered remote and inconsequential. Few investigations have been made to establish seasonal temperature patterns on forested streams and almost none of the effects of logging on water temperature. Results of such studies are important in the Pacific Northwest, where most of the land supplying the region's water is forested and subject to periodic harvest. Most municipal watersheds in the Northwest are forested. Anadromous and resident fish utilize forest streams extensively. Modification of vegetal cover along small streams may cause temperature changes as ecologically and economically significant as changes caused by reservoirs and thermal plants on large river systems. It is difficult, however, to economically control water temperature with reservoirs on small streams. If control is important, it must be accomplished by watershed management.

Burgess, S.A. 1985. Some effects of stream habitat improvement on the aquatic and riparian community of a small mountain stream. Pp. 223-246 in: J.A. Gore, ed., The Restoration of Rivers and Streams. Theories and Experience. Butterworth, Stoneham, MA. 280 pp.

A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a relatively simple habitat improvement program in increasing trout biomass in an experimental section of a small mountain stream. The intention of the study was to use relatively simple techniques with low cost and labor requirements. In addition to monitoring the effects of the habitat improvements on the trout population, the responses of other members of the aquatic and riparian community, notably crayfish and mink, were also investigated.

Cairns, J. Jr. 1991. The status of the theoretical and applied science of restoration ecology. The Environmental Professional 13:186-194.

Restoration ecology is evolving rapidly, but the field is still experimental activity. At this stage, every restoration project should be used to improve the status of both theoretical and applied science. The course of a restoration project should be sufficiently flexible to incorporate changes as a result of the feedback of scientific and societal information. Unfortunately, experiments on large systems such as the Kissimmee River are not amenable to replication, Nevertheless, simultaneous measurements in a nonmanipulated reference system provide information about large-scale trends that otherwise may confound evaluation. Finally, the resilience of natural systems is so impressive that even a beginning field can make major contributions to the condition of the planet's ecosystems.

Cairns, J. Jr., B.R. Niederlehner, and J.R. Pratt. 1990. Evaluation of joint toxicity of chlorine and ammonia to aquatic communities. Aquatic Toxicology 16:87-100.

Periphytic communities on artificial substrates were exposed to chlorine and ammonia, alone and in combinations. The species richness of protozoans decreased with increasing toxicant concentrations. Species richness was reduced by 20% in 2.7 g/L chlorine, 15.4 g/L un-ionized ammonia, and a combination of 1.2 g/L chlorine and 16.9 g/L ammonia. Interaction between toxicants was significant and effects of mixtures were less-than-additive, especially at higher concentrations. Multiple regression was used to derive a response surface model accounting for 73.4% of the variation in species richness. Algal biomass and community metabolism measures were less sensitive to stress and showed different patterns of joint action.

Canada, Government of - Department of Fisheries and Oceans. 1980. Stream Enhancement Guide. Government of Canada, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Vancouver, BC. 82 pp. + appendices.

This guide provides an introduction to the various approaches and methods suitable for salmonid production stream enhancement in British Columbia. It has been prepared to assist both the interested public and government agency staff, having limited technical background in this field, to plan and implement projects. Contains information on project planning, streamside and watershed improvements, stream channel improvements, side channel development, stream flow control, nutrient enrichment, and project assessment.

Clary, W.P. and B.F. Webster. 1990. Riparian grazing guidelines for the intermountain region. Rangelands 12(4):209-212.

Excessive livestock impacts, through heavy grazing and trampling, affect riparian-stream habitats by reducing or eliminating riparian vegetation, changing streambank and channel morphology, and increasing stream sediment transport. Often there is a lowering of the surrounding water tables. Thus livestock are perceived as a major cause of habitat disturbance in many Western riparian areas. This perception has resulted in accelerated concerns from various resource users because riparian areas generally represent the epitome of multiple use. In addition to the livestock forage, riparian areas and the associated streams often have high to very high values for fisheries habitat, wildlife habitat, recreation, production of wood fiber, transportation routes, precious metals, water quality, and timing of water flows. Includes information on recommended grazing management practices.

Coffin, P.D. 1982. Northeastern Nevada stream and riparian habitat improvement projects. In: R. Wiley (ed.) Proc. of Rocky Mt. Stream Habitat Management Workshop. Sept. 7-10, 1982, Jackson, WY. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Laramie, WY.

A synopsis of various stream and riparian habitat improvement projects in Nevada. Costs, techniques, and results are included for eight projects dating from 1963 through 1981.

Columbia Basin System Planning. 1990. Salmon and Steelhead Production Plans. Columbia Basin System Planning, Northwest Power Planning Council, Portland, OR.

Fish production plans dated 9/1/90, lead-written by either the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife or the Washington State Department of Fisheries in conjunction with other State Agencies and Indian Tribal Governments. The documents include information on habitat improvement projects, constraints and opportunities for habitat protection, and habitat protection objectives and strategies. Our library contains this information for the following areas: Willamette River subbasin (Coast Range, Molalla & Pudding Rivers, Tualatin River, Clackamas River, Willamette Mainstem, Coast Fork & Long Tom Rivers, Middle Fork of the Willamette River, McKenzie River, and Santiam & Calapooia Rivers), Yakima River subbasin, Upper Columbia River subbasin (Priest Rapids Dam to Chief Joseph Dam), Lower Columbia River subbasin (Mouth to Bonneville Dam), Mid Columbia River subbasin (Bonneville Dam to Priest Rapids Dam), Deschutes River subbasin, Snake River subbasin (Mainstem from mouth to Hells' Canyon Dam), Sandy River subbasin, Wenatchee River subbasin, Walla Walla River subbasin, Umatilla River subbasin, Tucannon River subbasin, Wind River subbasin, Imnaha River subbasin, Hood River subbasin, Klickitat River subbasin, John Day River subbasin, White Salmon River subbasin, Little White Salmon River subbasin, Salmon River subbasin, Methow and Okanogan River subbasin, Grays River subbasin, Kalama River subbasin, Elochoman River subbasin, Cowlitz River subbasin, Washougal River subbasin, Entiat River subbasin, Fifteenmile Creek subbasin, and Grande Ronde River subbasin.

Contor, C.R. and W.S. Platts. 1991. Assessment of COWFISH for Predicting Trout Populations in Grazed Watersheds of the Intermountain West. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, UT, Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-278, 28 pp.

Cowardin, L.M., V. Carter, F.C. Golet, and E.T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States. Office of Biological Services, U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC. FWS/OBS/79/31, 103 pp.

This classification, to be used in a new inventory of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States, is intended to describe ecological taxa, arrange them in a system useful to resource managers, furnish units for mapping, and provide uniformity of concepts and terms. Wetlands are defined by plants (hydrophytes), soils (hydric soils), and frequency of flooding. Ecologically related areas of deep water, traditionally not considered wetlands, are included in the classification as deepwater habitats. Systems form the highest level of the classification hierarchy (Marine, Estuarine, Riverine, Lacustrine, and Palustrine), followed by Subsystem, Class, and Dominance Type, plus modifying terms. Regional differences important to wetland ecology are described through a regionalization that combines a system developed for inland areas by G.R. Bailey in 1976 with our Marine and Estuarine provinces. The structure of the classification allows it to be used at any of several hierarchical levels. Special data required for detailed application of the system are frequently unavailable, and thus data gathering may be prerequisite to classification. Development of rules by the user will be required for specific map scales. Dominance Types and relationships of plant and animal communities to environmental characteristics must also be developed by users of the classification. Keys to the Systems and Classes are furnished as a guide, and numerous wetlands and deepwater habitats are illustrated and classified. The classification system is also compared with several other systems currently in use in the United States.

DeBano, L.F. and B.H. Heede. 1987. Enhancement of riparian ecosystems with channel structures. Water Resources Bulletin 23(3):463-470.

Naturally occurring and man-made structures can be used for enhancing the development of riparian zones. Naturally occurring structures are cienagas, beaver dams, and log steps. Man-made structures include large and small channel structures and bank protection devices. All these structures affect streamflow hydraulics and sedimentation and can create a more favorable environment for riparian zone establishment. However, when they are used improperly, they can be destructive to existing riparian zones. Since stream processes are generally slow, long-time spans may pass before the effects of management action, good or bad, become visible. Also, the effects of large dam installations may appear a long distance down-stream from the dam. Therefore, investigations must be of a wide scope. Interactions between riparian site, channel, and streamflow may be so complex that an interdisciplinary approach is required.

DeBano, L.F. and L.J. Schmidt. 1989. Improving Southwestern Riparian Areas through Watershed Management. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO, General Technical Report No. RM-182.

This paper reviews opportunities and watershed restoration techniques available for rehabilitating and enhancing riparian ecosystems in southwest environments. As such it is intended to serve as a state-of-the- art report on riparian hydrology and improvement in both naturally occurring and man-made riparian areas throughout the Southwest.

Delong, M.D. and M.A. Brusven. 1991. Classification and spatial mapping of riparian habitat with applications toward management of streams impacted by nonpoint source pollution. Environmental Management 15(4):565-571.

Management of riparian habitats has been recognized for its importance in reducing instream effects of agricultural nonpoint source pollution. By serving as a buffer, well structured riparian habitats can reduce nonpoint source impacts by filtering surface runoff from field to stream. A system has been developed where key characteristics of riparian habitat, vegetation type, height, width, riparian and shoreline bank slope, and land use are classified as discrete categorical units. This classification system recognizes seven riparian vegetation types, which are determined by dominant plant type. Riparian and shoreline bank slope, in addition to riparian width and height, each consist of five categories. Classification by discrete units allows for ready digitizing of information for production of spatial maps using a geographic information system (GIS). The classification system was tested for field efficiency on Tom Beall Creek watershed, an agriculturally impacted third-order stream in the Clearwater River drainage, Nez Perce County, Idaho, USA. The classification system wa simple to sue during field applications and provided a good inventory of riparian habitat. After successful field tests, spatial maps were produced for each component using the Professional Map Analysis Package (pMAP), a GIS program. With pMAP, a map describing general riparian habitat condition was produced by combining the maps of components of riparian habitat, and the condition map was integrated with a map of soil erosion potential in order to determine areas along the stream that are susceptible to nonpoint source pollution inputs. Integration of spatial maps of riparian classification and watershed characteristics has a great potential as a tool for aiding in making management decisions for mitigating off-site impacts of agricultural nonpoint source pollution.

Duff, D.A. and N. Banks. 1988. Indexed Bibliography on Stream Habitat Improvement. USDA Forest Service Intermountain Region, Wildlife Management Staff, Ogden, UT.

Not available.

Elmore, W. and R.L. Beschta. 1987. Riparian areas: Perceptions in management. Rangelands 9(6):260-265.

Riparian areas can be the most important part of a watershed for a wide range of values and resources. They provide forage for domestic animals and important habitat for approximately four-fifths of the wildlife species in eastern Oregon. Where streams are perennial, they provide essential habitat for fish and other aquatic organisms. When overbank flows occur, riparian areas can attenuate flood peaks and increase groundwater recharge. This paper presents information on issues and problems like, flooding, vegetation, streamflow, and grazing.

Ferguson, B.K. 1991. Urban stream reclamation. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 46(5):324-328.

In urban areas, streams represent potential wildlife corridors, wetland multipliers of ecosystem integrity, scenic resources, recreational facilities close to home, and greenway links among neighborhoods and parks. The materials, vegetation, shape, stability, and spatial composition of the stream channel and riparian landscape govern the corridor's effectiveness as a resource. Such characteristics can be managed through landscape design. Projects to implement such values have been undertaken in several areas; some examples are California's Urban Stream Restoration Program, The Boulder Creek Corridor Project in Colorado, and San Antonio's Riverwalk.

Froelich, P.N. 1988. Kinetic control of dissolved phosphate in natural rivers and estuaries: a primer on the phosphate buffer mechanism. Limnology and Oceanography 33(4, part 2):649-668.

The primary mode of interaction of dissolved phosphate with fluvial inorganic suspended particles is via a reversible two-step sorption process. The first step is adsorption/desorption on surfaces has fast kinetics (minutes-hours). The second step, solid-state diffusion of adsorbed phosphate from the surface into the interior of particles, has slower kinetics (days-months) and is dependent on the time history of the previous surface sorption and the chemistry of the solid diffusional layer. Natural clay particles with a surface of iron and aluminum hydroxyoxides resulting from chemical weathering of rocks and soils, have a high capacity for absorbing phosphate and for maintaining low "equilibrium phosphate concentrations" in solution. Extrapolation of laboratory experiments suggest that phosphate concentrations of unperturbed turbid rivers are controlled near the dynamic equilibrium phosphate concentration and that fluvial suspended particles "at equilibrium" contain phosphate that is desorbable. Release of this phosphate from particles entering the sea produces the characteristic shape and magnitude of input profiles of dissolved phosphate observed in unperturbed estuaries. On a global scale, fluvial particulates could transport some 2.5 times more than that in the dissolved load alone.

Gammon, J.R. 19??. Biological Monitoring in the Wabashi River and Its Tributaries. Department of Bio. Sci., DePauw University, Greencastle, IN.

The aquatic communities of the middle Wabash River and its tributaries have been studied annually since 1967. Initial assessments of thermal effects at two power plants were expanded in 1973 to include 160 miles of mainstem. D.C. electrofishing proved to be most effective for the greatest number of large species in the Wabash River. Fish are collected 3 times each summer from 63 stations, each of which is 0.5 km long. Most stations are sited in relatively fast-water with good cover and depths of 1.5 m. or less. Several important tributaries have also been investigated. Some macrobenthic, periphyton, and phytoplankton work has been undertaken, but the fish community has been studied most intensively. In recent years improvements have been documented along the Wabash River itself, but it has been simultaneously observed that marked negative changes from agricultural activities in tributaries have occurred.

Gore, J.A. 1985. Mechanisms of colonization and habitat enhancement for benthic macroinvertebrates in restored river channels. Pp. 81-101 in: J.A. Gore, ed., The Restoration of Rivers and Streams. Theories and Experience. Butterworth, Stoneham, MA. 280 pp.

Benthic macroinvertebrates comprise a large and diverse faunal community in most undisturbed running water ecosystems. These invertebrates represent a critical pathway for the transport and utilization of energy within that ecosystem. Alterations habitat, such as diversions, channel restructuring, or dredging of substrate material, have the potential of changing the energy dynamics of downstream faunal communities as well. Restoration of the benthic macroinvertebrate community to duplicate adjacent unstressed communities is essential to the maintenance of a stable restored system. This article provides the manager with information on the dispersal mechanisms of aquatic invertebrates, measurements of optimum habitat for invertebrates, and a synopsis of some typical reclamation efforts designed for macroinvertebrate habitat.

Gore, J.A. (Ed.). 1985. The Restoration of Rivers and Streams: Theories and Experience. Butterworth, Stoneham, MA, 288 pp.

The restoration or rivers and streams differs from land reclamation projects in that it involves the process of recovery enhancement, that is, restoration of the ecosystem at a faster rate than through natural development. This effort requires the knowledge and involvement of a number of professionals, including biologists, hydrologists, engineers and others working as stream managers. This book is for these professionals any anyone else concerned about the reclamation and restoration of damaged streams and ecosystems. It is a unique interdisciplinary survey of theories and techniques used in river and stream restoration, from maintenance of the hydrologic balance to assessment of the successful restoration project.

Gunderson, D.R. 1968. Floodplain use related to stream morphology and fish populations. Journal of Wildlife Management 32(3):507-514.

For two contiguous sections of a Montana stream, the agricultural use of the floodplain was related to cover, stream morphology, and fish populations. In one section the vegetation of the floodplain had been reduced by clearing and intensive livestock grazing; in the other section, which had received light use by livestock, vegetation was relatively unchanged. This ungrazed section had 76% more cover (undercut banks, debris, overhanging brush, and miscellaneous) per acre of stream than the grazed section. Brown trout (+6 inches) were estimated to be 27% more numerous and to weigh 44% more per acre in the ungrazed section of the stream, although their rate of growth was similar in the two stream sections.

Gurtz, M.E. and T.W. La Point (eds.). 1989. North American Benthological Society Technical Information Workshop "Stream Rehabilitation and Restoration". May 18, 1989, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Papers presented at a workshop in Guelph, Ontario. Include information on river ecosystem rehabilitation, water quality restoration, riparian revegetation, invertebrate response to restoration, and evaluation of salmonid habitat for stream restoration. The water quality restoration paper is very general, showing overall concepts only, not specifics.

Hasfurther, V.R. 1985. The use of meander parameters in restoring hydrologic balance to reclaimed stream beds. Pp. 21-40 in: J.A. Gore, ed., The Restoration of Rivers and Streams. Theories and Experience. Butterworth, Stoneham, MA. 280 pp.

A river or stream is dynamic through time. Change is one of the most common features associated with river and stream channels. In general, this change is very slow, however, and only over long periods of time is it actually noticeable to most individuals. As a result, engineers, ecologists, and others involved with the hydrologic balance of a stream often treat the stream system as static. Humans often induce change upon the system without taking the necessary steps to restore the quasi-steady situation and thus set in motion a response by the stream system to adjust to this change, which results in the propagated response along great distances from the human- induced action. This paper discusses methods and techniques for restoring a stream channel to its natural inclinations after a human-induced change. The main emphasis will be on meander parameters and their importance in stream channel stability.

Haugen, G.N. 1983. Riparian best management practices. Fisheries 8(1):2 and 9.

The Western Division of the American Fisheries Society has been active in increasing an awareness of riparian habitat management on State, Federal, and Provincial land throughout the west. We should recognize existing situations, describe the fishery potential under optimum management conditions, and then develop alternatives that have specific objectives as well as monitoring to insure that these objectives are met. In developing a plan for a riparian area, it is important that not only fisheries and wildlife expertise be involved but also those who manage the range, the watershed, and the soil. A multidisciplinary team approach is essential if riparian areas are to abe managed to the benefit of all dependent resources.

Heede, B.H. and J.N. Rinne. 1990. Hydrodynamic and fluvial morphologic processes: implications for fisheries management and research. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 10(3):249-268.

Past work has not sufficiently integrated the sciences of hydrology and fisheries. Therefore, streamflow, sediment transport, and channel morphology were used to describe the present state of our knowledge of interactions between physical and biological (fishery) processes. These three physical factory (and others) dictate both habitat quantity and quality for different life states of fishes, and their inclusion in habitat assessments will enhance the quality of investigations. Interaction of hydraulic and morphologic factors creates either dynamic equilibrium or disequilibrium, and indicators are given for determination of the type of equilibrium condition. Thus, stream reaches in disequilibrium can be avoided for enhancement or channel stabilization projects, while neglect of the equilibrium condition increases the probability of failure of enhancement projects. Investigators are also urged to use additional hydrodynamic parameters, such as the Froude or Reynolds number, go quantify objectively the type of flow for improved mathematical-statistical analysis of fish-flow relationships. Land managers and researchers are encouraged to design future projects to improve the understanding of the very complex interactions between fish and their hydraulic and morphologic environment. Characteristics of fish habitat must be modified with great care, and then only if (1) the causes for an undesirable condition are known and (2) the measures will be compatible with future stream development. In such an evaluation of fish habitat, the inclusion of hydrodynamic and fluvial morphologic variables should provide more precise quantification of habitat characteristics.

Henderson, J.E. 1986. Environmental designs for streambank protection projects. Water Resources Bulletin 22(4):549-558.

Streambank protection projects are intended to prevent streambank erosion, thereby preventing streambank failure and maintaining a desirable channel alignment. Streambank erosion is a natural process of unaltered, dynamic river systems, and protection projects seek to impose stability on this natural system. The environmental impacts of such projects are primarily changes to terrestrial and aquatic habitats and to aesthetics. Adverse environmental impacts have been minimized and enhancement of existing habitat an d aesthetics have been achieved through the development of new, innovative designs or modifications to existing designs and through use of construction and maintenance practices that promote habitat and aesthetics. Designs based on channel flow characteristics, e.g., revetments using a variety of structural materials, can result in preservation of wildlife habitat by reducing the use of structural protection by matching the erosion potential of flow at the bank with the protection capability of the materials used. Designs based on streambed stabilization prevent bank failure caused y bank undermining, result in preservation or establishment of streamside vegetation, and enhance aesthetics. Protection schemes that manage and preserve floodplains, berms, and riparian areas preserve the natural condition of the floodplain area. Designs based on deflection of erosive flows, e.g., dikes, minimize disturbance to the bank vegetation and create low-velocity aquatic habitats. Use of vegetation for bank protection is most effective when used in combination with structural components. Construction and maintenance practices can be scheduled and modified to minimize impacts to floodplain areas and to enhance wildlife habitat while preserving the integrity of the protection structure.

Henszey, R.J., T.A. Wesche, and Q.D. Skinner. 1989. Evaluation of the State-of-the-Art Streambank Stabilization. Prepared for Water Quality Division, Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, Cheyenne, WY, 224 pp.

An evaluation of structural, non-structural, and vegetative streambank stabilization methods, with comments on description, application (how and where), advantages, limitations, and relative cost of approximately 50 techniques. Also includes a large bibliography of references for individual projects, and streambank stabilization overall.

Herricks, E.E. and L.L. Osborne. 1985. Water quality restoration and protection in streams and rivers. Pp. 1-20 in: J.A. Gore, ed., The Restoration of Rivers and Streams. Theories and Experience. Butterworth, Stoneham, Ma. 280 pp.

The following discussion of restoration and protection of water quality in streams and rivers recognizes the role water plays in the ecosystem process. Water quality cannot easily be discussed from a single disciplinary perspective because issues span a number of disciplines and relate to physical, chemical, and biological components of the ecosystem. In addition, the separation of purely technical issues from economic, political, and social factors is impossible when constraints on restoration or protection efforts are considered. In this discussion of the restoration and protection of water quality in streams, the authors felt it important to first review the context in which restoration and protection of water quality is viewed, identify uses and impacts, and then discuss the general approaches to restoration and protection which are available to water quality managers.

Hughes, R.M. 1985. Use of watershed characteristics to select control streams for estimating effects of metal mining wastes on extensively disturbed streams. Environmental Management 9(3):253-262.

Impacts of sediments and heavy metals on the biota of streams in the copper-mining district of southwestern Montana were examined by comparing aquatic communities of impacted streams with those of control streams. Control streams were chosen through the use of a technique that identifies similar streams based on similarities in their watershed characteristics. Significant differences between impacted and control sites existed for surface substrate, riparian vegetation, and the number of macroinvertebrates taxa. These results revealed that (a) chemical and physical habitats at the impacted sites were disrupted, (b) the presence of trout was an inadequate measure of ecological integrity for these sites, and (c) watershed classification based on a combination of mapped terrestrial characteristics provided a reasonable method to select control sites where potential control sites upstream and downstream were unsuitable.

Hughes, R.M., T.R. Whittier, and C.M. Rohm. 1990. A regional framework for establishing recovery criteria. Environmental Management 14(5):673-683.

Effective assessments of aquatic ecosystem recovery require ecologically sound endpoints against which progress can be measured. Site-by-site assessments of end points and potential recovery trajectories are impractical for water resource agencies. Because of the natural variation among ecosystems, applying a single set of criteria nation-wide is not appropriate either. This article demonstrates the use of a regional framework for stratifying natural variation and for determining realistic biological criteria. A map of ecoregions, drawn from landscape characteristics, forms the framework for three statewide case studies and three separate studies at the river basin scale. Statewide studies of Arkansas, Ohio, and Oregon, USA, streams demonstrated patterns in fish assemblages corresponding to ecoregions. The river basin study in Oregon revealed a distinct change at the ecoregion boundary; those in Ohio and Montana demonstrated the value of regional reference sites for assessing recovery. Ecoregions can be used to facilitate the application of ecological theory and to set recovery criteria for various regions of states or of the country. Such a framework provides an important alternative between site- specific and national approaches for assessing recovery rates and conditions.

Hunt, R.L. 1976. A long-term evaluation of trout habitat development and its relation to improving management-related research. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 105(3):361-364.

Responses of a wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) population to instream habitat development in a 0.7 km reach of Lawrence Creek were monitored for 7 years and compared to population data for the 3-year period prior to development. Mean annual biomass of trout, mean annual number of trout over 15 cm (legal size), and annual production increased significantly during the 3 years following development, abut more impressive response were observed during the second 3 years. Maximum number and biomass and number of legal trout did not occur until 5 years after completion of development. The peak number of brook trout over 20 cm was reached the sixth year after development. Where long-term studies of aquatic systems are needed to evaluate effects of environmental perturbations, it may be desirable to deliberately delay collection of posttreatment data. Such a start-pause-finish sequence of research would provide more valid and less costly evaluations and utilize the time of researchers more efficiently.

Hunt, R.L. 1988. A Compendium of 45 Trout Stream Habitat Development Evaluations in Wisconsin During 1953-1985. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI, Technical Bulletin No. 162.

A standard case history format was devised to summarize 45 trout stream habitat evaluations carried out by Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) fishery management and research biologists on 41 streams distributed among 29 counties during 1953-85. Thirty-three of these case histories are based on unpublished documents supplied from files of fish managers. Data were gathered from 55 treatment zones (TZs) averaging 0.84 mile long and 20 reference zones (RZs) averaging 0.74 mile long. Wild trout were dominant or solely present in 59 of the 55 TZs. "Success" of each project was judged on the basis of percentage changes within TZs for each of 6 possible variables standardized to "per mile" quantities. These 6 variables were: total number of trout, number 6 inches or larger (legal size), number 10 inches or larger (quality size), total biomass, angler hours, and angler harvest. The habitat development techniques employed were grouped into six categories based on the predominant techniques. Of these 6 categories, the "Wisconsin-style" bank cover and current deflector category generally produced the best success rates regardless of the species of trout present in the 10TZs represented. Stream bank debrushing, sometimes in combination with installation of brush bundles, was very effective in a few TZs but scored low in overall success rates for all 9 TZs. More attention should be given in future evaluations to improve experimental design by including several annual observations of selected variables in paired RZs and TZs before and after habitat development in the TZs. Special emphasis is needed on more frequent inclusion of season-long creel census studies, despite their high cost, so that changes in trout carrying capacity after habitat development can be more accurately assessed.

Hunter, C.J. 1991. Better Trout Habitat: A Guide to Stream Restoration and Management. Montana Land Reliance, Island Press, Washington, 321 pp.

This book was written in response to an explosion of interest in habitat restoration in general, and trout-stream habitat restoration in particular. The intent was to synthesize state-of-the-art technical information and present it in such a way that it would be readable and informative for both the lay and professional reader. Chapters 1 - 6 provide the historical context and technical background necessary to understanding the theory behind trout stream restoration and management. Chapters 7 through 9 examine 14 case histories showing how theory has, and has not, been put into practice. Chapter 10 provides some concluding thoughts on stream restoration management and protection.

Inter-Fluve, Inc. 1990. Placer Mining Reclamation Guidance Document (Draft). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region VIII, Montana Office, Helena, MT, 78 pp. + appendices.

The principal objective if this report is to facilitate informed participation in placer mine reclamation. Due to the technical nature of the information contained herein, the primary audience for this report is intended to be resource agency personnel. However, it should be accessible to a wide audience, including miners, operators, consultants, law makers, and administrators. In cases where placer mine activities involve the modification or reconstruction of stream environments, it is desirable to reclaim aquatic resources. This report outlines the steps required for fundamental channel reconstruction, focusing on techniques to preserve or create channel forms commonly associated with good aquatic habitat.

Jensen, S.E. and W.S. Platts. 1989. Restoration of degraded riverine/riparian habitat in the Great Basin and Snake River regions. P. 367-404 in: J.A. Cusler and M.E. Kentula, eds., Wetland Creation and Restoration: The Status of the Science. Vol. I: Regional Reviews. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory, Corvallis, OR. EPA600/3-89/038A, 473 pp.

Riverine/riparian habitat (RRH) includes interdependent aquatic (riverine) and streamside (riparian) resources that are valuable for fish and wildlife habitat, flood storage and desynchronization, nutrient cycling and water quality, recreation, and heritage values. RRH includes resources both wetter and drier than stipulated for wetlands. Whereas the "natural or achievable state" of a riparian habitat may be wetland, the "existing state" may be non-wetland because of natural or anthropogenically induced changes in the hydrologic character of RRH. There are many different types of RRH, each with distinctive structure, function and values. Restoration commonly requires: (1) planning to identify preliminary goals and a general approach, (2) baseline assessments and inventories, (3) designs from which the feasibility of accomplishing goals can be assessed, (4) evaluation to assure compliance with designs, and (5) monitoring of variables important to goals and objectives. The goals, approach and design of restoration projects must be tailored to each type or RRH. Some general elements important to restoration of degraded RRH are: (1) establishment of hydrologic conditions compatible with project goals, (2) efficient handling of soil and substrates in construction, (3) selection and propagation of plants suited to the site and project goals, (4) evaluation of features to enhance habitat for target species, (5) maintenance and control of impacts, and (6) scheduling construction to reflect site constraints and goals. Perhaps the most universally applicable recommendation is "don't fight the river" but, rather, encourage it to work for you.

Kanaly, J. 1975. Stream Improvement Evaluation in the Rock Creek Fishway, Carbon County, Wyoming. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Fish Division, Administrative Report, Project 5075-08-6602.

With the advent of Highway I-80 from Laramie, Wyoming to Walcott Junction, Wyoming, a 1,200-foot channel change on Rock Creek near Arlington was deemed necessary by the Wyoming Highway Department. Confronted by the virtual loss of 1,200 feet of good fish habitat which supported populations of rainbow, brook and brown trout, the Wyoming Game and Fish Department and the Wyoming Highway Department agreed to attempt restoration of this reach of stream. The cost of the restoration was included as part of highway construction expenditures for I-80. This report reviews the success of the project.

Karr, J.R. and D.R. Dudley. 1982. Ecological perspective on water quality goals. Environmental Management 5(1):55-68.

The central assumption of nonpoint source pollution control efforts in agricultural watersheds is that traditional erosion control programs are sufficient to insure high quality water resources. We outline the inadequacies of that assumption, especially as they relate to the goal of attaining ecological integrity. The declining biotic integrity of our water resources over the past two decades is not exclusively due to water quality (physical/chemical) degradation. Improvement in many aspects of the quality of our water resources must be approached with a much broader perspective than improvement of physical/chemical conditions. Other deficiencies in nonpoint pollution control programs are discussed and a new approach to the problem is outlined. Includes broad comments on habitat structure as a primary determinant of the quality of a water resource.

Keeney, D.R. 1982. Nitrogen management for maximum efficiency and minimum pollution. Ch. 16 in: Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils - Agronomy Monograph No. 22, pp. 605-649.

Agriculture must evolve towards conserving nonrenewable energy resources and minimizing adverse environmental impacts. Of the essential plant nutrients which can be realistically managed, N undoubtedly has the greatest potential environmental and health impact. Further, while small relative to total U.S. energy use, N fertilizer manufacturing has the largest energy requirement for any single facet of production agriculture. The objectives of this chapter are twofold: (1) to consider the impacts of N in the environment, and (2) to examine various management systems for conservation of N (and, hence, minimization of pollution) in agro-ecosystems.

Key, J.W. 1987. Small Instream Structure Construction for Meadow Restoration in Clark Canyon, California. Proceedings of the California Watershed Management Conference, November 18- 20, 1986, West Sacramento, CA, p. 161.

The project area in Clark Canyon Creek covers approximately four stream miles within the East Walker River subbasin, Mono County, California. This perennial stream receives most of its subsurface flow throughout Clark Canyon. Heavy algal growth has occurred in the meadow sections of the stream due to the elimination of undercut banks, widening of stream beds, and large amounts of nutrients added from livestock grazing and trailing. Naturally occurring erosion in the upper stream reaches contributes a large amount of sediment from the upper watershed to lower riparian areas. As a result, an increase of suspended sediments and turbidity has occurred in the lower stream reaches where available population of rainbow trout is found. Small instream structures have been constructed using inexpensive materials and simple techniques to (1) stabilize active erosion, (2) restore wet meadow riparian areas, (3) improve aquatic habitat, and (4) improve wildlife cover and downstream fish habitat.

Kiefling, J. 1981. Snake River Investigations. Federal Aid Project Completion Report F-37-R.

Habitat improvement procedures were conducted on Flat Creek, Lower Bar BC Spring Creek, Three-Channel Spring Creek, and the Gros Ventre River. Compacted gravels and a decided lack of suitable gravels in the tributaries of the Snake River had reduced the spawning potential significantly and contributed to increased numbers of superimposed redds. The mechanical rejuvenation of gravels, stocking of commercial gravels, and development of protected resting sites has been instrumental in significantly increasing the numbers of spawning cutthroat trout in all areas. The eyed egg stocking program initiated in 1972 (in combination with habitat improvement projects), has been extremely successful. The significant return of spawners has been largely attributed to the egg stocking program and points out the limited availability of gravels as being a major limiting factor in the Snake River Fishery. In addition, this program is an economical method for returning imprinted cutthroat trout to specific tributaries. The drought conditions of 1977-78 and resultant flows exhibited little difference from those flows experienced since this period due to restricted storage levels in Jackson Lake Dam. Creel census data indicate the average length of cutthroat harvested and fishing success rates have changed very little since 1975. These data did note a significant decrease in non-resident use which relates to the national economy and increased license fees. Over-exploitation of the fishery during a period of reduced flows did not materialize at this time.

Kusler, J.A. and M.E. Kentula (Eds.). 1989. Wetland Creation and Restoration: The State of the Science, Volume I - Regional Reviews. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory, Corvallis, OR, EPA 600/3-89/038A, 473 pp.

Not available.

Larsen, D.P., M. Omernik, R.M. Hughes, D.R. Dudley, D.M. Rohm, T.R. Whittiers, A.L. Kinney, and A.L. Gallant. 1986. The correspondence between spatial patterns in fish assemblages in Ohio streams and aquatic ecoregions. Environmental Management 10:815-828.

Land classification systems can be useful for assessing aquatic ecosystems if relationship among them exist. Because the character of aquatic ecosystems depends to a large extent upon the character of the landscape it drains, spatial patterns in aquatic ecosystems should correspond to patterns in the landscape. To test this hypothesis, the US state of Ohio was divided into four aquatic ecoregions based on an analysis of spatial patterns in the combination of land-surface form, land use, potential natural vegetation, and soil parent material. During the period July-October 1983, fish assemblages were examined relative to the ecoregions; distinct regional differences were identified. The assemblages differed most between the Huron/Erie Lake Plain region and the Western Allegheny Plateau region; assemblages in the Eastern Corn Belt Plains and the Erie/Ontario Lake Plain-Interior Plateau regions were intermediate. This pattern also reflects the gradient in landscape character as one moves from the northwest to the southeast of Ohio.

Lisle, T.E. 1986. Stabilization of a gravel channel by large streamside obstructions and bedrock bends, Jacoby Creek, northwestern California. Geological Society of America Bulletin 97:999-1011.

Jacoby Creek (bed width = 12m; bankfull discharge = 32.6 m3/s) contains stationary gravel bars that have forms and positions controlled by numerous large streamside obstructions (bedrock outcrops, large woody debris, and rooted bank projections), and bedrock bends. Bank-projection width and bar volume measured in 104 channel segments 1 bed-width long are significantly cross-correlated at lags of -1, 2, and 4, indicating the tendency for large obstructions and bends to form bars 3 to 4 bed-widths downstream and 1 bed-width upstream. All of the 18 bars downstream of large obstructions or bends in the study reach were along the obstruction side of the channel or outside bank of the bend. Most of the pools (85%) were next to large obstructions or in bends; conversely, 92% of large obstructions or bends had pools. Comparison of the volume of four bars with volumetric bar changes and volume of bedload transported during four high-flow events suggests that rates of sediment transport were sufficient to cause major changes in bars during bankfull events. The only important channel changes observed in 4 yr, however, have been associated with the movement of large woody debris and with changes in the angle at which the flow approaches the obstruction. A general model is proposed that large obstructions and non- alluvial bends stabilize the form and location of gravel bars. Bars are stabilized by two related mechanisms: 1) Large obstructions and bends cause intense, quasi-steady secondary circulation in scour holes that terminate upstream bars at fixed locations. Obstruction width, channel deflection, scour-hole width, and bed width were measured at 26 obstructions. These data show that obstructions wider than approximately one-third of the bed form "pools" spanning the entire channel and, thus, terminating bars; smaller obstructions form "scour-holes" contained within a single bar, and 2) Bars are deposited upstream of large obstructions and sharp bends because of backwater reductions in stream power. Bars are deposited downstream because flow energy is expanded around obstructions and bends and because the flow expands downstream of constrictions that result from large obstructions. The formation of bars and pools inherent in many gravel channels can, thus, be enhanced and fixed in position by flow structures set up around large obstructions and bends formed of resistant materials.

Madsen, B.L. 1987. Restoration of Danish streams and insect habitats. Entomologiske Meddelelser 55(2-3):85-90.

Change in the use of land during recent decades has resulted in a deterioration of the biological environment in most Danish streams. A good indicator is the drastic decline in well known stream insect communities. The main causes have been pollution, ochre depositions, and physical changes in stream channels and surroundings. Because of the maintenance procedures the high physical diversity inherent in streams has vanished. Recent legislation and administrative practices are reversing the past trend. Most important is the Danish Water Course Act of 1982 which is supposed to be implemented within a decade. This law states, e.g., that maintenance procedures must be planned and undertaken in such a way that the former diverse physical template can be restored. Recent reports from the local Water Authorities show evidence of improvements in the stream biota.

Marcus, M.D., M.K. Young, L.E. Noel, and B.A. Mullen. 1990. Salmonid-Habitat Relationships in the Western United States. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. Gen. Tech. Report RM-188, 84 pp.

This report includes a general review and analysis of the literature summarizing the available information relevant to salmonid-habitat relationships, particularly as it pertains to the central Rocky Mountains. Also included is a comprehensive indexed bibliography. Indexed subjects include: beaver, channel morphology, grazing, habitat enhancement, nutrients, organic materials, riparian, sediments, streamflow, temperature, urbanization, and water development.

Marston, R.A. 1982. The geomorphic significance of log steps in forest streams. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 72(1):99-108.

A functional account of log steps in forest streams is provided by field surveys of 163 kilometers of streams in the central Oregon Coast Range. Natural treefall, rather than silvicultural activities, accounts for the majority of log steps. During low-flow conditions, dissipation of potential stream energy by log steps amounts to 6 percent, approximately equal to that by falls. There are no statistically significant differences regarding spatial distribution of log steps between study basins with contrasting silvicultural and natural stream inputs of large woody debris. However, significant spatial differences are revealed between streams of various orders, a finding that points to channel flushing capacity and stream- adjacent topography as dominant controls on log step development. Application of thermodynamic principles to stream systems demonstrates that neither falls nor log steps cause a statistically significant difference in equilibrium conditions of stream networks. The volume of sediment stored behind log steps in third-, fourth-, and fifth-order streams is 123 percent of the mean annual sediment discharge (suspended load and bed-load). Depriving some streams of log steps by stream clean-out or repeated harvest of stream-adjacent trees may initiate an episode of progressive erosion by not dissipating stream energy in excess of that needed to transport imposed sediment supplies. Addition of log steps to streams with energy already insufficient to balance sediment inputs and outputs may only serve to accentuate progressive deposition. Functions of instream large woody debris not incorporated as log steps must also be addressed in forest management decisions.

Meyer, J.L. and G.E. Likens. 1979. Transport and transformation of phosphorus in a forest stream ecosystem. Ecology 60(6):1255-1269.

A phosphorus budget was constructed to examine P retention and processing during 1 yr. (1974-1975) in Bear Brook, an undisturbed headwater stream in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA. Year-to -year variation in the P mass balance was also estimated for a 13-yr period using an empirical model of the annual budget. In the model, fluvial inputs and exports of P were calculated using the 13-year record of streamflow and the regressions between P concentration and discharge developed from measurements made during 1974-1976. Precipitation and streamflow were average in the 1974-75 water year, and the relative importance of P input vectors during this year were: tributary streams (62%) > falling and blowing litter (23%) > subsurface water (10%) > precipitation (5%). Geologic export of P in stream water was the only export vector of consequence. Under these average hydrologic conditions, there was no annual net retention of P in the stream: annual inputs of 1.25 g P/m2 were essentially balanced by exports of 1.30 g P/m2. However, during most days of this year inputs exceeded exports: P accumulated, was processed in the ecosystem, and was exported during episodes of high stream discharge. Because of the pulsed nature of P flux, a mass balance provides an overestimate of the P entering functional pathways of a stream ecosystem. Over the 13-yr period (1963-1975), annual mass balances calculated with the model were variable; the ratio of P exports to inputs varied from 0.56 to 1/6 and was directly related to annual streamflow. Thus monthly transport patterns or annual mass balances generated from only 1 yr of record may lead to erroneous conclusions on stream ecosystem function. Although variability characterizes most aspects of P dynamics in Bear Brook, processing of P is consistent. Inputs of dissolved P (DP, < 0.45 m-1 mm) and coarse particulate P (CPP, > 1 mm) exceeded exports, while exports of fine particulate P (FPP, 0.45 m-1 mm) exceeded inputs. Thus there was a net conversion of other forms of P to the FPP fraction, which was the predominant form (62% of the total) exported downstream.

Moore, K.M.S. and S.V. Gregory. 1988. Response of young-of-the-year cutthroat trout to manipulation of habitat structure in a small stream. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 117:162-170.

In Mack Creek, a third-order stream flowing through a 450-year-old coniferous forest in Oregon's Cascade Mountains, population size of young-of-the-year cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki) was positively correlated with length of stream edge and area of lateral habitat. Lateral habitats included backwaters and eddies at the margin of the channel that made up 10-15% of total stream area. Lateral habitat area was reduced at higher or lower streamflow, but the length of channel perimeter formed by lateral habitats was never less than twice the length of the reach. In an experimental manipulation of lateral habitat before the emergence of young fish from the redd, an increase in lateral habitat area of 2.4 times the area observed in the control reaches resulted in a 2.2 times greater density of age-0 cutthroat trout. Young-of-the-year fish were virtually eliminated from stream sections with reduced area of lateral habitat. Growth was not effected by the greater density of fish in reaches with enhanced lateral habitat.

Morrison, S.W. 1988. The Percival Creek corridor plan. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 43(6):465467.

Within the shadow of the Washington State Capitol dome, Percival Creek and the Black Lake Drainage Ditch flow 3.3 miles form Black Lake throughout Thurston County and the cities of Tumwater and Olympia to Capitol Lake at Percival Cove. Within this short distance, the corridor contains three distinct creek reaches. Each reach is abundant in water, wetlands, and related natural resources. These resources and amenities survive in an urban area experiencing rapid population growth and development. Because of these pressures, conflicts have arisen between upland activities and the future maintenance of the creek's natural integrity. In 1984, public controversy surrounding construction of the West Olympia Bridge indicated that current land use and shoreline regulations were inadequate to address the unique conditions within the Percival Creek corridor. The upshot of this controversy has been the development of a corridor plan that strives to achieve a balance between environmental protection and economic development.

Mullaney, R.J. and J.T. Windell. 1989. A Proposal for Control of Non-point Source Pollution with Best Management Practices on Dry Creek, Boulder County, Colorado. Clean Water Act Section 319 Program, Non-point Source Pollution Control, Colorado Department of Health.

The City of Boulder Department of Public Works was awarded a matching grant by the Colorado Department of Health, Water Quality Control Commission, Section 319 Program, in January 1989. The grant was based on a proposed project "A Proposal for Control of Nonpoint Source Pollution in Boulder Creek with Best Management Practices - A Demonstration Project" dated November 4, 1988. All of the grant money is to be spent on construction of six best management practices designed to reduce and control nonpoint source pollution. Specific BMP's were selected that will not only control NPS pollution, but facilitate aquatic and riparian zone habitat restoration and ecosystem function over time. Dry creek, a tributary that connects with Boulder Creek contributes significant amounts of NPS pollution to Boulder Creek. This proposal has been prepared to compliment the Boulder Creek proposal. Includes information in aquatic habitat improvement, (especially fisheries), revegetation, and some ditch repair.

Munther, G.L. 1982. Beaver Management in Grazed Riparian Ecosystems. In: R. Wiley (ed.) Proceedings of Rocky Mt. Stream Habitat Management Workshop, Sept. 7-10, 1982, Jackson, WY. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Laramie, WY.

Beaver activity has substantially influenced the structure of many low gradient streams and associated valley bottoms in western Montana. These areas, with their flat valley bottoms and low gradient streams, have high wildlife, fisheries , and livestock values. Because riparian zones are in delicate equilibrium with their surroundings, the removal of beaver through the elimination of habitat or overharvest often leads to dramatic changes in the valley bottom and its stream channel. Reductions in wildlife and fisheries habitat can result. Continued livestock grazing in the absence of beaver in some valley bottom types eliminates shrubs, causes stream channel changes, and lowers water tables. Once the channel has degraded, and the water table lowered, livestock forage production is usually reduced, and vegetative type changes result in a less diverse wildlife community. The lower vegetative productivity in combination with a more active stream channel inhibit riparian recovery and necessitates substantial livestock management changes for recovery. Several riparian management practices, depending in individual site analysis, are available to increase the quality of this zone. These include using grazing systems that favor shrub production, shrub plantings, regulation of beaver harvest, beaver transplants into favorable habitat, and reduction of livestock grazing in sensitive areas following loss of beaver.

Myers, T.J. and S. Swanson. 1991. Aquatic habitat condition index, stream type, and livestock bank damage in northern Nevada. Water Resources Bulletin 27(4):667-677.

The quality of stream habitat varies for a variety of natural and anthropogenic reasons not identified by a condition index. However, many people use condition indices to indicate management needs or even direction. To better sort natural from livestock influences, stream types and levels of ungulate bank damage were regulated to estimates of aquatic habitat condition index and stream width parameters in a large existing stream inventory database. Pool/riffle ratio, pool structure, stream bottom materials, soil stability, and vegetation type varied significantly with ungulate bank damage level. Soil and vegetation stability were highly cross-correlated. Riparian area width did not vary significantly with either stream type or ungulate bank damage. Variation among stream types indicates that riparian management and monitoring should be stream type and reach specific.

National Research Council (NRC). 1991. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Prepublication copy, National Research Council, 11 pp.

This report describes the status and functions of surface water ecosystems; the effectiveness of aquatic restoration efforts; the technology associated with those efforts; and the research, policy, and institutional reorganization required to begin a national strategy for aquatic ecosystem restoration.

National Research Council (NRC). 1992. Water Transfers in the West: Efficiency, Equity, and the Environment. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

Not Available.

Nelson, R.W., G.C. Horak, and J.E. Olson. 1978. Western Reservoir and Stream Habitat Improvements Handbook: Guide to the Performance of Fish and Wildlife Habitat and Population Improvement Measures Accompanying Water Resource Development. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Services Program, FWS/OBS-78/56.

This book is a guide to the performance of habitat and population improvement measures. It is designed to be a handbook of guidance for selecting more effective measures to recommend and negotiate among administrators, biologists and engineers of fish and game and construction agencies. The guide is based primarily on measures shown to be effective in the past at a representative selection of 90 dam and reservoir projects in 19 western States. The major effort in preparing the guide was devoted to investigation into the historical success of approximately 286 individual improvement measures within 60 categories. Secondarily, the guide presents measures believed to be potentially effective by investigators involved in current research or authors of recent literature.

Nelson, W.R., J.R. Dwyer, and W.E. Greenberg. 1987. Regulated flushing in a gravel-bed river channel habitat maintenance: a Trinity River fisheries case study. Environmental Management 11(4):479-493.

The operation of Trinity and Lewiston Dams on the Trinity River in northern California in the U.S., combined with severe watershed erosion, has jeopardized the existence of prime salmonid fisheries. Extreme streamflow depletion and stream sedimentation below Lewiston have resulted in heavy accumulation of coarse sediment on riffle gravel and filling of streambed, causing the destruction of spawning, nursery, and overwintering habitat for prized chinook salmon (Salmo gairdnerii) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha). Proposals to restore and maintain the degraded habitat include controlled one-time remedial peak flows or annual maintenance peak flows designed to flush the spawning gravel and scour the banks, deltas, and pools. The criteria for effective channel restoration or maintenance by streambed flushing and scouring are examined here, as well as the mechanics involved. The liabilities of releasing mammoth scouring-flushing flows approximating the magnitude that preceded reservoir construction make this option inviable. The resulting damage to fish habitat established under the postproject streamflow regime, as well as damage to human settlements in the floodplain, would be unacceptable, as would the opportunity costs to hydroelectric and irrigation water users. The technical feasibility of annual maintenance flushing flows depends upon associated mechanical and structural measures, particularly instream maintenance dredging of deep pools and construction of a sediment control dam on a tributary where watershed erosion is extreme. The cost effectiveness of a sediment dam with a limited useful economic life, combined with perpetual maintenance dredging, is questionable.

Oberts, G.L. 1977. Water Quality Effects of Potential Urban Best Management Practices: A Literature Review. Department of Natural Resources, Madison WI, Tech. Bull. No. 97, 25 pp.

This paper presents a review of the literature regarding the water quality effects of all readily available urban management practices commonly used to alleviate or control pollution from such sources as construction, street runoff, litter, combined sewer overflows, and all predominantly urban activities that potentially add pollutants to streams. Three alternative management approaches for dealing with pollution from urban runoff are discussed: source control, collection system control, and discharge treatment.

Osborne, L.L., B. Dickson, and D. Kovacic. 1989. Water Quality Restoration: A Perspective and Some Methods. Paper presented at the North American Benthological Society's Technical Information Workshop on "Stream Rehabilitation and Restoration", May 18, 1989, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

The purpose of this paper is to provide an individualistic, and hopefully realistic, perspective on water quality restoration, address fundamental issues involved with any restoration effort, provide a general overview of available water quality restoration strategies, and discuss some limited methods available for streams degraded by diffuse source impacts.

Packer, P.E. 1957. Management of forest watersheds and improvement of fish habitat. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 87:392-397.

Management of forest watersheds in the western United States for protection against floods and sediment and to improve water yields can also be very beneficial in fishery management. Some of the important hydrologic processes that operate on watersheds are discussed. The principal kinds of watershed protection and water yield improvement problems are outlined and discussed in relation to maintenance of desirable fish habitat. Need for research to determine quantitative hydrologic relationships on watersheds and develop methods of forest management for better regulated and higher quality stream flow is emphasized.

Pennington, C.H., S.S. Knight, and M.P. Farrell. 1985. Response of fishes to revetment placement. Arkansas Academy of Science Proceedings 39:95-97.

Routine fish sampling with hoop nets was conducted monthly from April through December 1978 along natural and revetted riverbanks of the lower Mississippi River near Eudora, Arkansas, to monitor changes in fish populations affected by placement of new revetment for bank protection. Eighteen species of fish were collected with four species comprising over 75%of the total catch. During the months prior to revetment placement, freshwater drum, (Aplodinotus grunniens), was the most abundant (32.7% of the catch) species collected. Following in abundance were the flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris - 9.8%), common carp (Cyprinus carpio - 7.8%), and blue catfish, (Ictalurus furcatus - 3.3%). After revetment placement in August 1978, the freshwater drum was again the most abundant component, comprising 9.7% of the catch. Gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), flathead catfish, and blue catfish followed in abundance and comprised 8.9, 4.1, and 3.4% of the total catch, respectively. Catch per effort data indicated that fish were generally more abundant at natural bank stations than revetted bank stations but the difference was not significant. The study suggests that fish inhabiting natural riverbank habitat recover quite rapidly from bank perturbation caused by the placement of revetment.

Phillips, J.D. 1989. Nonpoint source pollution control effectiveness of riparian forests along a coastal plain river. Journal of Hydrology 110:221-237.

A detention-time model of water quality buffer zones is used to evaluate the nonpoint source pollution control effectiveness of riparian forests in a two-county area of the lower Tar River basin, North Carolina. Soil map units, which represent specific combinations of soil, topography, and vegetation characteristics, are compared in terms of their relative ability to filter nitrate in agricultural runoff. All typical riparian forests provide significant water quality protection, but there is a wide variation in buffer effectiveness. This suggests a need for flexibility in determining buffer widths. A range of 15-80 m is appropriate for the soil- landform-vegetation complexes found in riparian zones within the study area. Buffer widths of 60 m - and after much less - are generally adequate on the soils likely to be used for agricultural production.

Platts, W.S. and J.N. Rinne. 1982. Riparian-Stream Protection and Enhancement Research in the Rocky Mountains. In: R. Wiley (ed.) Proc. of Rocky Mt. Stream Habitat Management Workshop, Sept. 7-10, 1982, Jackson, WY. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Laramie, WY.

Artificial change of watershed condition whether by logging, road construction, livestock grazing, or mining can effectively override climatic and geologic controls and maintain a stream in an artificial state. Such an artificial unstable state will persist until natural stabilizing forces can override the disturbing factory. Presently, many streams in the Rocky Mountains are functioning in a recently-imposed, artificial state which fishes have difficulty adapting their life requirements to. In addition, some natural streams, because of innate geologic and climatic control, do not offer the necessary environmental conditions that provide suitable habitat for certain specie of fish, especially salmonids. These two stream conditions (artificial stressed and naturally having an innately low habitat quality) are the situations that fishery biologists must address when attempting stream enhancement projects to improve fish habitat. As biologists plan and construct these enhancement projects they will find that research in the Rocky Mountains concerning stream and riparian enhancement is very limited. This report attempts to summarize what is available under one cover and make recommendations for further research direction in this area. Contains some reference to the influence of restoration on chemical factors (see p. 16).

Platts, W.S. and J.N. Rinne. 1985. Riparian and stream enhancement management and research in the Rocky Mountains. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 5:115-125.

This report reviews past stream enhancement research int he Rocky Mountains, its adequacy, and research that should be done to improve the effectiveness of future stream enhancement projects. Research is lacking on stream improvement in a watershed context on a long-term basis. Not all streams can be enhanced. Enhancement should be attempted only after techniques described in the literature have been carefully considered and judged to be appropriate for the selected site. Contains some mention of improvement to the water column (physical dimensions and physiochemical factors such as dissolved oxygen, temperature and pH) by grazing restriction, channelization techniques and stream improvement structures, natural enhancement, and control of agricultural runoff from adjacent lands. Mentions that brush and tree cover lowers stream temperatures, and techniques that attempt to improve the water column.

Richards, C., P.J. Cernera, M.P. Ramey, and D.W. Reiser. 1992. Development of Off-channel Habitat for use by Juvenile Chinook Salmon. Manuscript in publication.

Fisheries habitat improvement frequently requires the exploitation of existing or man-made features of stream channels and associated floodplains. In the Yankee fork of the Salmon River, a series of off-channel dredge ponds were connected to the river by excavating connecting channels and construction of surface-water control structures. This habitat was created to increase available rearing habitat for juvenile chinook salmon. The dredge ponds had been left as a result of past mining activities. Highest fish densities in the newly constructed pond series were in connecting channel habitats. These densities are higher than those reported in other streams and may be related to the hatchery origin of the stocked fish. Densities observed in the ponds were similar to those reported in natural habitats. Addition of habitat through incorporation of dredge ponds increases management options for rebuilding chinook populations in the stream.

Roseboom, D., R. Twait, and D. Sallee. 1989. Habitat Restoration for Fish and Wildlife in Backwater Lakes of the Illinois River. Proceedings of the Second Conference on the Management of the Illinois River System: The 1990's and Beyond, Peoria, IL, Oct. 3-4, 1989, pp. 65-68.

The Lake Peoria Habitat Restoration project was sponsored by the Illinois Department of Conservation with Sport Fish Restoration funds to create fish habitat. The Illinois River and Lake Peoria were the greatest fishing and hunting areas in Illinois. Excessive rates of sedimentation are destroying Lake Peoria and all backwater lakes of the Illinois River. Concurrently with increased sedimentation, much of the aquatic vegetation disappeared between 1950 and 1965. High rates of sedimentation buried aquatic vegetation beneath thick layers of fluid sediments. Wave action prevents natural revegetation by uprooting young plants from the fluid sediments. When the aquatic vegetation died off, populations of waterfowl and gamefish declined quickly. The Lake Peoria Restoration project has developed low cost techniques to restore aquatic vegetation. When placed behind a tire breakwater, arrowhead and pondweed plantings have been successful in 1987, 1988, and 1989. Both the breakwater and plant beds have survived two winters after the initial plantings. The breakwater also serves as an artificial reef. Gamefish response has been quick and dramatic. The number of fish species has doubled and the numbers of fish have quadrupled. The vegetated area serves as a nursery for young bluegill, channel catfish, and bass. In 1989, large bluegill were found on the vegetated site only. In fact, the number and total weight of bluegill and channel catfish in the vegetated area exceeded the number and weight of all fish (mainly carp) in the control area.

Rost, R.A., J.C. Brand, R.M. Bruch, D.H. Crehore, S.I. Dodson, R.L. Fassbender, L.J. Herman, T.F. Rasman, and A.M. Stranz. 1989. Water Quality and Restoration of the Lower Oconto River, Oconto County, Wisconsin. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI, Technical Bulletin No. 164, 37 pp.

The purpose of the Oconto River Restoration Project (1979-83) was to develop and implement a plan to restore the water quality, aquatic environment, and fish habitat of the lower Oconto River in Oconto County, Wisconsin. This river segment had been severely degraded for over 70 years by pulp mill effluent. Because of noncompliance with federal and state water quality standards, the mill was closed in 1978. The owner paid a court- ordered settlement, part of which was allocated to the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources for development of a remedial plan. The principal elements of the plan were: 1) an extended drawdown of the Machickanee Flowage to change the physical consistency of the accumulated sediment; 2) chemical treatment of fish populations in the Machickanee Flowage to eradicate rough fish; 3) fish stocking to establish game fish and panfish following chemical treatment; 4) access development; 5) establishment of contingency funds for habitat improvement and additional fish stocking if necessary; 6) continuous monitoring for a three-year period to determine the effectiveness of the management techniques applied; and 7) an intensive public relations program conducted throughout the project. Because of the drawdown the character of the sediment changed such that both numbers and species of aquatic plants and aquatic macroinvertebrates greatly increased. The amount of substrate for fish spawning also increased. A creel census and other surveys conducted after the management plan was implemented indicated that the aquatic ecosystem was more favorably balanced.

Rowe, M., S. Spaulding, J.M. Gunderman, and K. Bacon. 1989. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement - Annual Report. Shoshone-Bannock Tribes Annual Report, Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR, Project No. 83-359.

Fine sediments from an inactive dredge mine in the headwaters of Bear Valley Creek (BVC) contributed to degradation of spawning and rearing habitat of chinook salmon and steelhead trout in a 55 km section of stream. Major construction efforts targeted at decreasing recruitment of fine sediments in the mined area were completed in the fall of 1988. In 1989 a completed revegetation program has finalized enhancement efforts in the mined area. Biological monitoring evaluation of project efficacy continued throughout the length of Bear Valley Creek during the summer of 1989. Physical habitat features were monitored only in the mined area and the strata directly below this area in 1989. Baseline floodplain cover measurements were also initiated this year. In June, densities of Age 0+ chinook salmon were highly variable according to location and time of year. Age 0+ chinook salmon densities were highest in the mid-portion of BVC at 25 fish/100m2pool compared to upper BVC where densities ranged from 0.8 - 8.0 fish/100m2pool. By late August, however, we documented high chinook salmon densities in upper BVC of 77 to 118 fish/100m2pool compared to less than 1 fish/100m2pool in lower BVC. It was found that sloughs play an important role in early season chinook salmon rearing in upper BVC where high flow conditions likely preclude most fish from channel habitat. In early July, chinook salmon densities of 134 and 59 fish/100m2 were estimated in slough areas of the two upper BVC strata. By August, chinook densities in these sloughs were less than July densities, as well as late season stream densities. Most fish move out of the sloughs by August and this movement may be partially responsible for the high number of chinook observed in upper BVC by late August. Various physical parameters have responded favorably to the project. The percentage of fine sediments in the mined area has decreased from a high of 34.4% in 1987 to a low of 23.5% in 1989; this difference, however, was not significant. The stream area directly below the mined section has undergone a similar decrease in fine sediments, from 50.1% in 1987 to 37.9% in 1989. Amount of riparian cover has continually increased since 1984 in the mined area with 1989 measures significantly greater. The mean percentage of vegetative cover ranged from 8.4% in lower floodplain of the mined area (seeded in 1988) to 34.6% in the upper floodplain region (seeded in 1986). The present cover in the 1986 plot was significantly (P<0.05) greater than cover in the 1988 plot. The grasses (Pla pratensis, Agropyron spp. and Phleum pretensis) were the primary cover constituents in the three plots. Annual reports from 1987 and 1988 are also available, but this is the most recent on this project as they are approximately 3 years behind in publication.

Sedell, J.R. and J.L. Froggatt. 1984. Importance of streamside forests to large rivers: the isolation of the Willamette River, Oregon, U.S.A., from its floodplain by snagging and streamside forest removal. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 22:1828-1834.

The river continuum concept (Vannote et al. 1980) stressed the point that the influence of the terrestrial system on a stream diminishes as the stream gets larger. The role of floodplains in the river continuum concept was limited to decomposition of particulate organic material during periods of low water and the subsequent return of organic materials by flood waters and surface runoff. The river continuum concept emphasizes some functions of streamside forest in inferring a downstream decrease in influence, but does not give attention to other functions related to overbank flow that increase in importance downstream as outlined by Welcomme (1979). The influence of the floodplains has been reduced by local activities such as snagging the mainstem, diking and improved drainage of floodplains for agriculture or urbanization, and the reduction of the extent of flooding because of upstream activities such as flood control dams. These alterations within the stream and on the floodplain have modified the relationship between mainstem and floodplain by changing the composition and structure of the floodplain vegetation and changing the sources and sinks for organic matter along large rivers. The combined effects isolate a river system from the influence its floodplain has on the structure and nutrient capital of the aquatic ecosystem. This report describes the pristine and present streamside forest, channel geomorphology, and role of downed trees in the Willamette River, Oregon, U.S.A. From this case history, a modification of the river continuum concept is presented.

Seehorn, M.E. 1982. Trout Stream Improvements Commonly Used on Southeastern National Forests. In: R. Wiley (ed.) Proc. of Rocky Mt. Stream Habitat Management Workshop, Sept. 7-10, 1982, Jackson, WY. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Laramie, WY.

"Structural" improvement in itself is a broad term encompassing habitat needs such as fish passageways, fish barriers, fencing, spawning structures, and cover devices. With only limited anadromous fisheries on southeastern forests, emphasis is for the most part, oriented towards instream cover needs, and construction of fish barriers to preclude upstream migration of undesirable fish species. The following accounts describe structures most commonly used on Southeastern National Forests. Cost estimates, given in crew days, are based on a 4- to 6-man crew working in relatively accessible areas, using hand tools and cutting logs on site.

Seehorn, M.E. 1985. Fish Habitat Improvement Handbook. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region, Technical Publication R8-TP 7.

This handbook provides fishery managers with structural designs that may be used to correct stream fish habitat deficiencies over a broad range of existing conditions. With the exception of the fish barrier, the primary objective of the designs is to improve instream conditions by creating deeper water and overhead cover. The designs in this handbook are for structures that can be installed using hand labor with little or no heavy equipment.

Shields, F.D., Jr. 1982. Environmental features for flood control channels. Water Resources Bulletin 18(5):779-784.

The environmental effects of flood control channel modifications such as clearing and snagging, straightening, enlargement, and/or paving can be quite severe in some cases. Information review reveals that several environmental features have been incorporated into the design, construction, operation, or maintenance of recent flood control channel projects to avoid adverse environmental impacts and enhance environmental quality. Typically, these features have been proposed by conservation agencies and designed with minimal quantitative analysis. Environmental features for channel projects include selective clearing and snagging techniques, channel designs with nonuniform geometry such as single bank modification and floodways, restoration and enhancement of aquatic habitat, improved techniques for placement of excavated material, and revegetation.

Simpson, P., J.R. Newman, M.A. Keirn, R.M. Matter, and P.A. Guthrie. 1982. Manual of Stream Channelization Impacts on Fish and Wildlife. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. FWS/OBS-82/24, 155 pp.

To control flooding and flood damage, increase available land for agriculture, improve navigability, and maintain hydraulic efficiency of streams, many channelization or stream modification activities have been performed in the last several years. Channelization activities associated with small streams include clearing and snagging, riprapping, widening, deepening, realignment, and lining. This manual describes the impacts of these activities on the physical, chemical, and biological environments of streams. Associated impacts are identified based on existing literature. Relevant literature was used to assess probable impacts where studies had not been performed. Historic and current legislation governing channelization activities is also addressed. A step-by-step procedure to assess channelization projects is recommended.

Skinner, Q.D., J.L. Dodd, J.D. Rodgers, and M.A. Smith. 1985. Antidesertification of Riparian Zones and Control of Nonpoint Source Pollution. Perspectives on Nonpoint Source Pollution: Proceedings of a Conference, Kansas City, MO, May 19-22, 1985, pp. 382-386.

Overgrazing by domestic livestock and periodic flooding are often cited as sources for increasing nonpoint source pollution in streams within semi-arid rangelands. Riparian zones along streams may help decrease nonpoint pollution if maintained in a healthy ecological condition. This paper will address two research programs designed to reverse desertification of streamside zones along cold desert streams in Wyoming by: (1) manipulating livestock grazing; (2) promoting regrowth of desirable vegetation; (3) willow planting; (4) using instream flow structures to store water in channel banks and trap sediment; and (5) encouraging beaver damming. Research theory as well as monitoring protocol will be discussed and related to ease of use by management agencies and producer groups affiliated with western rangelands.

Sparks, R.E., P.B. Bayley, S.L. Kohler, and L.L. Osborne. 1990. Disturbance and recovery of large floodplain rivers. Environmental Management 14(5):699-709.

Disturbance in a river-floodplain system is defined as an unpredictable event that disrupts structure or function at the ecosystem, community, or population level. Disturbance can result in species replacements or losses, or shifts of ecosystems from one persistent condition to another. A disturbance can be a discrete event or a graded change in a controlling factor that eventually exceeds a critical threshold. The annual flood is the major driving variable that facilitates lateral exchanges of nutrients, organic matter, and organisms. The annual flood is not normally considered a disturbance unless its timing or magnitude is "atypical". As an example, the record flood of 1973 had little effect on the biota at a long- term study site on the mississippi river. In contrast, the Illinois river has been degraded by a gradual increase in sediment input and sediment resuspension that changed a formerly productive 320-km reach of the river from clear, vegetated areas to turbid, barren basins. Traditional approaches to experimental design are poorly suited for detecting control mechanisms and for determining the critical thresholds in large river-floodplains. Large river-floodplain systems cannot be manipulated or sampled as easily as small streams, and greater use should be made of man-made or natural disturbances and environmental restoration as opportunistic experiments to measure thresholds and monitor the recovery process.

Stern, D.H. and M.S. Stern. 1980a. Effects of Bank Stabilization on the Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Streams and Small Rivers: A Synthesis. Eastern Energy & Land Use Team, Office of Biological Services, Fish and Wildlife Service, USDOI, Kearneysville, WV.

This report is a synthesis of available literature relating the effects of bank stabilization to the physical and chemical characteristics of streams. A companion document contains the references to the literature which formed the basis for the synthesis. The synthesis provides guidelines for planning bank protection and stabilization activities. Contains information on temperature, suspended solids, bed materials, and dissolved substances among other subjects.

Stern, D.H. and M.S. Stern. 1980b. Effects of Bank Stabilization on the Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Streams and Small Rivers: An Annotated Bibliography. Eastern Energy & Land Use Team, Office of Biological Services, Fish and Wildlife Service, USDOI, Kearneysville, WV.

Companion document to ER73. This annotated bibliography provides a source of information on the impacts of bank stabilization on the physical and chemical characteristics of streams and small rivers. The bibliography has 213 references, and is indexed by 26 key subject headings. Papers range from technical documents to general discussions addressing the physical and chemical changes that result from various type of bank stabilization activities. Many of the annotations provide a thorough summary of pertinent information contained in the respective references.

Stockner, J.G. and K.R.S. Shortreed. 1978. Enhancement of autotrophic production by nutrient addition in a coastal rainforest stream on Vancouver Island. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 35:28-34.

In 1976 streamside nutrient-enrichment experiments were conducted using wooden troughs. Triling of the PO4- concentration, with or without a similar increase of NO3-, increased algal biomass on the troughs by 8 times after 35 days. Increasing NO3- alone had no appreciable effect on algal growth. A sloughing of algal biomass in August 1976 is believed to have been due to the instability of the heavy algal mat on the troughs and to the very poor light conditions that prevailed throughout August. Visual observation indicated that the relatively heavy algal population in Carnation Creek rapidly declined concurrent with the decline in the troughs, and Frangilaria vaucheriae replaced Achnmanthes minutissima as dominant on the phosphorus enriched trough. No shift to green or blue-green algal dominated assemblages occurred despite alteration of the N:P ratio. The dynamics of species succession, distribution, and growth, with and without nutrient addition, are discussed.

Thomas, R.B. 1990. Problems in determining the return of a watershed to pretreatment conditions: techniques applied to a study at Caspar Creek, California. Water Resources Research 26(9):2079-2087.

Using a previously treated basin as a control in subsequent paired watershed studies requires the control to be stable. Basin stability can be assessed in many ways, some of which are investigated for the South Fork of Caspar Creek in northern California. This basin is recovering from logging and road building in the early 1970s. Three storm-based discharge characteristics (peak discharge, quick flow, and total storm flow), daily flows, and concentration of suspended sediment were studied to see of the South Fork can be used as a control in a second experiment. Mean sediment concentration in three discharge classes and regression parameters for the other data were tested to estimate remaining treatment effects relative to the North Fork. Patterns of change were similar for most data, with rises in response followed by returns toward pretreatment conditions. The storm and sediment data showed few significant differences, but tests on daily flows indicated that differences still exist. The overall evidence suggests that the South Fork has returned to near pretreatment conditions. Better sediment data are needed for studies of the effects of land management.

Thurston, R.M., G.R. Phillips, R.C. Russo, and S.M. Hinkins. 1981. Increased toxicity of ammonia to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) resulting from reduced concentrations of dissolved oxygen. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 38:983-988.

The medial lethal concentration (LC50) of aqueous ammonia at reduced dissolved oxygen (D.O.) concentrations was tested in acute toxicity tests with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) fingerlings. Fifteen 96-h flow- through tests were conducted over the D.O. range 2.6 - 8.6 mg/L, the former concentration being the lowest at which control fish survived. There was a positive linear correlation between LC50 (milligrams per liter un-ionized ammonia) and D.O. over the entire D.O. range tested; ammonia toxicity increased as D.O. decreased. Ammonia LC50 values were also computed for 12, 24, 48, and 72 h; the correlation with D.O. was greater the shorter the time period.

U.S. Department of Interior, National Park Service. 1991. A Casebook in Managing Rivers for Multiple Uses. U.S. Department of Interior, National Park Service, Washington, DC.

This report presents eight case studies that illustrate innovative and successful strategies for multi-objective river corridor planning and management. Rivers from throughout the country were chosen to represent a variety of physiographic an climatic zones and include both urban and rural communities. Case studies include Charles River, South Platte River, Chattahoochee River, Kickapoo River, Boulder Creek, Kissimmee River, Wildcat & San Pable Creeks, and Mingo Creek. Also includes contact list and bibliography.

U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 1991. Riparian-Wetland Initiative for the 1990's. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Washington, DC. BLM/WO/GI-91/001+4340, 50 pp.

This Riparian-Wetland Initiative for the 1990's provides a blueprint for management and restoration or riparian-wetland areas encompassing 23.7 million acres of BLM lands. This overall national strategy complements other plans such as Waterfowl Habitat Management on Public Lands, A Strategy for the Future; Fish and Wildlife 2000; Range of Our Vision; and Recreation 2000 in an interdisciplinary, multi-program, cooperative effort. Nationwide riparian-wetland goals have been established along with broad- based implementation strategies to achieve these goals. This Initiative does not establish specific objectives or priorities for actions. Most actions will be taken at the field level. Each state, through their individual strategic plans, establishes specific objectives and priorities to implement this Initiative consistent with laws, regulations, policy, and funding.

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1986. Development and Evaluation of Habitat Suitability Criteria for Use in the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology: Instream Flow Information Paper No. 21. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Fort Collins, CO, Biological Report (86)7.

Accurate and comprehensive suitability criteria are critical to the effective use of the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology. Five major topic areas relating to the development and evaluation of microhabitat suitability criteria are discussed in this paper: (1) study and planning design, (2) development of criteria by professional judgement and consensus, (3) field methods for fitting data to curves or mathematical functions, and (5) methods for evaluating criteria accuracy and transferability. The discussion of each technique includes a brief summary of the advantages, limitations, and potential sources of error and bias. The paper also provides a foundation for the development of regionalized microhabitat suitability criteria by a strategy of complementary study planning and mathematical convergence.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1988. The Lake and Reservoir Restoration Guidance Manual. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Criteria and Standards Division, Nonpoint Source Branch, Washington, DC, EPA 440/5-88-002.

The Lake and Reservoir Restoration Guidance Manual represents a landmark in this nation's commitment to water quality, as it brings to the lake user practical knowledge for restoring and protecting lakes and reservoirs. More than an explanation of restoration techniques, this Manual is a guide to wise management of lakes and reservoirs. The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance to the lake manager, lake homeowner, lake association and other informed laypersons on lake and reservoir management, restoration and protection.

Van Haveren, B.P. and W.L. Jackson. 1986. Concepts in Stream Riparian Rehabilitation. Transactions of the 51st North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, March 21-26, 1986, Reno, NV, pp. 280-289.

The purpose of this paper is to discuss interrelationships between riparian systems and the hydrologic and geomorphic processes operating in the associated stream channels. We show how the proper hydrologic function of the floodplain, stream-dependent water table, and stream channel erosion an deposition processes are all necessary for a healthy riparian ecosystem. These factors and interrelationships are brought to bear in a discussion of rehabilitation principles and approaches for use on degraded riparian areas. Proper identification of the causes of degradation and stage of channel evolution is required before developing a rehabilitation plan. We stress that stream riparian systems undergoing major geomorphic or hydrologic adjustments should not be treated with habitat improvements until the channel has reached a new dynamic equilibrium. We consider the stream riparian zone to be the entire active channel area, including that portion of the floodplain that supports a riparian vegetation community.

Wesche, T.A. 1974. Habitat Evaluation and Subsequent Rehabilitation Recommendations for the Laramie River Channel Change Area in Laramie, Wyoming. Water Resources Research Institute, Laramie, WY, 35 pp.

The relocation of the U.S. Highway 130-230 bridge across the Laramie River in Laramie, Wyoming will require the channelization of 1,330 feet of the present channel by the Wyoming Highway Department. The objectives of this report were to describe the habitat which presently exists in the river reach to be affected, define the adverse impacts to this habitat which will be realized by the channelization project, and recommend suitable habitat improvement measures for the new channel.

Wesche, T.A. 1985. Stream channel modifications and reclamation structures to enhance fish habitat. Pp. 103-163 in: J.A. Gore, ed., The Restoration of Rivers and Streams. Theories and Experience. Butterworth, Stoneham, MA. 280 pp.

The process of channel modification has played a major, although not always beneficial, role in the development of this country. Dredging, land drainage, channel realignment and redesign and overgrazing of riparian areas have all had an effect on our streams and rivers. In 1972 it was estimated that over 200,000 miles of stream channel had been modified in the United States. Given the sheer magnitude of such river manipulations and an increasing awareness by the public of the environmental ramifications of such acts, it is little wonder that engineers and biologists find themselves continually debating the pros and cons of channel modification. In recent years the concept of river restoration has become widespread. The underlying tenet of the river restoration approach is that by thorough planning done before modification activity begins, a design simulating that of nature as closely as possible can be developed that not only alleviates the problem causing the needed modification, but also preserve many of the other valued reach characteristics. After a brief review of the basic in-stream components of fish habitat (for brevity, this will focus on the salmonid family), the impacts of various channel modification activities on habitat diversity will be discussed. The concluding section of the chapter will then concentrate on channel restoration procedures and structures to enhance fish habitat, from a planning aspect as well as from a design and installation approach.

Wesche, T.A. and D.W. Reiser. 1976. A Literature Summary on Flow-related Trout Habitat Components. Paper presented at Forest Service - Region 5, Earth Science Symposium, Fresno, CA, November 8-12, 1976.

Four fundamental components of salmonid habitat include; water quality, food-producing areas, spawning-egg incubation areas, and cover. To provide a suitable habitat for salmonid population, no matter how large or how small the stream, a proper range of flows is required through the channel configuration which the stream itself has formed. Each habitat constituent directly influences the type and quality of salmonid fisheries that are able to exist under a given set of conditions. A careful look at each of the components will lead to a better understanding of its importance in comprising salmonid habitat. Contains information on water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and total suspended solids.

Whittier, T.R., D.P. Larsen, R.M. Hughes, C.M. Rohm, A.L. Gallant, and J.M. Omernik. 1988. Project Summary - The Ohio Stream Regionalization: A Compendium of Results. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory, Corvallis, OR, EPA/600/S3-87/025.

Regional patterns in terrestrial characteristics can be used as a framework to monitor, assess and report the health of aquatic ecosystems. In ohio, five ecological regions were delineated using spatial patterns in land- surface form, land use, soil and potential natural vegetation. We evaluated this framework by studying the water quality, physical habitat, and fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages of 109 minimally impacted representative streams. Water quality and fish assemblages showed clear regional differences. The highest quality water and fish assemblages were consistently found in the southeast ecoregion, and the lowest quality in the northwest ecoregion. We found no clear regional patterns in macroinvertebrate assemblages and limited regional patterns in physical habitat.

Wiley, M.J., L.L. Osborne, and R.W. Larimore. 1990. Longitudinal structure of an agricultural prairie river system and its relationship to current stream ecosystem theory. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 47:373-384.

The largescale structure of an agriculturally developed prairie river system in central Illinois was examined and compared with predictions from current stream ecosystem theory. High rates of primary productivity were characteristic of the watershed, although longitudinal patterns in riparian vegetation, stream temperature, and primary productivity were inverted relative to typical streams in forested uplands. Empirical models of gross primary production and community respiration were developed. Light availability, mediated by both channel shading and turbidity, appeared to be the principal factor limiting primary productivity. Both nitrate and orthophosphorus were found in high concentrations throughout the watershed. Largescale patterns in nutrient availability suggest that landuse patterns, and particularly urbanization, strongly affected spatial and temporal distributions of both nutrients. Differences between prairie river systems and "prototype" structures envisioned by the River Continuum Concept (RCC) derive from the descriptive nature of the RCC, and its inability to incorporate nonstandard distributions of key driving variables. The use of empirical modelling in stream ecosystem studies is discussed.

Wiley, R. (ed.). 1982. Proceedings: Rocky Mountain Stream Habitat Management Workshop, September 7-10, 1982, Jackson, Wyoming. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Laramie, WY.

Enthusiasm for habitat management has increased in the last 50 years and continues to occupy the minds of fishery biologists throughout North America and internationally as well. This meeting is the third in the series and this proceeding represents contemporary reports provided by the participants. Please use the contents of the proceedings as appropriate. Apply and modify the ideas and techniques to fit your needs and advance the state of the art. Included are various case studies which contain techniques, costs, and historical records.

Wilkin, D.C. and S.J. Hebel. 1982. Erosion, redeposition, and delivery of sediment to midwestern streams. Water Resources Research 18(4):1278-1282.

While sediment in surface waters may be one of our more serious water quality problems, the sources of this sediment are not well defined. Sediment control programs for water quality are presently concentrating on the application of best management practices (BMPs) across the watershed with little regard to location. The authors have studied sediment movement patterns in a midwestern watershed using fallout cesium-137 techniques and have concluded these programs may be largely ineffective. The implications from this work are that cropped floodplains are the most severely eroded lands in the watershed, followed by cropped lands bordering the floodplains. Most of the eroded sediment either originates on or is delivered directly to the active floodplain and hence to the stream. The authors conclude that the majority of cropped uplands may bet be nearly as important in determining sediment levels in streams as generally thought.

Wilzbach, M.A., K.W. Cummins, and J.D. Hall. 1986. Influence of habitat manipulation on interactions between cutthroat trout and invertebrate drift. Ecology 67(4):898-911.

The objectives of this study were to examine the interactions of the riparian setting (logged vs. forested) and prey availability on the prey capture efficiency and growth of cutthroat trout, and to determine of the riparian setting influences the impact of trout predation on drift composition. Short-term relative growth rates of cutthroat trout, experimentally confined in stream pools, were greater in a logged than in a forested section of stream. Differences in growth rates were attributed to differences among pools in invertebrate drift density, and to differences in trout foraging efficiency that were related to differences between sections in the amount of overhead shading and substrate crevices. Mean percentages of introduced prey captured by trout were greater in logged control pools and pools of both sections whose bottoms were covered with fiberglass screening to eliminate substrate crevices than in forested control pools and logged pools that were artificially shaded. A logarithmic relationship was found between trout foraging efficiency and surface light of pools. Drift density significantly increased relative to controls in pools from which trout were removed in the logged reach, but not in the forested section. This may result from habitat features in the logged section that favor greater trout foraging success and the occurrence of behaviorally drifting prey taxa, which represent a predictable food supply for the trout.

Windell, J.T., L.P. Rink, and C. Rudkin. 1991. Compatibility of stream habitat reclamation with point source and nonpoint source controls. Water Environment and Technology, Jan. 1991.

A series of studies done under contract with the city of Boulder (Colo.) Public Works was completed recently. The studies concluded that implementation of state-approved stream-management practices downstream of the city's wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) could potentially eliminate the need for future denitrification towers, resulting in long-term cost savings for WWTP capital construction, operation, and maintenance. Stream management practices included: fencing to exclude cattle from riparian habitat; restoration of streambank stability using log revetments; planting 9000 willow and cottonwood cuttings to regenerate riparian habitat; removing streambank berms so vegetation would be closer to the water table and could grow; excavation of 0.5 miles of thalweg (low flow channel) to concentrate and deepen water flow and reduce the amount of photosynthesizing aquatic vegetation; and creating three boulder aeration structures to increase instream oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations. Project costs are also mentioned.

Windell, J.T., L.P. Rink, and C.F. Knud-Hansen. 1987a. A One Year, Biweekly, 24-Hour Sampling Study of Boulder Creek and Coal Creek Water Quality. Aquatic and Wetland Consultants, Inc., Boulder, CO, 63 pp. + appendices.

The City of Boulder is in the process of a $12-14 million dollar upgrade and expansion of the 75th Street Wastewater Treatment Plant in order to meed NPDES permit requirements. Expansion and upgrading includes installation of one nitrification tower for ammonia removal costing $1.3 million dollars with three additional towers possibly required during the next twenty years. Present studies funded by the City concluded that Boulder creek segments 9 and 10 were impaired by non-water quality factors that preclude attainment of the designated Class 1 Warm Water Aquatic Life use regardless of improvements in water quality. It was suggested that future Class 1 Warm Water Aquatic Life use could not be attained without implementation of aquatic and riparian zone best management practices and improvements to the stream ecosystem. Physical and biological impairments could be mitigated by aquatic and riparian zone restoration to achieve the designated use, and could result in significant financial savings for the City by potentially eliminating the need for additional nitrification towers. Restoration would have the effect of reducing daily temperature and pH excursions and thus reduce average un-ionized ammonia levels in Boulder Creek downstream of the WWTP. The purpose of this study was to collect diurnal water quality data each hour on a bi-weekly basis for one year (providing 26 data sets) on Boulder Creek and Coal Creek. This information was used to analyze those factors influencing ammonia dynamics, understand more fully ammonia dynamics specific to Boulder Creek, and to estimate the effects of Coal Creek on Boulder Creek.

Windell, J.T., L.P. Rink, and C.F. Knud-Hansen. 1988. A 24-Hour Synoptic Water Quality Study of Boulder Creek Between the 75th Street Wastewater Treatment Plant and Coal Creek. Aquatic and Wetland Consultants, Inc., Boulder, CO, 98 pp. + appendices.

Excessive livestock impacts, through heavy grazing and trampling, affect riparian-stream habitats by reducing or eliminating riparian vegetation, changing streambank and channel morphology, and increasing stream sediment transport. Often there is a lowering of the surrounding water tables. Thus livestock are perceived as a major cause of habitat disturbance in many Western riparian areas. This perception has resulted in accelerated concerns from various resource users because riparian areas generally represent the epitome of multiple use. In addition to the livestock forage, riparian areas and the associated streams often have high to very high values for fisheries habitat, wildlife habitat, recreation, production of wood fiber, transportation routes, precious metals, water quality, and timing of water flows. Includes information on recommended grazing management practices.

Windell, J.T., and L.P. Rink. 1987. A Use Attainability Analysis of Lower Boulder Creek, Segments 9 and 10. Aquatic and Wetland Consultants, Inc., Boulder, CO, 23 pp.

The City of Boulder is in the process of a $12-14 million dollar upgrade and expansion of the 75th Street Wastewater Treatment Plant in order to meed NPDES permit requirements. Expansion and upgrading includes installation of one nitrification tower for ammonia removal costing $1.3 million dollars with three additional towers possibly required during the next twenty years. Present studies funded by the City concluded that Boulder creek segments 9 and 10 were impaired by non-water quality factors that preclude attainment of the designated Class 1 Warm Water Aquatic Life use regardless of improvements in water quality. It was suggested that future Class 1 Warm Water Aquatic Life use could not be attained without implementation of aquatic and riparian zone best management practices and improvements to the stream ecosystem. Physical and biological impairments could be mitigated by aquatic and riparian zone restoration to achieve the designated use, and could result in significant financial savings for the City by potentially eliminating the need for additional nitrification towers. Restoration would have the effect of reducing daily temperature and pH excursions and thus reduce average un-ionized ammonia levels in Boulder Creek downstream of the WWTP. The purpose of this study was to determine if non- water quality related factors preclude attainment of the Class I Warm Water Aquatic Life use classification. This purpose was based on recognition that non-water quality factors are an important standard setting consideration.

Windell, J.T., and L.P. Rink. 1992. Boulder Creek Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Project: A Bibliography of Reports, Proposals, Publications, Videos, Presentations, Preliminary Data/draft Monitoring Reports, and Abstracts. Aquatic and Wetland Consultants, Inc., Boulder, CO, 10 pp.

A bibliography of all references and materials used in the Boulder Creek project. Contains reports, proposals, publications, preliminary data/draft monitoring reports, and abstracts.

Yount, J.D. and G.J. Niemi, eds. 1990. Recovery of lotic communities and ecosystems from disturbance: Theory and application. Environmental Management 14(5):515-762.

The September/October issue of Environmental Management is devoted to lotic ecosystem recovery. Some of the topics covered by various authors are case study reviews, life history and behavioral characteristics of ecosystem communities, the problem of spatial-temporal variability, ecosystem and landscape constraints on community recovery, theoretical bases for defining and predicting community recovery, and research needs and priorities.
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