(b)(2) Water - Section 3406(b)(2) of the
CVPIA directs the Secretary of the Interior to dedicate and manage
annually eight hundred thousand acre-feet of Central Valley Project
yield for the primary purpose of implementing the fish, wildlife, and
habitat restoration purposes and measures authorized by the CVPIA.
The 800,000 acre-feet of water dedicated by the CVPIA is referred
to as "(b)(2) water." - Bureau Of Reclamation -- BOR -- Water
BA - Big Arm
BA - Biodiversity Associates
BA - Biological Agent
BA - Boundary Adjustment (NPS and
BA - Buildable Area
BA - Business Alliance
BAA - Bay Area Action
BAC - Bureau of Arms Control
BACC - Brazilian-American Chamber of
Back Country Byway - A road segment
designated as part of the National Scenic Byway System. (BLM)
Back Pressure - A pressure that can
cause water to backflow into the water supply when a user’s water
system is at a higher pressure than the public water system.
Backfill - Material used in refilling
excavation, or the process of such refilling,
Material used to fill an excavated trench.
Backfilling - The replacement of soil
and earth removed during mining. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Backflow - A reverse flow condition,
created by a difference in water pressures, which causes water to flow
back into the distribution system.
Backfurrow - The first cut of a plow,
from which the slice is laid on undisturbed soil.
Background - That part of a scene,
landscape, etc., which is furthest from the viewer, usually from three
miles to infinity from the observer.
Background Level - The amount of a
pollutant present in water or air from natural sources. - BLM Surface
Backpacking - Hiking in combination with
primitive camping, carrying camping and food materials in a backpack.
Back Pumping - The process of pumping water in a manner in which
the water is returned to its source. - Everglades Plan glossary
Backsiphonage - Reverse seepage of water
in a distribution system. – USGS
Backwashing - Reversing the flow of
water through a home treatment device filter or membrane to clean and
remove deposits. - USGS
Backwater - A small, generally shallow
body of water with little or no current of its own. Stagnant water in a small stream or inlet.
Water moved backward or held back by a dam, tide, etc.
Backwater - Water backed up or retarded
in its course as compared with its normal or natural condition of flow.
In stream gaging, a rise in stage produced by a temporary obstruction
such as ice or weeds, or by the flooding of the stream below. The
difference between the observed stage and that indicated by the
stage-discharge relation, is reported as backwater. - USGS
BACT - Best available control technology (EPA)
Badland - A region nearly devoid of
vegetation where erosion has cut the land into an intricate maze of
narrow ravines, and sharp crests and pinnacles, instead of curving hills
and valleys of the ordinary type. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase
National Monument DEIS Glossary
BAE - Bureau of Agricultural Economics
Baffle - A flat board or plate,
deflector, guide or similar device constructed or placed in flowing
water to cause more uniform flow velocities, to absorb energy, and to
divert, guide, or agitate the flow.
BAGLY - Boston Alliance of Gay, Lesbian,
Bisexual and Transgendered Youth
Bajadas - The lower slopes of mountains
characterized by loose sediment and poor soil development. - NPS Ecology
and Restoration Glossary
Balance - Balance is first referred to
in Paragraph 6(iii) of the Operational Guidelines with reference to
efforts to maintain a "reasonable balance between the numbers of
cultural heritage and the natural heritage properties" included in
the World Heritage List. This
statement is reaffirmed in Paragraph 15 of the Operational Guidelines
(UNESCO February 1996: 2, 3 and 5) and is in conformity with the spirit
of the Convention as an instrument for the conservation of both the
natural and the cultural heritage. In the section of the Operational
Guidelines concerned with the granting of international assistance,
Paragraph 111 states that a "balance will be maintained between
funds allocated to projects for the preservation of the cultural
heritage on the one hand and projects for the conservation of the
natural heritage on the other hand" (UNESCO February 1996: 38).
Section VI of the Operational Guidelines is entitled "Balance
between the Cultural and the Natural Heritage in the Implementation of
the Convention" (UNESCO February 1996: 40-41).
Paragraph 121 outlines a number of measures recommended by the
Committee to achieve this balance (UNESCO February 1996: 40-41). The
balance between the numbers of natural and cultural properties inscribed
in the World Heritage List was the subject of discussion at the March
1996 "Expert Meeting on Evaluation of general principles and
criteria for nominations of natural World Heritage sites" (UNESCO
15 April 1996). The report
of the Expert Meeting notes that ""balance" is not about
numbers, but about representativity for biogeographical regions or
events in the history of life" (UNESCO 15 April 1996: 6). The World
Heritage Bureau and Committee will consider the substance of the report
of the Expert Meeting at their twentieth sessions in 1996.
Balance of Payments - An accounting
statement measuring the value of goods, services and capital exchanged
between a country and all foreign countries. A nation is said to have
either: (1) a balance of payments deficit if it sends abroad less in
goods, services, and capital than it receives from foreigners; or (2) a
balance of payments surplus if it sends abroad more in goods, services,
and capital than it receives.
Balance of Payments Manual 5 (BPM5) -
The manual describes the methodology for measuring the economic
transactions of an economy with the rest of the world. The International
Monetary Fund is the custodian of BPM5. (UN)
Balance of Trade - The difference in
value between a country's merchandise imports and exports in a specified
period. A country's balance of trade is only one factor -- though an
important one -- in its balance of payments.
Balanced Head Condition - The condition
in which the water pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of an
object are equal (such as an emergency or regulating gate).
Balkanization - The fragmentation of a
region into smaller, often hostile, political units. The term comes from the Balkan Peninsula of Europe, a region
that has balkanized may time, and is still undergoing balkanization.
Ballast water - Ocean-going ships load
up with water in bilge holds using the extra mass to keep them stable
while they ply their way to their destination port. More ballast is used
when ship are not fully loaded with cargo and this water is then pumped
back into the sea when the ship takes on new cargo. Many problems can
result if discharged ballast water contains pollutants or living
organisms that can potentially have negative effects on local marine
life at the destination port. (UNESCO)
Balzac v. Porto Rico, 258 U.S. 298, 312
(1922) - In Balzac, Chief Justice William Howard Taft stated that the
United States District Court for Arecibo, Porto Rico, as Puerto Rico was
known then, "created by virtue of the sovereign congressional
faculty, granted under Article IV, § 3, of that instrument, of making
all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory belonging to
the United States." Puerto
Rico is the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and it has not been incorporated
into the United States though its inhabitants are United States
citizens. The inclusion of
Puerto Rico in Chapter 5 as § 119 does not make the district court for
Puerto Rico an Article III court because Puerto Rico has not been
incorporated into the Union. Balzac v. Porto Rico, 258 U.S. 298 (1921)
and Mookini v. United States, 303 U.S. 201 (1938) made it clear that a
"district court of the United States" described a court
created under Article III and a "United States district court"
described a territorial court. The
former identified a constitutional court of the United States exercising
the judicial power of the United States and the latter merely identified
a court for a district of the government of the United States.
BANANA - Build Absolutely Nothing
Anywhere Near Anything
Band Application - The spreading of
chemicals over, or next to, each row of plants in a field, as opposed to
BANDESA - Banco Nacional de Desarrollo
Banding - Applying fertilizer or other
amendment into the soil (7-15 cm, or 2.7-6 in, deep) in a thin narrow
strip (band), as beside or beneath a planted row of seeds or plants.
Band-Interleaved-by-Line (BIL) - BIL is
a CCT tape format that stores all bands of satellite data in one image
file. Scanlines are sequenced by interleaving all image bands. The CCT
header appears once in a set. - USDA glossary
Band-Interleaved-by-Pixel (BIP) - When
using the BIP image format, each line of an image is stored
sequentially, line 1 all bands, line 2 all bands, etc. For example, the
first line of a three-band image would be stored as p1b1, p1b2, p1b3,
p2b1, p2b2, p2b3, where p1b1 indicates pixel one, band one, p1b2
indicates pixel one, band two, etc. - USDA glossary
(BIP-2)(CCT-X) - BIP-2 is a CCT tape format available only for MSS data
acquired before 1979. Data in each of four vertical swaths are stored in
a separate image file. Scanlines are sequenced and interleaved-by-pixel-
pairs. The CCT header information is recorded on each image file. BIP-2
is sometimes referred to as CCT-X format. - USDA glossary
Bank - The margins of a channel. Banks
are called right or left as viewed facing in the direction of the flow.
The “Bank for International
Settlements” (BIS) was established at Basle, Switzerland, in 1930 with
the object of promoting cooperation among central banks. It performs
four primary functions: (1) it is the “central banks’ bank,”
accepting central banks’ reserves as deposits and using them for
lending to central banks and for investment in the market on a
short-term basis; (2) it is a forum for monetary cooperation among
central banks and international financial institutions; (3) it acts as
agent, depository, etc., in the implementation of international
financial agreements and provides secretariat facilities for a number of
central bank committees; and (4) it is a center for monetary and
economic research. The central banks, or financial institutions acting
in their stead, of 25 European countries, Australia, Canada, Japan,
South Africa, and the United States are represented at BIS general
meetings. – WB
Bank Full - An established river stage
at a given location along a river which is intended to represent the
maximum safe water level that will not overflow the river banks or cause
any significant damage within the river reach.
Bankfull stage - Stage at which a stream
first overflows its natural banks. (See also Flood stage. Bankfull stage
is a hydraulic term, whereas flood stage implies damage.) – USGS
Bank Storage - Water that has
infiltrated from a reservoir into the surrounding land where it remains
in storage until water level in the reservoir is lowered.
Bank storage - The water absorbed into
the banks of a stream channel, when the stages rise above the water
table in the bank formations, then returns to the channel as effluent
seepage when the stages fall below the water table. (After Houk, 1951,
p. 179.) - USGS
Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act of 1937 -
P.L. 75-210 authorized acquisition by the federal government of damaged
lands to rehabilitate and use them for various purposes. Some Bankhead-Jones
lands are managed by both the Forest Service and the Bureau of Land
Management. Some Forest Service Bankhead Jones lands are National
Banks for Cooperatives (BC) - Lending
institutions within the Farm Credit System that provide credit to
agricultural cooperatives and rural utility cooperatives nationwide.
Currently, there are two BCs with national charters -- the St. Paul Bank
for Cooperatives and CoBank Agricultural Bank (Denver). CoBank also has
the authority to finance U.S. agricultural exports and to provide
international banking services to farmer-owned cooperatives.
Banquette - An embankment at the toe of
the land side of a levee, constructed to protect the levee from sliding
when saturated with water.
BAP – The Beijing Action Plan (UN)
Bardon v Northern Pac R Co. 12 S CT 856,
145 US 535, 538 36L, ED 806 - ‘It is well settled that all land to
which any claim or rights of others is attached does not fall within the
designation of public lands.’ United States Supreme Court Decision
BARE - Bureau of Agricultural and
Bargaining Association - A farmer
cooperative intended primarily to influence farm prices or other terms
of trade between the members and the buyers of the commodities they
Bark Beetle - An insect that bores
through the bark of forest trees to eat the inner bark and lay its eggs.
Bark beetles are important killers of forest trees.
Barrage (gate-structure dam) - A barrier
built across a river, comprising a series of gates which when fully open
allow the flood to pass without appreciably increasing the flood level
upstream of the barrage.
Barrage - Any artificial obstruction
placed in water to increase water level or divert it. Usually the idea
is to control peak flow for later release. – USGS
Barrel of oil equivalent - A unit of
energy equal to the amount of energy contained in a barrel of crude oil.
Approximately 5.78 million Btu or 1,700 kWh. A barrel is a liquid
measure equal to 42 gallons. - Bioenergy Glossary
Barren - A General cover category
consisting of nonvegetated lands, including alkaline barrens,
unreclaimed mined land, and other barren areas incapable of supporting
vegetation. Barren areas are nonvegetated either because the substrate
will not support plant growth or because the area is subject to frequent
disturbance (e.g., scouring, flooding) that prevents plant growth. -
National Resources Inventory
Barren land - A Land cover/use category
used to classify lands with limited capacity to support life and having
less than 5 percent vegetative cover. Vegetation, if present, is widely
spaced. Typically, the surface of barren land is sand, rock, exposed
subsoil, or salt-affected soils. Subcategories include salt flats; sand
dunes; mud flats; beaches; bare exposed rock; quarries, strip mines,
gravel pits, and borrow pits; riverwash; oil wasteland; mixed barren
lands; and other barren land. - National Resources Inventory
Barren Solution - A solution in
hydrometalurgical treatment from which all valuable constituents have
been removed. See Pregnant Solution. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Barrio - Term meaning
"neighborhood" in Spanish. Usually refers to an urban
community in a Middle or South American city: also applied to
low-income, inner-city concentrations of Hispanics in such western U.S.
cities as Los Angeles.
BART - Belle Air Residents for Truth
(San Bruno, CA)
Barter - A form of countertrade in which
goods having offsetting values are exchanged under a single contract,
within a specified period of time, and without any flow of money taking
place. The U.S. government ran a barter program from 1950 to 1973,
exchanging surplus agricultural commodities for strategic materials and
for goods and services it otherwise would have purchased. In addition,
barter agreements between the United States and Jamaica were signed in
1982 and 1983.
BAS - Best Available Science
Basal Area - The area of the cross
section of a tree trunk near its base, usually four and one-half feet
above the ground, expressed in square feet per acre and is a measure of
stocking density. Basal
area is a way to measure how much of a site is occupied by trees.
The term basal area is often used to describe the collective
basal area of trees per acre.
Basal Area - The area in square feet of
the cross section at breast height of a single tree, a group of trees,
or all of the trees in a stand, usually expressed in square feet per
acre. - USDA/FS
Basal Cover (Area) - The area of ground
surface covered by the stem or stems of a rangeland plant, usually
measured 1 inch above the soil, in contrast to the full spread of the
Basalt - Fine-grained, dark-colored
igneous rocks that are either intrusive or extrusive. - BLM Surface
Base - A substance that has a pH value
between 7 and 14.
Base acreage (or crop acreage base) - A
farm's crop-specific acreage of wheat, feed grains, upland cotton, or
rice eligible to participate in commodity programs under previous farm
legislation. For wheat and feed grains, this was an average of the
acreage planted or considered planted for harvest on the farm for the
preceding 5 crop years. For upland cotton and rice, the average is for
the preceding 3 years. Acreage considered planted included acreage idled
under acreage reduction programs or for weather-related reasons or
natural disasters; acreage devoted to conservation purposes or planted
to certain other allowed commodities; and acreage the Secretary
determined was necessary for fair and equitable treatment. A farmer's
crop acreage base is reduced by the portion of land placed in the
Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), but is increased by CRP base acreage
leaving the CRP. -
USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of
Base Acres - See Acreage Base.
Base-Country Invariance - The
index-number property that involves the symmetrical treatment of all
countries, with the result that the relative index-number standings of
the countries are not affected by the choice of the reference (numeraire)
Base Course - A layer of specified or
selected material of planned thickness constructed on the sub-grade or
sub-base for the purpose of serving one or more functions such as
distributing load, providing drainage, minimizing frost action, etc.
Base discharge (for peak discharge) - In
the Geological Survey's annual reports on surface-water supply, the
discharge above which peak discharge data are published. The base
discharge at each station is selected so that an average of about three
peaks a year will be presented. (See also Partial-duration flood
series.) – USGS
Base-end station - Observation station at either end of a base
line, containing an azimuth instrument or depression position finder,
used to supply position data for the indirect aiming of coast artillery
weapons. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Base Flood - The flood having a one
percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.
This term is used in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)
to indicate the minimum level of flooding to be used by a community in
its flood plain management regulations.
Base Flow - Ground water inflow to the
river. Portion of stream
discharge that is derived from natural storage.
Base Line - A surveyed line established
with more than usual care; used as the known length of a triangle (in
triangulation) for computing the other triangle sides. - Cadastral Data
Base Line (sectionalized land) - A
parallel of latitude, or approximately a parallel of latitude, running
through an arbitrary point chosen as the starting point for all
sectionalized land within a given area. - Cadastral Data glossary
Base line - A pre-surveyed horizontal line used for accurate
position-finding and fire control, with observation posts called
base-end stations at either end. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and
Baselining - Obtaining data on the current process that provide the
metrics against which to compare improvements and to use in
benchmarking. - Forest Service
Beaux-Arts - French term [Ecole Nationale et Spéciale des
Beaux-Arts, Paris] meaning fine arts; label for an architectural
movement and training program, and for its associated architects,
1865-1915; loosely, architecture as fine art, characterized by an
emphasis on classical tradition; Beaux-Arts was sometimes used as an
alternative term for Classical or Colonial Revival design in the United
States during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. - NPS
Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Base Metal - A metal inferior in value
to gold and silver, a term generally applied to the commercial metals
such as copper and lead. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Base Property - For the Bureau of Land
Management: land or water resources, owned or controlled by a holder of
a grazing permit or lease, that are suitable to support livestock for a
part of the year. For the Forest Service: lands and improvements owned
and used by a permittee for a farm or ranch and designated by the
permittee to qualify for a grazing permit. One must own or control base
property to be eligible for permits or leases to graze private livestock
on federal lands.
Base Property - Lands or water sources
on a ranch that are owned by or under long-term control of the operator.
Base Rates - The minimum cash price for
national forest timber to be cut and removed.
Base runoff - Sustained or fair weather
runoff. In most streams, base runoff is composed largely of groundwater
effluent. (Langbein and others, 1947, p. 6.) The term base flow is often
used in the same sense as base runoff. However, the distinction is the
same as that between streamflow and runoff. When the concept in the
terms base flow and base runoff is that of the natural flow in a stream,
base runoff is the logical term. (See also Ground-water runoff and
Direct runoff.) - USGS
Base Saturation Percentage (base cation
saturation) - The degree to which the adsorption complex of a soil is
saturated with basic cations (cations other than hydrogen and aluminum),
usually expressed in percentage.
Baseline (condition or alternative) -
Conditions that would prevail if no actions were taken (future without).
Baseline Profile - Used for a survey of
the environmental conditions and organisms existing in a region prior to
Baseload - Minimum load in a power
system over a given period of time.
Baseloading - Running water through a
power plant at a roughly steady rate, thereby producing power at a
Basic Commodities - Six agricultural
crops (corn, cotton, peanuts, rice, tobacco, and wheat) declared by
permanent law as requiring federal price support.
Basic Control - In cadastral
cartography, the horizontal control of the base control map. The basic
control is the position of points which has been accurately coordinated
and correlated by a method called analytical bridging - forming a
network of lines to which other surveys and deeds are adjusted. -
Cadastral Data glossary
Basic Formula Price (BFP) - Calculated
monthly by USDA, the BFP is the base price for all milk regulated by
federal milk marketing orders. Currently, the BFP is based on the
preceding month's average price of Grade B milk paid by processors in
Minnesota and Wisconsin, adjusted by current- month changes in the value
of certain manufactured dairy products.
Basic Headings - The subdivisions of
final expenditure which correspond to the first aggregation of price (or
quantity) ratios for individual specifications or items. Basic headings
are sometimes referred to as detailed categories. (UN)
Basic hydrologic data - Includes
inventories of features of land and water that vary only from place to
place (topographic and geologic maps are examples), and records of
processes that vary with both place and time. (Records of precipitation,
streamflow, groundwater, and quality-of-water analyses are examples.) -
Basic hydrologic information - A broader
term that includes surveys of the water resources of particular areas
and a study of their physical and related economic processes,
interrelations and mechanisms. – USGS
Basic Land Unit - The parcel, or land
parcel.- Cadastral Data glossary
Basic-stage flood series - See Partial
duration flood series. - USGS
Basin Programs - Sets of state
administrative rules that establish types and amounts of water uses
allowed in the state's major river basins and form the basis for issuing
water rights. (BLM)
Basin Runoff Model - Any one of the
computer programs that mathematically models basin characteristics to
forecast reservoir inflow from rainfall and/or streamflow data.
BASINS - Better Assessment Science
Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (EPA)
BASIS - Bill Action and Status Inquiry
Basis - The difference between the
current spot price (or cash price) of a commodity and the price of the
nearest futures contract for the same or a related commodity. Basis is
usually computed in relation to the futures contract next to expire and
may reflect different time periods, product forms, qualities, or
Basis Risk - The possibility of
unexpected variation in basis and a resulting loss of expected revenue
when a futures contract is liquidated and the commodity sold on the cash
BASS - Battlefield Area Surveillance
BASS - Battlefield Automated Subordinate
BASS - BCE Automated Support System
BASS - Black Agents in the Secret
BASS - Broadband Array Spectrograph
BASS - Bulk Agent Stockpile Summary
BASS, Inc. - Business Application
Software Services, Inc.
BAT - best available technology and
BATF - Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and
Bathymetric - Of or having to do with
the depth of large bodies of water. - NPS Ecology and Restoration
Bathymetry - The measurement of depths
of water in oceans, seas, and lakes. Also, the information derived from
such measurements. - USDA glossary
BAU - Business As Usual
Bay-Delta - The San Francisco
Bay/Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is a low, nearly flat alluvial tract of
land formed by deposits at the converging mouths of the Sacramento and
San Joaquin Rivers. - Bureau Of Reclamation -- BOR -- Water Acquisition
BB - Bucket Brigade
BBA - Black Book of Arson (Loompanics
BBC - British Broadcasting Co
BBI - Business-to-Business Information
BBLs - Barrels (a measure of the
quantity of condensate)
BBN - Bring Back the Natives [DOI/USFWS
program that 'supports on-the-ground habitat restoration projects that
benefit native aquatic species (e.g., native fish, aquatic insects,
mollusks, and amphibians) in the historic range.]
BBO - Broad-Based Organizations
BBR - Big Bend Reach (Nebraska)
BBS - Broad-Based Support
BBT - Binational Border Transportation
BC - Benefit Cost
BC – Bicycle Coalition
BC - Biodiversity Conservation
BC - Bioregional Councils
BC - Buffer Council
BC - Bulk Companies
BC - The Business Community
BCBP - Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (Border Patrol new
BCC - Banking and Currency Committee
BCC - Biological Connecting Corridor
BCD - Behind Closed Doors
BCD - Biological and Conservation Data
(a copyrighted patent product of The Nature Conservancy)
BCDS - Biological and Conservation Data
BCEII - British Columbia Environmental
Information Institute (Canada)
BCESC - British Columbia Endangered
BCF - Billion Cubic Feet (a measure of
quantity of natural gas)
BCFS - Biodiversity Conservation Focus Site
BCFA - British Canadian Forest Alliance
BCFA - British Contract Furnishing
BCIO - Building Communities from the
BCIS - Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration
BCMA - Brevard County Manufacturers
BCPGV - Brady Center to Prevent Gun
BCPLAW - Berne Convention for the
Protection of Literary and Artistic Works
BCR - Benefit-Cost Ratio
BCS - The Basel Convention Secretariat
BCSD - Business Council for Sustainable
BCWG - Buffer Council Watershed Goal
BD - Believable Deception
BD - Bird Depredation
BDA - Back Door Approach
BDA - Border Development Authority
BDF - Business Development Funds
BDG - Business Development Grant
BDPO - Breeding Duck Population
BDR - Baseline Documentation Report
BDR – Bill Draft Request (legislative)
BDW - The Berry, Dexter, Wilson Ponds
Watershed Association (Maine)
BE - Building Envelope
BEA - U.S. Department of Commerce,
Bureau of Economic Analysis
Beach - A Barren land subcategory.
Includes the area adjacent to the shore of an ocean, sea, large river,
or lake that is washed by the tide or waves. - National Resources
Beaching - The action of water waves by
which beach materials settle into the water because of removal of finer
Bearing - The direction of a line
measured from north or south to east or west, not exceeding 90 degrees.
Examples: North 30 Degrees West or South 87 Degrees East. - Cadastral
Bearing Tree - A tree that is used as a
reference to the position of a corner. - Cadastral Data glossary
BECC - Border Environment Cooperation
BED - Border Economic Development
Bed Elevation - Height of streambed
above a specified level.
Bed Layer - The flow layer, several
grain diameters thick (usually taken as two grain diameters thick),
immediately above the bed.
Bed Load - The part of the total stream
load that is moved on or immediately above the stream bed, such as the
larger or heavier particles (boulders, pebbles, gravel) transported by
traction or saltation along the bottom; the part of the load that is not
continuously in suspension or solution.
Sediment that moves by rolling or sliding along the bed and is
essentially in contact with the streambed in the bed layer.
Coarse sediments carried along near the bottom of a river.
Bed Load Discharge - The quantity of bed
load passing a cross section of a stream in a unit in time.
Bed Material - Unconsolidated material,
or sediment mixture, of which a streambed is composed.
Bed Material Discharge - That part of
the total sediment discharge which is composed of grain sizes found in
the bed. The bed material
discharge is assumed equal to the transport capability of the flow.
Bedding - Ground, or layer of such, for
support purposes on which pipe is laid.
Soil is placed beneath and beside a pipe to support the load on
Bedding Plane - A separation or weakness
between two layers of rock, caused by changes during the building up of
the rock-forming material.
Bedrock - The solid rock at the surface
or underlying other surface materials.
Rock of relatively great thickness and extent in its native
location. A general term
for any solid rock, not exhibiting soil-like properties, that underlie
soil or other unconsolidated surficial materials.
As distinguished from boulders.
The consolidated body of natural solid mineral matter which
underlies the overburden soils. The
solid rock that underlies all soil, sand, clay, gravel, and other loose
materials on the earth’s surface.
Any sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic material represented as
a unit in geology; being a sound and solid mass, layer, or ledge of
mineral matter; and with shear wave velocities greater than 2,500 feet
BEED - Border Economic and Enterprise
Beef (cattle) Price Index (BPI) - An
index of the weighted average annual price for beef cattle, excluding
calves, for an 11 western state area as compared with a specific base
period equal to 100. This index is used in calculating federal grazing
BEF - Bonneville Environmental
BEF - Buckeye Egg Farms
Behave - A system of interactive computer programs for modeling fuel and fire behavior that consists of two systems: BURN and FUEL. – FS
BEHAVE - Behavioral Education for Human, Animal, Vegetation &
Ecosystem Management (affiliated with Ted Turner's Flying D Ranch)
Behavior - Reaction of an animal to its
Being - Denotes a secondary call. In to
the northeast corner of Brown's land, being also a two-inch iron pipe,
the "two inch pipe" is usually the secondary or informative
call, whereas "Brown's corner" is normally the superior call.
A "being clause" is frequently a controlling call. - Cadastral
Being Clause - The "being clause'
of a deed denotes the origin or history of the present deed, such as
being the same land conveyed to Brown in Book 1237, page 672, of
Official Records. If a change is made in the wording of a deed, there
should always be inserted a being clause. Reference to a being clause
generally does not serve to enlarge or restrict a particular and
sufficient description of land conveyed. - Cadastral Data glossary
BEIP - Business Employment Incentive Program
Below-cost Timber Sale - A timber sale
from national forest lands in which the expected federal revenues are
less than the estimated federal expenses to sell the timber.
Bench - A working level or step in a
Installing fill materials in lifts. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications,
and Preservation glossary
Bench Mark (BM) - A permanent or
temporary monument of known elevation above sea level, used for vertical
control at a construction site. A
point of known or assumed elevation used as a reference in determining
other elevations. A
permanent reference point (elevation) used in a survey.
Bench Mark - A point whose elevation,
above or below some definite or assumed datum, is known. A benchmark can
be natural or artificial, and it can be either permanent or temporary. -
Cadastral Data glossary
Benchmark Soil - A benchmark soil is one
of large extent, one that holds a key position in the soil
classification system, one for which there is a large amount of data, or
one that has special significance to farming, engineering, forestry,
ranching, recreational development, urban development, wetland
restoration, or other uses. The cost of investigation and the large
number of combinations of soil uses and management practices preclude
laboratory and field studies of all soils; therefore, studies of
benchmark soils are essential. A benchmark soil is selected because it
can represent other soils. Knowledge of the properties and behavior of
benchmark soils is applied to the understanding and interpretation of
other soils with similar properties. This knowledge is important to soil
technology and the use of soil surveys.
Benchmark - A measurement or standard that serves as a point of
reference by which process performance is measured. - Forest Service
Benchmarking - A structured approach for identifying the best
practices from industry and government, and comparing and adapting them
to the organization's operations. Such an approach is aimed at
identifying more efficient and effective processes for achieving
intended results, and suggesting ambitious goals for program output,
product/service quality, and process improvement. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm
Bench terrace - A raised, level or
nearly level strip of earth constructed on or nearly on the contour,
supported by a barrier of rocks or similar material, and designed to
make the soil suitable for tillage and to prevent accelerated erosion.
Benefit-Cost Analysis - A technique to compare the various costs
associated with an investment with the benefits that it proposes to
return. Both tangible and intangible factors should be addressed and
accounted for. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm
Benefit-cost Ratio - The ratio of the present value
of project benefits to the present value of the project costs, used in
Beneficial Use - Water loss through use for the
betterment of society, e.g. irrigation or municipal use (consumptive
use). The reasonable use of water for a purpose consistent with the laws
and best interest of the peoples of the state. Such uses include, but
are not limited to, the following: instream, out of stream and
groundwater uses, domestic, municipal, industrial water supply, mining,
irrigation, livestock watering, fish and aquatic life, wildlife,
fishing, water contact recreation, aesthetics and scenic attraction,
hydropower, and commercial navigation. (BLM)
Beneficiary - Any individual, entity, or
governmental agency (local, State, or Federal) that benefits from a
Benificiation - The dressing or
processing of ores to (1) regulate the size of a desired product, (2)
remove unwanted constituents, and (3) improve the quality, purity, or
assay grade of a desired product. Beneficiation includes concentration
or other preparation of ore for smelting by drying, flotation, or
magnetic separation. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Benthic - Bottom of rivers, lakes, or
oceans; organisms that live on the bottom of water bodies.
Bottom- or depth-inhabiting.
Benthos - Organisms living in or on the
bottom of a lake, pond, ocean, stream, etc.
Bentonite - A clay mineral formed from
the decomposing of volcanic ash. Commonly bentonite can readily absorb
or adsorb water and well accordingly. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Bentonite panel - An organic clay sheeting (compressed and rolled)
to provide a waterproof membrane. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications,
and Preservation glossary
Bentonitic Clay - A clay with a high
content of the mineral montmorillonite, usually characterized by high
swelling upon wetting.
Benzene - The simplest aromatic
hydrocarbon, found in coal tar and used extensively as an industrial
solvent and in laboratories. Also used in manufacture of styrene
products, lacquers, varnishes and paints. A highly inflammable, narcotic
liquid that is also a carcinogen. (UNESCO)
- The Border Ecology Project, also known as EWF - Eco Web Fronteriza
Berm - A horizontal strip or shelf built
into an embankment or cut to break the continuity of the slope, usually
for the purpose of reducing erosion or to increase the thickness of the
embankment at a point of change in a slope or defined water surface
elevation. A horizontal
step in the sloping profile of an embankment dam.
A shelf that breaks the continuity of a slope, or artificial
ridge of earth. A ledge or
shoulder, as along the edge of a road or canal. An
artificial ridge of earth. A
mound of earth.
Berm - A ledge, embankment, or shoulder, often man-made, and
typically earthen; also, a narrow path between a fortification parapet
and its surrounding ditch. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and
Berman v. Parker 348 U.S. 26
(1954) - (SC decision that allowed local governments to condemn
land for urban renewal and then transfer title to private parties.) No.
22 Argued October 19, 1954. Decided November 22, 1954. Syllabus: The
District of Columbia Redevelopment Act of 1945 is constitutional, as
applied to the taking of appellants' building and land (used solely for
commercial purposes) under the power of eminent domain, pursuant to a
comprehensive plan prepared by an administrative agency for the
redevelopment of a large area of the District of Columbia so as to
eliminate and prevent slum and substandard housing conditions -- even
though such property may later be sold or leased to other private
interests subject to conditions designed to accomplish these purposes.
(a) The power of Congress over the District of Columbia includes
all the legislative powers which a state may exercise over its affairs.
(b) Subject to specific constitutional limitations, the
legislature, not the judiciary, is the main guardian of the public needs
to be served by social legislation enacted in the exercise of the police
power, and this principle admits of no exception merely because the
power of eminent domain is involved. P. 32.
(c) This Court does not sit to determine whether or not a
particular housing project is desirable. P. 33.
(d) If Congress decides that the Nation's Capital shall be
beautiful as well as sanitary, there is nothing in the Fifth Amendment
that stands in the way. P. 33.
(e) Once the object is within the authority of Congress, the
right to realize it through the exercise of eminent domain is clear. P.
(f) Once the public purpose has been established, the means of
executing the project are for Congress and Congress alone to determine.
(g) This Court cannot say that public ownership is the sole
method of promoting the public purposes of a community redevelopment
project, and it is not beyond the power of Congress to utilize an agency
of private enterprise for this purpose, or to authorize the taking of
private property and its resale or lease to the same or other private
parties as part of such a project. P. 34. [348 U.S. 27]
(h) It is not beyond the power of Congress or its authorized
agencies to attack the problem of the blighted parts of the community on
an area, rather than on a structure-by-structure basis. Redevelopment of
an entire area under a balanced integrated plan so as to include not
only new homes, but also schools, churches, parks, streets, and shopping
centers is plainly relevant to the maintenance of the desired housing
standards, and therefore within congressional power. Pp. 34-35.
(i) The standards contained in the Act are sufficiently definite
to sustain the delegation of authority to administrative agencies to
execute the plan to eliminate not only slums, but also the blighted
areas that tend to produce slums. P. 35.
(j) Once the public purpose is established, the amount and
character of the land to be taken for the project and the need for a
particular tract to complete the integrated plan rests in the discretion
of the legislature. Pp. 35-36.
(k) If the Redevelopment Agency considers it necessary in
carrying out a redevelopment project to take full title to the land, as
distinguished from the objectionable buildings located thereon, it may
do so. P. 36.
(l) The rights of these property owners are satisfied when they
receive the just compensation which the Fifth Amendment exacts as the
price of the taking. P. 36. 117 F.Supp. 705, modified and affirmed. [348
U.S. 28] * The Act does not define either "slums" or
"blighted areas." Section 3(r), however, states:
"Substandard housing conditions" means the conditions
obtaining in connection with the existence of any dwelling, or
dwellings, or housing accommodations for human beings, which because of
lack of sanitary facilities, ventilation, or light, or because of
dilapidation, overcrowding, faulty interior arrangement, or any
combination of these factors, is in the opinion of the Commissioners
detrimental to the safety, health, morals, or welfare of the inhabitants
of the District of Columbia.
(copyright-international) - The major multilateral copyright treaty,
signed in Berne, Switzerland, in 1886. The Berne Convention, whose
members form the Berne Union, is adhered to by more than 75 nations. The
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is the administering
agency for the Berne Union.
Best Available Technology And Practices
- The applying of the most advanced systems, techniques, procedures, and
controls, determined on a case-by-case basis by the regulatory agency. -
BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Best Management Practices - Practices
designed to prevent or reduce water pollution.
Practices determined by the State to be the most effective and
practical means of preventing or reducing the amount of water pollution
generated by non-point sources, to meet water quality goals.
Best Practice Template - An outline or
collection of lessons learned about a topic within a COI (Community Of
Interest). - GWOB
Best Practices about Classifications -
Refers to the approach or procedure recognized as most efficient and
effective in producing a desired result. Best practice is based on the
experience of experts in particular fields and is usually promulgated
through the agreement and endorsement of experts and expert groups. In
the development and revision of international and national
classifications, best practice would generally involve the application
of practices and procedures promulgated by international and national
organizations responsible for classification development in their own
particular fields. These practices may well include cost benefit
analyses weighing the applicability of final classifications against of
their terms of reference, the application of agreed classification
principles, an agreed methodology for incorporating local requirements
(i.e. an evaluation of the requirements of the society/economy where the
classification is to be applied) where they differ from existing
standards and the selection of suitable recognized classification
characteristics to produce good classifications. The result should
optimize the incorporation of these principles in a product that is
achievable within budgetary and other constraints. Refer also to
Custodian of a classification. (UN)
Best Practices - The processes, practices, and systems identified
in public and private organizations that performed exceptionally well
and are widely recognized as improving an organization's performance and
efficiency in specific areas. Successfully identifying and applying best
practices can reduce business expenses and improve organizational
efficiency. - Forest Service
BET - Baseline Epidemic Threshold
agglomere - A French term for an artificial stone of cementitious
materials in a matrix. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and
Betterment Projects - Refers to lower
cost transportation improvements, typically maintenance activities or
safety improvements projects, including pavement widening, resurfacing,
grading, guide/guard rail, or bridge repairs.
Bevill Amendment - A provision of the
Solid Waste Disposal Act Amendments (1980) to the Resource Conservation
and Recovery Act (RCRA) that exempted from Subtitle C requirements the
wastes from the extraction and beneficiation of ores and minerals,
regardless of their chemical composition. The amendment further directed
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency either to develop Subtitle C
regulations for this waste or determine that this exemption should
continue, and to present its findings in a report to Congress. - BLM
Surface Mgmt. Regs.
BF - The Bike Federation
BF - Board Foot
BF - Board Feet
BF - Bullitt Foundation
BFCT - Big Flat Conservation Trust
(Northern California in the King Range National Conservation Area –
BFCT - The Big Flat Conservation Trust (King Range, CA)
BFM - British Furniture Manufacturers
BFS - British Fabian Society
BFW - Bottomland Forested Wetlands
BG - BioGems
BG - Block Grant
BGC - Balanced Growth Code
BGH - Bovine Growth Hormone
BGI - Barry Goldwater Institute
BGP - Bio-geographical province
BGS - Below Ground Surface
BGWA - Big Game Wintering Area (USFWS
BGWR - Big Game Winter Range (USFWS -
BH - Breeding Habitat
BHCCJP - Boston-Haifa Connection of
Combined Jewish Philanthropies
BHMA - Black Hills Mining Association
BHP - Bureau for Historic Preservation
BHRMUC - Black Hill Regional Multiple
BI - Biblical Imperative
BI - Birdlife International
BI - Buffer Initiative
BIA - Board of Immigration Appeals
BIA - Building Area Association
BIA - Bureau of Indian Affairs
BIAC - Business and Industry Advisory
BIAE - Binding Industries of America
BIC - Border Information Clearinghouse
BIDEHMP - Biological Integrity, Diversity, and
Environmental Health Maintenance Policy
BiE - Business in the Environment
Biennial - Plant which produces seeds
during its second year and then dies.
Biennial Plant - Typically these plants
germinate from seed in spring and devote the first year's growing season
to developing. During the second spring or summer, the following year,
they flower, set seed, and die at the end of that growing season.
Plant which produces seeds during its second year and then dies.
BIG - Boating Infrastructure Grant (USFWS)
Big Box - A large industrial-style
building with a footprint of up to 200,000 square feet and the mass of a
three-story (30+ feet) building, generally used for retail commercial
Big Game - Large mammals, such as deer,
elk, and antelope, that are hunted for sport, and normally managed as a
sport hunting resource.
Big Game Summer Range - A range, usually
at higher elevation, used by deer and elk during the summer.
Summer ranges are usually much more extensive than winter ranges.
Big Game Winter Range - A range, usually
at lower elevation, used by migratory deer and elk during the winter
months, more clearly defined and smaller than summer ranges.
Bilateral Trade Agreement - A trade
agreement between any two countries. The agreement may be either
preferential (the obligations and benefits apply only to the two
countries involved) or most-favored-nation (the benefits and obligations
negotiated between the two countries are extended to all or most other
nations). The U.S.-Israel Free Trade Agreement is one example.
Bilharzia - Bilharzia - A
life-threatening parasitic disease caused by a worm that lives in a host
snail. Humans can become infected when they come in contact with water
in ponds and rivers where the snail lives. Occurs most often in tropical
regions. Also called schistosomiasis. (UNESCO)
Bilinear - The term bilinear is
referring to a bilinear interpolation. This is simply an interpolation
with two variables instead of one. - USDA glossary
Billion - A thousand million. - UNEP
Binary - Based upon the integer two.
Binary Code is composed of a combination of entities that can assume one
of two possible conditions (0 or 1). An example in binary notation of
the digits 111 would represent (1 X 2) + (1 X 2) + (1 X 2) = 4 + 2 + 1 =
7. - USDA glossary
Binary Comparison - A price or quantity
comparison between two countries that draws upon data for only those two
countries. Also called bilateral comparisons. (UN)
Binary digiT (BIT) - A bit is most
commonly a unit of information equaling one binary decision, or one of
two possible and equally likely values or states. It is usually
represented as a 1 or 0. - USDA glossary
Binder (soil binder) - Portion of soil
passing through a Number 40 United States standard sieve.
Binder - Cementitious materials which chemically bind aggregates in
a matrix. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Binomial - Scientific name of plants or
animals which have two parts; a genus and a species name.
Bioaccumulation - The accumulation of
environmental contaminants as you move up in the food chain.
The intake and retention of nonfood substances by a living
organism from its environment, resulting in a build-up of the substances
in the organism.
Bioaccumulants - Substances in
contaminated air, water, or food that increase in concentration in
living organisms exposed to them because the substances are very slowly
metabolized or excreted. - Bioenergy Glossary
Bioassay - Test which determines the
effect of a chemical on a living organism.
Bioassay - A study of a living organism
to measure the effect of a substance, factor, or condition. - Bioenergy
Bioassimilation - The accumulation of a
substance within a habitat.
Biocentric - A point of view the
emphasizes a non-human perception of the universe.
Biochemical conversion process - The use
of living organisms or their products to convert organic material to
fuels. - Bioenergy Glossary
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) - A
measure of the amount of oxygen consumed in 5 days due to natural,
biological processes that break down organic matter, such as those that
take place when manure or sawdust is put in water. High levels of
oxygen-demanding wastes in waters deplete dissolved oxygen (DO), thereby
endangering aquatic life. Sometimes referred to as "biological
oxygen demand. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a measure of the oxygen
consumed when organic matter is broken down chemically rather than
naturally. COD can be determined much more quickly than BOD and more
accurately reflects the amount of organic matter in a water sample.
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) - A
standard means of estimating the degree of pollution of water supplies,
especially those which receive contamination from sewage and industrial
waste. BOD is the amount of oxygen needed by bacteria and other
microorganisms to decompose organic matter in water. The greater the BOD,
the greater the degree of pollution. Biochemical oxygen demand is a
process that occurs over a period of time and is commonly measured for a
five-day period, referred to as BOD5. - Bioenergy Glossary
Biocide - A substance that can kill
living things. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary
Bioconcentration (Bioaccumulation) - The
accumulation of a chemical in tissues of an organism to levels greater
than in the environment in which the organism lives. - Bioenergy
Biodiversity - The variety and
variability of life in an area or the diversity of genes, species, and
ecosystems, and of plant and animal life within species (genetic
diversity), among species (species diversity) and among ecosystems
(ecosystem diversity). The
latter includes the diversity of structure and function within
ecosystems. The variety of
life in all forms, levels and combinations. (IUCN) There are three types
of biodiversity: ecosystem diversity, species diversity, and genetic
diversity." It is thus measure of species richness and variability
among living organisms from all sources, including land-based and
aquatic ecosystems. Species diversity is vital to the proper functioning
of ecosystems and is the basis of biological wealth and adaptability.
(UNESCO) (See Biological Diversity)
Biodegradable - Capable of decomposing
rapidly under natural conditions. - Bioenergy Glossary
Biodiesel - A biofuel produced through
transesterification, a process in which organically- derived oils are
combined with alcohol (ethanol or methanol) in the presence of a
catalyst to form ethyl or methyl ester. The biomass- derived ethyl or
methyl esters can be blended with conventional diesel fuel or used as a
neat fuel (100% biodiesel). Biodiesel can be made from soybean or
rapeseed oils, animal fats, waste vegetable oils, or microalgae oils. -
Bioenergy - Useful, renewable energy
produced from organic matter. The conversion of the complex
carbohydrates in organic matter to energy. Organic matter may either be
used directly as a fuel or processed into liquids and gases. - Bioenergy
Biofuels - Fuels made from cellulosic
biomass resources. Biofuels include ethanol, biodiesel, and methanol. -
Biogas - A combustible gas derived from
decomposing biological waste. Biogas normally consists of 50 to 60
percent methane. - Bioenergy Glossary
Biogeochemical - The recycling chemistry
between plants, animals and the earth's sediments. - NPS Ecology and
Biogeochemical Cycles - The movement of
massive amounts of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, calcium, sodium,
sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements among various living and
non-living components of the environment--including the atmosphere,
soils, aquatic systems, and biotic systems--through the processes of
production and decomposition. - UNDP/WRI
Biogeoclimatic zone - A geographic area
having similar patterns of energy flow, vegetation, and soils as a
result of a broadly homogenous macro-climate. - Biodiversity Guidebook
Biogeoclimactic Zone - A large
geographic area with a broadly homogeneous macroclimate.
Each zone is named after one or more of the dominant climax
species of the ecosystems in the zone, and a geographic or climactic
Biogeographic(al) provinces - In the
Operational Guidelines, biogeographic(al) provinces are suggested as an
appropriate comparative unit for grouping similar natural properties
when preparing tentative lists (Paragraph 8), for nominating a series of
natural properties for nomination to the World Heritage List (Paragraph
19(iii)) and for IUCN when preparing relative evaluations of natural
properties (Paragraph 60) (UNESCO February 1996: 6 and 18). - UNESCO
World Heritage Glossary
Biogeography -The scientific study of
the geographic distribution of organisms. - UNDP/WRI
Species - See Indicator Species and Taxon-based biodiversity surrogates.
Biological (Cryptogamic) Crust - Community of non-vascular primary
producers that occur as a "crust" on the surface of soils;
made up of a mixture of algae, lichens, mosses, and cyanobacteria (bluegreen
algae). – BLM
Biological Assessment - The gathering
and evaluation of information on proposed endangered and threatened
species and critical habitat and proposed critical habitat. Required
when a management action potentially conflicts with endangered or
threatened species, the biological assessment is the way federal
agencies enter into formal consultation with the Fish and Wildlife
Service and describe a proposed action and the consequences to the
species the action would affect. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs. 2. A specific
process required as part of an environmental assessment. An evaluation
of potential effects of a proposed project on proposed, endangered,
threatened, and sensitive animal and plant species and their habitats. -
Biological Control - The practice of
using beneficial natural organisms to attack and control harmful plant
and animal pests and weeds is called biological control, or biocontrol.
This can include introducing predators, parasites, and disease
organisms, or releasing sterilized individuals. Biocontrol methods may
be an alternative or complement to chemical pest control methods.
Biocontrol is part of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
program to control several economically important pests of food and
fiber crops; it also is researched and used by other USDA agencies that
promote integrated pest management. The use of natural means to control unwanted pests.
Examples include introduced or naturally occurring predators such
as wasps, or hormones that inhibit the reproduction of pests.
Biological controls can sometimes be alternatives to mechanical
or chemical means.
Biological Diversity - Refers to the sum
of all species of plants and animals.
An ecosystem is generally considered healthy when it supports the
maximum biological diversity known to be associated with it.
In addition, biological diversity also refers to the genetic
diversity found within individuals and populations of species and the
diversity of ecosystems within the landscape.
The variety of life forms and its processes, including the
variety of living organisms, the genetic differences among them, and the
communities and ecosystems in which they occur.
The variety of life across all levels of organization from
genetic diversity within populations, to species, which have to be
regarded as the pivotal unit of classification, to ecosystems.
The number and abundance of species found within a common
environment. This includes
the variety of genes, species, ecosystems, and the ecological processes
that connect everything in a common environment.
Number and kinds of organisms per unit area or volume; the
composition of species in a given area at a given time.
Biological Evaluation - A documented
review of activities in sufficient detail to determine how and action or
proposed action may affect any threatened, endangered, proposed or
Biological Growth - The activity and
growth of any and all living organisms.
Biological Legacies - Large trees, down
logs, snags, and other components of the forest stand left after
harvesting for the purpose of maintaining site productivity and
providing structures and ecological functions in subsequent stands.
Biological Magnification (biomagnification)
- Step by step concentration of substances in successive levels of food
chains. The enhancement of
a substance (usually a contaminant) in a food web such that the
organisms eventually contain higher concentrations of the substance than
their food sources.
Biological magnification - The process
by which substances such as pesticides or heavy metals become
concentrated as they move up the food chain. - Bioenergy Glossary
Biological Opinion - Document stating the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service opinion as to whether a Federal action is likely to jeopardize the continued existence of a threatened or endangered species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitat.
Biological oxidation - Decomposition of organic materials by microorganisms. - Bioenergy Glossary
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) - The amount of dissolved oxygen in water that will be consumed as the organic matter present is decomposed. High BOD means low water quality and probably the development of anaerobic waters. It usually results when waters have received organic wastes. See also Chemical oxygen demand.
Biological Processes - Processes characteristic of, or resulting from, the activities of living organisms.
Biological Resources - Those components of biodiversity of direct, indirect, or potential use to humanity. (Used interchangeably with "Biotic Resources") - UNDP/WRI
Biological Soil Crusts - Composed of cyanobacteria, green and brown algae, mosses, and lichens that bind together with soil particles to create a crust. - BLM
Biologics - Immunization vaccines, bactrians, antigens, and antitoxins and other preparations made from living organisms and their products, intended for use in diagnosing, immunizing, or treating humans or animals, or in related research. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has responsibility for approving some animal biologics.
Biology - The scientific study of life.
BIOMASS - The total mass or amount of living organisms in a particular area or volume. The total weight of all living organisms in a biological community.
Biomagnification (or biological magnification) - The increase in the concentration of bioaccumulated toxic chemicals in organisms higher on the food chain due to preferential storage of the toxic chemical in edible body parts. For example, chlorinated pesticides concentrate in the fat and skin of fish in contaminated lakes and streams and are biomagnified when those fish are eaten by larger fish, and perhaps eventually by mammals or birds of prey.
Biomanipulation - Reducing algal blooms by altering the fish community to reduce predation on certain zooplankton (cladocerans such as daphnia) that can most efficiently graze on algae. - Shoreland Mgmt. Glossary
Biomass - The total amount of living material, plants and animals, above and below the soil surface in a biotic community. The generic term for any living matter that can be converted into usable energy through biological or chemical processes. It encompasses feedstocks such as agricultural crops and their residues, animal wastes, wood, wood residues and grasses, and municipal wastes. The total mass or amount of living organisms in a particular area, environment or volume. The total weight of all living organisms in a biological community.
Biomass fuel - Liquid, solid, or gaseous fuel produced by conversion of biomass. - Bioenergy Glossary
Biome - The complex of living communities maintained by the climate of a region and characterized by a distinctive type of vegetation. Examples of biomes in North America include the tundra, desert, prairie, and the western coniferous forests. 2. A major ecological community in a particular terrestrial region comprising certain types of life, especially vegetation. Examples are various types of desert, grasslands, and forests. (UNESCO)
Biomonitoring - A test used to evaluate the relative potency of a chemical by comparing its effect on a living organism with the effect of a standard population on the same type of organism. - USGS
Biopesticide - A pesticide that is biological in origin in contrast to synthetic chemicals (i.e., viruses, bacteria, pheromones, natural plant compounds).
Bioregion - A territory defined by a combination of biological, social, and geographic criteria, rather than geopolitical considerations; generally, a system of related, interconnected ecosystems. - UNDP/WRI
Bioregional Planning - A method of integrating planning for nature conservation and planning ecologically sustainable use within an ecosystem context and at a bioregional scale. - UN
Bioregions - Geopolitical regions formed from land areas constituting similar ecosystems. For example, in the United States, areas now defined by state boundaries would be reorganized to follow similar landscape features. Out of the mountainous regions of Tennessee, North Carolina, Virginia, Georgia, Kentucky, and West Virginia would come the Southern Appalachian Region.
Bioremediation - The use of microorganisms and/or plants (phytoremediation) to decontaminate polluted water and soil. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary
BIOS - Border Information & Outreach Service
Biosecurity threats - Those matters or activities, which, individually or collectively, may constitute a biological risk to the ecological welfare or to the well-being of humans, animals or plants of a country. - IUCN
Biosolids - A nutrient-rich organic material resulting from the treatment of wastewater. Biosolids contain nitrogen and phosphorus along with other supplementary nutrients in smaller doses, such as potassium, sulfur, magnesium, calcium, copper and zinc. Soil that is lacking in these substances can be reclaimed with biosolids use. The application of biosolids to land improves soil properties and plant productivity, and reduces dependence on inorganic fertilizers. - USGS
Biosphere - Portion of the solid and liquid earth where organisms live. Thin stratum of the earth's surface and upper water layer that contains the total mass of living organisms that process and recycle the energy and nutrients available from the environment.
Biosphere - The earth and all its ecosystems. - USGS
Biosphere Reserve - Biosphere Reserve means a designation conferred by the United Nations that recognizes areas on Earth that possess outstanding natural features such as unique natural habitats, plant and animal species and populations. The New Jersey Pinelands has been designated an International Biosphere Reserve.
Biota - The animal and plant life of a particular region considered as a total ecological entity. The plant and animal life of a particular region.
Biotechnology - The use of micro-organisms, live plant or animal cells or their parts, to create new products or to carry out biological processes aimed at genetic improvement. See genetic engineering.
Biotechnology - Technology that use living organisms to produce products such as medicines, to improve plants or animals, or to produce microorganisms for bioremediation. - Bioenergy Glossary
Biotic - Living. Green plants and soil microorganisms are biotic components of ecosystems.
Biotic Assemblage - The assemblage of native and exotic plants and animals associated with a particular site or landscape, including microorganisms, fungi, algae, vascular and herbaceous plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. These assemblages and their biotic and abiotic relationships serve landscape and watershed functions by promoting soil properties; supporting water infiltration and storage; energy and nutrient fixation, recycling and transfer; species survival; and sustainable population dynamics.
Biotic Attributes - In terms of shaping ecological systems, includes population size, structure and range; foliage density and layering, snags, large woody debris or the size, shape and spatial relationships of cover types within a landscape.
Biotic Communities - The assemblage of native and exotic plants and of a particular site or landscape, including microorganisms, fungi, algae, vascular and herbaceous plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. These assemblages and their biotic and abiotic relationships serve landscape and watershed functions by promoting soil properties supporting water infiltration, recycling and transfer, species survival, and sustainable population dynamics. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Biotic Potential - Inherent capacity of an organism to reproduce and survive, which is pitted against limiting influences of the environment.
Biotic Pyramid - Set of all food chains or hierarchic arrangements of organisms as eaters and eaten in a prescribed area when tabulated by numbers or by biomasses usually takes the form of an inverted pyramid.
Biovision - BioVision is a Swiss Non-governmental Organisation (NGO) with a global mandate to alleviate poverty and improve the livelihoods of poor people while maintaining the precious natural resource base that sustains life.
Birth Rate - The number of births in a year per 1000 population. (UNESCO)
BIS - The BIS is an international organization that fosters cooperation among central banks and other agencies in pursuit of monetary and financial stability. Located in Basle, Switzerland.
BISN - Border Information and Solutions Network
Bitumen - Any of various mixtures of hydrocarbons such as asphalt, tar or petroleum. - BLM
Bitumen - Rock largely consisting of hydrocarbons; naturally occurring asphalt. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
BL - Backyard Living
BL - Black Lung
BL - Building Line (land use)
BLA - Bureaucratic Lines of Authority
Blackboard rack - A metal frame extending from the side of the data booth in a mortar battery to support a set of blackboards upon which firing data could be written. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary.
The Black Hills Settlement Act of 1877 - Arguably settled, by title cession, a controversy between gold miners and the Sioux Indian Nation about sovereignty over the Black Hills of South Dakota. The Indian sovereignty claim was founded on the Treaty of Laramie (1868).
Blackwater - Wastewater from toilet, latrine, and agua privy flushing and sinks used for food preparation or disposal of chemical or chemical-biological ingredients. - USGS
Blair House Agreement - The November 1992 agreement between the United States and the European Union on export subsidy and domestic subsidy reduction commitments in the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations. The agreement also dealt with some bilateral agricultural trade issues.
Blaisdell - See Home Building & Loan Assn. v. Blaisdell.
Blaze - A mark on a tree caused by cutting off the bark and a portion of the live wood. - Cadastral Data glossary
BLF - Biodiversity Legal Foundation
BLHP - The Bureau of Light, Heat & Power
Blinds - Water samples containing a chemical of known concentration given a fictitious company name and slipped into the sample flow of the lab to test the impartiality of the lab staff. - USGS
BLM - Bureau of Land Management
BLM Lands - Lands or water sources on a ranch that are owned by or under long-term control of the operator. Forest Service: Lands and improvements owned and used by a permittee for a farm or ranch and designated by the permittee to qualify for a set time limit grazing permit.
Block - 1. A repetition/replication of the Early, Mid and Late Seral Treatment plots and a Control plot. - Bioenergy Glossary 2. A block is a square or portion of a city enclosed by streets, whether occupied by buildings or vacant lots. Blocks are often enclosed by the boundary of a subdivision and are usually broken down into smaller units called "lots". - Cadastral Data glossary
Block Caving - A method of mining in which large blocks of ore are undercut and the ore breaks and caves under its own weight. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Blowdown - The water drawn from boiler systems and cold water basins of cooling towers to prevent the buildup of solids. - USGS
Blowout - A shallow depression from which all or most of the soil material has been removed by wind. A blowout has a flat or irregular floor formed by a resistant layer or by an accumulation of pebbles or cobbles. In some blowouts the water table is exposed. - USDA
BLT - Branford Land Trust
BLTPP - Bedford Land Trust and Pathways Project (New Hampshire)
Blue box policies - An expression that developed during the GATT trade negotiations using a traffic light analogy to rank policies. The traffic light analogy was that an amber policy could be converted to a blue policy that could eventually become "green." Blue box policies were seen as acceptable, but temporary, or transition policies that would help pave the way for further reforms over time. Blue box policies represent the set of provisions in the Agreement on Agriculture that exempts from reduction commitments, those program payments received under production limiting programs--if they are based on fixed area and yields, a fixed number of head of livestock, or if they are made on 85 percent or less of base level of production. Deficiency payments were exempt under this provision, since compliance with acreage reduction programs was required for eligibility, payments were made on no more than 85 percent of established base acreage, and individual farm yields had been fixed since 1986. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms
BLUE - BLUEstone National Scenic River, West Virginia http://www.nps.gov/blue/
Blue Clay (Margas Azules) - 1) The major source of supply for all American stoneware was for many years the rich deposit of fine blue clay centered at South Amboy, New Jersey, and extending to Staten Island and Long Island. 2) In the 1850s, gold was discovered near Virginia City, Nevada. Miners were aggravated by finding thick blue clay that clogged up their gold-washing equipment. Someone learned that the "blasted blue stuff" was silver ore laced with gold. 3) For the most part, the soil in most marginal formations contains a high clay fraction, often compact, blue in color, with low organic matter content. In the newer deposits facing the sea, as well as in the river-borne silt on river banks, the soil is more friable; brownish-black in color, it contains some sand and an important percentage of organic materials. The best development of the mangrove type coincides with occurrence of deep, well-aerated soil, rich in organic matter and low in sand. Good development is also found where the soil is a stiff clay, overlaid with a thin horizon of silt and raw humus. In areas subject to regular tidal inundation's, the subsoil is a raw blue clay; in the drier areas, sandy subsoil is usually found. Approximately the same description is given for mangrove areas in most parts of the eastern and western zones. - UN, FAO
BLWQ - The Bureau of Land and Water Quality
BM - Band of Mercy
BM - Behavior Modification
BM - Brush Management
BM - Business Management
BMEC - British Marine Equipment Council
BMOA - Bohemia Mine Owners Association
BMP - Best Management Practice(s)
BN - Bureau of Nonproliferation (United States Department of State)
BNA - Bureau of National Affairs
BNC - BiNational Cooperation
BNL - Brookhaven National Laboratory
BNN - Bi-National Network
BNR - Banking Natural Resources
BNRPD - Banking Natural Resources in the "Public Domain"
BNRWA - Banking Natural Resources in Wilderness Areas
BNSC - British National Space Center
BO - Barium Oxide
BO - Barriers and Opportunities
BO - Biological Opinion
BO - Biological Organisms
BO - Biological Outflow
Board Foot - A measurement term for lumber or timber. It is the amount of wood contained in an unfinished board one inch thick, twelve inches long, and twelve inches wide.
BOAUS - Boat Owners Association of the United States
BOC - Build Our Communities (A Challenge to State Candidates to Support Sustainable Development)
BOD - The Benefit Of the Doubt
BOD - Biochemical oxygen demand
BOD - Biological Oxygen Demand
Bog - A wetland with acidic substrate mainly composed of moss and peat and having a characteristic flora. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary 2. A type of wetland that accumulates appreciable peat deposits. They depend primarily on precipitation for their water source, and are usually acidic and rich in plant matter with a conspicuous mat or living green moss. - USGS
BOH - Balance Of Hardship
Bole - That portion of a tree between a 1-foot stump and a 4-inch top diameter outside bark (d.o.b.) in trees 5.0 inches d.b.h. and larger. - USDA/FS
Boll Weevil - An insect pest of cotton that is the subject of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service eradication program cooperatively funded and managed by cotton producers.
BOMA - Building Owners and Managers Association International
Bond - Security for the performance of certain permit obligations, as furnished by the permittee, or a guaranty of such performance as furnished by a third-party surety. - DOI-BIA Glossary
Bone dry - Having zero percent moisture content. Wood heated in an oven at a constant temperature of 212 degrees Fahrenheit or above until its weight stabilizes is considered bone dry or oven dry. - Bioenergy Glossary
Bone dry unit (BDU) - A quantity of wood residue that weighs 2,400 pounds at zero percent moisture content. - Bioenery Glossary
BONM - The Balance of Nature Myth
Bonus Commodities - From the agricultural perspective, these are commodities donated to domestic feeding programs that USDA acquires for unexpected surplus removal reasons or because Commodity Credit Corporation holdings are not needed for other purposes, or are in danger of waste or spoilage. For example, if meat prices fall, USDA may buy beef and donate it to the National School Lunch Program, or if the CCC is holding an excess of cornmeal that is in danger of spoiling, it might donate this to the lunch program. From the food program perspective, these commodities are those donated in addition to the commodities that must be provided under mandatory requirements in food program statutes.
BOP - Balance Of Power
BOP - Book Of Promises (the Bible)
BOR - Bureau of Reclamation
BOR - Bureau of Outdoor Recreation
Bor - Cool (pertaining to soil).
BOS - Bill Of Sale
BOS - Bill On Suspense (bill in Congress; means no further testimony or discussion before a vote)
BOS - The Book of the States http://www.csg.org/CSG/Products/book+of+the+states/default.htm Table of Contents: http://www.csg.org/NR/rdonlyres/ezxogabueur35rcwwuu3l6ttetidgm5yc4aeiuaipj75njcl5fhypx6dquynqdi
BOSS - Battelle Ocean Sampling System http://www.battelle.org/
Botanical Pesticide - A pesticide whose active ingredient is a plant-produced chemical such as nicotine or strychnine. Also called a plant-derived pesticide. Being 'natural' pesticides, as distinct from synthetic ones, they are typically acceptable to organic farmers.
Bottom - Usually synonymous with 'vessel' or 'ship.' A ship of American registry may be referred to as a 'U.S. bottom,' whereas if registry is other than U.S., the ship, in U.S. usage, may be called a 'foreign bottom.'
Bottoming cycle - A cogeneration system in which steam is used first for process heat and then for electric power production. - Bioenergy Glossary
Bound Tariff Rate - The most-favored-nation tariff rate resulting from negotiations under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and incorporated as an integral component of a country's schedule of concessions. If a GATT contracting party raises a tariff to a higher level than its bound rate, the country or countries adversely affected have the right under GATT to retaliate against an equivalent value of the offending country's exports or to receive compensation, usually in the form of reduced tariffs on other products they export to the offending country.
Boundaries - Includes the seaward boundaries of a state or its boundaries in the Gulf of Mexico or any of the Great Lakes as they existed at the time the state became a member of the Union, or as approved by Congress or extended and confirmed pursuant to § 1312, but in no event shall the term boundaries or the term lands beneath navigable waters be interpreted as extending from the coastline more than three geographical miles into the Atlantic or Pacific Ocean, or more than three marine leagues into the Gulf of Mexico. However, a boundary that has been fixed by final decree of the U.S. Supreme Court remains immobile. - Submerged Lands Act
Boundary - Represents the limit of a known or recognizable quantity, area or scope. Each classification has its own boundary, as do its constituent categories, such as activities, commodities, occupations etc. While it is possible for the boundaries of individual classifications to overlap, there should be no overlap within individual classifications. (UN)
Boundary Monument - A material object placed on or near a boundary line to preserve and identify the location of the boundary line on the ground. - Cadastral Data glossary
Boundary Survey - A survey made to establish or re-establish a boundary line on the ground, or to obtain data for constructing a map or plat showing a boundary line. - Cadastral Data glossary
Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness Act of 1978 - Public Law 95-495 - 92 Stat. 1649 - SECTION 1. The Congress finds that it is necessary and desirable to provide for the protection, enhancement, and preservation of the natural values of the lakes, waterways, and associated forested areas known (before the date of enactment of this Act) as the Boundary Waters Canoe Area, and for the orderly management of public use and enjoyment of that area as wilderness, and of certain continuous lands and waters, while at the same time protecting the special qualities of the area as a natural forest-lakeland wilderness ecosystem of major esthetic, cultural, scientific, recreational and educational value to the Nation. SEC. 2. It is the purpose of this Act to provide for such measures respecting the areas designated by this Act as the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness and Boundary Waters Canoe Area Mining Protection Area as will -- (1) provide for the protection and management of the fish and wildlife of the wilderness so as to enhance public enjoyment and appreciation of the unique biotic resources of the region ... SEC. 6. (a) The Secretary is directed to terminate within a period of one year after the date of passage of this Act, all timber sale contracts in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness. There shall be no further logging of the virgin forest areas formerly enjoined from logging by the United States District Court on said contract areas during the termination period. SEC. 13. Nothing in this Act of the Wilderness Act shall be construed to prohibit the maintenance of the Prairie Portage Dam (on the international boundary chain between Birch and Basswood Lakes), and the Secretary is authorized to perform such maintenance work as may be required to keep that dam functional at its present height and width. The Secretary is authorized to maintain other existing water control structures only when such structures are necessary to protect wilderness values or public safety. SEC. 14. Nothing in this Act shall be construed as affecting the jurisdiction or responsibilities of the State with respect to fish and wildlife in the wilderness and the mining protection area. October 21, 1978.
The Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909 - The International Joint Commission was created under the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909 to help prevent and resolve disputes over the use of waters along the United States-Canada boundary. Its responsibilities include approving certain projects that would alter water levels on the other side of the boundary and providing independent advice on matters of mutual concern on request from the Governments of the Canada and United States. It provides the principles and mechanisms to help resolve disputes and to prevent future ones, primarily those concerning water quantity and water quality along the boundary between Canada and the United States. On proceeding to the exchange of the ratifications of the treaty signed at Washington on January 11, 1909, between the United States and Great Britain, relating to boundary waters and questions arising along the boundary between the United States and the Dominion of Canada...
Bounded - Usually referred to in legal descriptions as being bounded by the adjoining land owners or by a road, stream, etc. Set off by a boundary. - Cadastral Data glossary
Bounds - Bounds are the lines by which different parcels of land are divided. "Butts and bounds" or "butted and bounded" are phrases sometimes used to introduce the boundaries of land. "Buttal" means along the end of the land. - Cadastral Data glossary
Bovine Somatotropin (bST) - Also called bovine growth hormone, bST is a naturally occurring protein that has been genetically engineered as a synthetic compound (now manufactured in large quantities and commercially available to farmers) that causes cows to increase the efficiency of milk production per unit of feed consumed. Its use has caused public controversy, and some states require retail dairy product labels to identify the use of synthetic bST.
Boxed Beef - Beef that a packer cuts into relatively small pieces, seals in vacuum packs, and ships in cardboard boxes, often ready for retail sale. Prior to the 1970s, most beef left the packer as partial carcasses.
The Boyd Commission - The Boyd Commission recognized that management of environmental resources is as important to national well being as the exploitation and use of minerals and energy, and that the economy and the environment are not polar interests; they are part of the same system. Accordingly, the following recommendations were made: 1. Environmental costs should be considered in total project costs, 2. Except where social benefits are paramount, limit mineral exploitation to areas where the ecosystem can be rehabilitated, 3. Federal research support for studies to determine the interaction of minerals exploitation and human, animal, and plant life, 4. Maintain reliance on free market to determine import/export balances, 5. Facilitate mineral access to public and private land, 6. Federal Government should expedite decision making in the minerals, energy, environment area, 7. Federal Government should facilitate development of fossil fuel energy independence, 8. Federal Government should promote consumer product standards for safety, service life, recyclability, and life expectancy, 9. A resource recovery system be established, 10. Create a resource-recovery database, 11. Establish a comprehensive land use planning mechanism, and 12. Consider a Cabinet-level Department of Natural Resources for coordinated planning of materials, energy, and environmental use (National Commission on Minerals Policy, The, 1973, p. 1.3-1.8).
BP - Biophysical Rating
BP - Border Patrol
BP - Brilliant Pebbles (UN)
BP - Buffer Partnerships
BP - Buffer Practices
BP - Building Permit
BP - Business Practices
BPA - Bonneville Power Administration
BPF - Balancing the Playing Field
BPI - Bad Parental Involvement
BPIA - Business Products Industry Association
BPL - Broken Promise Land
BPM - Beam Position Monitor
BP-MA - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
BPPR - Blue Print for the Peace Race
BPR - Bioprospecting
BPP - Boundary Principles and Procedures
BPR - Bureau of Public Roads (1934)
BPR - Business Process Reengineering
BRAC - Base Realignment And Closure (military)
Brachiopod - A marine, shelled animal with two unequal shells or valves, each of which normally is bilaterally symmetrical. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary
BPRB - Blind Peer Review Board
BR - Biological Resources (DOI)
BR - Bioregion
BR - Biosphere Reserve
BR - Brownfields Redevelopment
BR - Budget Resolution
BR - Buffer Restrictions
BRA - Blue Range Area (where Mexican gray wolves have been reintroduced -- eastern Arizona and western New Mexico -- from http://mexicanwolf.fws.gov/Kids/kidfact.htm)
Brady Initiative - An approach to easing the debt burdens of developing countries with high levels of commercial bank debt, proposed by then U.S. Treasury Secretary Nicholas Brady in 1989. In return for agreements to undertake certain economic reforms, like cutting government spending or raising taxes, indebted countries receive loans from multilateral institutions (like the World Bank) and from bilateral development agencies to help them negotiate reductions in debt and debt service with their commercial banks. Thirteen countries - Argentina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Jordan, Mexico, Nigeria, the Philippines, Poland, Uruguay, and Venezuela - have already reduced their commercial bank debt through Brady-style operations. - WB
Braiding of river channels - Successive division and rejoining (of riverflow ) with accompanying islands is the important characteristic denoted by the synonymous terms, braided or anastomosing stream. (Leopold and Wolman, 1957, p. 40.) A braided stream is composed of anabranches. - USGS
BRC - Blue Ribbon Coalition
BRC - Bioregional Councils
BRCPAC - Blue Ribbon Citizen's Pfiesteria Action Commission
BRD - Black Rock Desert (Nevada)
BRDHRCETNCA - Black Rock Desert-High Rock Canyon Emigrant Trails National Conservation Area
Breast wall - A wall of breast height, typically used to provide a defensive position for infantry soldiers. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Breeding dispersal - Movement of individuals between consecutive breeding locations. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf
BREN - Blue Ridge Environmental Network
Bretton Woods - Refers to the international financial system devised by a conference of Allied governments in 1944 at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire. The Conference resulted in the founding of the IMF and the IBRD in 1945. The system is reflected in the Articles of Agreement of these institutions and those of IFC (created in 1956), IDA (1960), and MIGA (1988). - WB
BRH - Brood-Rearing Habitat
The Bricker Amendment - "Section 1: A provision of the treaty, which conflicts with this Constitution, shall not be of any force and effect. Section 2: A treaty shall become effective as internal law only legislation, which would be valid in the absence of a treaty. Section 3: Congress shall have the power to regulate all Executive and other agreements with any foreign power or international organization. All such agreements shall be subject to the limitations imposed on treaties by this article." Other sections provided similar restrictions on executive agreements, provided Congress with power to enforce the amendment by appropriate legislation, and set a ratification deadline of seven years. Similar language was proposed by the state of North Carolina 165 years earlier. When other states were demanding a Bill of Rights in the federal constitution, North Carolina demanded an amendment that would say "...nor shall any treaty be valid which is contradictory to the Constitution of the United States." Senator John Bricker had closely followed the discussions in the American Bar Association Journal regarding the ambiguity of the supremacy clause of the Constitution. In 1951, he had introduced Senate Resolution 177 in opposition to the proposed International Covenant on Human Rights, which the UN had unsuccessfully attempted to draft since 1949. The attempt to foist a legally binding covenant on the nations of the world, Bricker maintained, demonstrated beyond any doubt that the United Nations was attempting to establish itself as a world government. The Covenant, he insisted, "would be more appropriately entitled as a Covenant on Human Slavery or subservience to government ... [T]hose who drafted the Covenant on Human Rights repudiated the underlying theory of the Bill of Rights-freedom to be let alone." Bricker cited the Fujii case as evidence of the potential of UN authority over American domestic policy. In early 1952, Bricker decided that the rights of the states and the people were sufficiently imperiled to warrant introducing a constitutional amendment to safeguard those rights. To his mind, the jurisprudential trends that were exemplified in Oyama and Fujii jeopardized the integrity of "existing laws which are in our Bill of Rights and our Constitution, thereby forcing unacceptable theories and practices upon the citizens of the United States of America." He warned that a constitutional amendment was critical to the long-term health, independence, and sovereignty of the American republic. The Bricker Amendment contained several crucial provisions. The Amendment's supporters hoped that it would clear up the ambiguity in the Constitution over the exact implications of the claim in Article VI that "[t]his Constitution and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof and all treaties ... shall be the supreme law of the land ... anything in the Constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding." The Amendment would strike a blow to members of Congress who might seek to cite the Charter when drafting civil-rights measures. Eberhard Deutsch, a member of the ABA's Committee on Peace and Law, cited the dangers of the Fujii case in discussion hearings regarding the Amendment. He suggested that without passage of the Bricker Amendment, a successful argument could be made "that the entire civil rights program has already effectively been imposed on the United States through the United Nations Charter itself, without the need for any congressional action whatever." On June 23, 1953, Senator Robert Taft attended his final meeting of the Republican Policy Committee. Hospitalized afterward with terminal cancer, Taft designated the Policy Committee chairman, Senator Knowland, as acting leader. Explaining his choice, Taft said of Knowland: "nobody can push him around." During the weeks in which he wore both hats, Knowland used the Policy Committee to establish consensus on which legislation would be completed before adjournment. Since the Eisenhower administration was then in disagreement with a majority of Senate Republicans over a proposed constitutional amendment to limit the president's treatymaking power, sponsored by Ohio Republican Senator John Bricker (who served from 1947-1959), Senator Knowland relied on the Policy Committee to preserve party unity. The Policy Committee invited Senator Bricker, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles and Attorney General Herbert Brownell to its meetings to apply some pressure to the administration to reach a compromise. Senator Bricker rejected the proposed compromise. The Bricker Amendment would have subjected all international agreements to approval by Congress. There were arguments that the Bricker Amendment, which concerned the Senate's power to make treaties, must be passed in order to protect the rights of the American people. The strongest argument against it was that it would delay implementation and even ratification of treaties while Congress and the courts deliberated their merits. Virtually all these rules are modified by the temporary suspension of a treaty while the United States is at war with the other signatories. Meier v. Schmidt, 150 Neb. 383, 34 N.W.2d 400 (1948). In the testimony of Frank E. Holman, former President of the ABA, before a Senate subcommittee of the Judiciary Committee, considering the Bricker Amendment, February 18, 1953, Holman testified that a treaty could "change our form of government from a republic to a socialistic and completely centralized state ... put us in to a World Government ... [and] increase the power of the Federal Government at the expense of the States." The wording in the Bricker amendment sought to bring executive agreements under congressional control. The inclusion of this provision stemmed from President Franklin Roosevelt's frequent use of executive agreements in matters of foreign relations. In January of 1953 Senator Bricker stated publicly that he had at least sixty-four members of the Senate who would sponsor his proposed amendment and opposition mounted. President Eisenhower began a campaign to defeat the Bricker Amendment, assigning the task to Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, who in 1951 had declared that international treaties possess the power to diminish or even eliminate the guarantees of the Bill of Rights. In February 1954 the Senate voted 60-31 in favor of the George Amendment, a watered-down version of Senator Bricker's original proposal. However, this was one vote short of the required two-thirds majority needed to approve a modified version of the original Bricker amendment. Executive agreements were even more worrisome than treaties, being unilateral acts of the President without the concurrence of the Senate. The constitution makes no provision for them, yet they have been held to supersede state law. In practice, executive agreements have virtually the same full range of contents as treaties. They have multiplied the growing ambitions of the Executive branch of government. - See Missouri v. Holland 252 U.S. 416 (1920)
Bridge-Country Binary Comparison - A price or quantity comparison between a pair of countries derived from the comparison of each country with a third country. For example, given Ij/k and Ii/k, the bridge-country method of obtaining Ij/1 is to divide Ij/k by litk where I is a price or quantity index and j, k, and I are countries. This is a common way of linking through a country, as in the case of the Group II countries in Europe, where Austria has served as the bridge country. (UN)
BRIM - Biodiversity Resources for Inventorying and Monitoring (UN)
Bring Back the Natives - A Department of Interior/U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service program that 'supports on-the-ground habitat restoration projects that benefit native aquatic species (e.g., native fish, aquatic insects, mollusks, and amphibians) in the historic range.
BRLP - Brownfields Redevelopment Loan Program
BRN - Balancing the Region's Needs
Broad-base terrace - A ridge-type terrace built to control erosion by diverting runoff along the contour at a nonscouring velocity. The terrace is 10 to 20 inches high and 15 to 30 feet wide and has gently sloping sides, a rounded crown, and a dish-shaped channel along the upper side. It may be nearly level or have a grade toward one or both ends. - USDA
Broadcast - Fertilizer is uniformly spread on the soil surface. It may or may not be incorporated into the soil.
Broadcast Application - See broadcast.
Broadcast Burn - A prescribed fire that burns a designated area. Allowing a prescribed fire to burn over a designated area within well-defined boundaries for reduction of a fuel hazard or as a silvicultural treatment, or both. These controlled fires can reduce wildfire hazards, improve forage for wildlife and livestock, or encourage successful regeneration of trees.
Broadcast Seeding - Spreading a seed mixture evenly over harrowed ground and raking. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary
Broad Management Class - Also referred to as "broad management type" or BMT, a classification of timberland based on forest type and stand origin. - USDA/FS
Brownfields - Developed parcels of land that are difficult to redevelop due to real, potential or perceived contamination from a former use.
Browse - Twigs, leaves, and young shoots of trees and shrubs that animals eat. Browse is often used to refer to the shrubs eaten by big game, such as elk and deer.
Browsers - Animals which feed primarily on browse. - BLM
BRP - BioRegional Politics (William Devall)
BRPC - BioRegional Politics and Culture (William Devall)
BRRP - Bridge Replacement and Rehabilitation Program
Brushhogging (also known as bushhogging) - The act of mowing with a heavy-duty rotary mower that is capable of cutting brush, briars, brambles, and other woody vegetation. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/
BRV - Biological Resource Values
Bryophytes - Plants of the phylum Bryophyta, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts, characterized by the lack of true roots, stems and leaves. - Bioenergy Glossary
BS - Barium Salts
BS - Belief System
BS - Bill of Sale
BS - Biological Survey
BS - BirdSource
BS - Border States
BSA - Bank Secrecy Act
BSA - Barium Salt Aerosol (chemtrails) draws and holds the moisture in the atmosphere
BSA - Boy Scouts of America
BSE - Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
BSEA - Broad Scale Ecological Assessments
BSF - Binational Science Foundation (U.S. - Israel)
BSI - British Standards Institute
BT - Baseline Target
BT - Baseline Threshold (6.8% or more)
BT - Biological Transmutations
BT - Buffer Technology
Bt - Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium commonly known as Bt. It is a biological pesticide (biopesticide) used in several genetically engineered plants (transgenic plants). The plants have a gene from Bt inserted into their own genetic material. This new gene produces a natural protein that kills insects after the protein is ingested. The toxins are specific to a small subset of insects. Cotton has been genetically altered to control the tobacco budworm, bollworm and pink bollworm. Potatoes have been altered to control the Colorado potato beetle. A new hybrid of corn, which will be resistant to the European corn borer, is available for the 1997 planting season. Bt degrades rapidly to non-toxic compounds, does not present any human or animal hazards, and does not harm beneficial insects. Pest resistance management (PRM) plans are required by EPA as part of the registration.
BTA - Best Technology Available
BTA - Business Technology Association
BTFP - The BioTrade Facilitation Programme (UN/UNCTAD)
BTS - Build-To-Suit
BTS - Bureau of Transportation Statistics
BIIF - Beldon II Fund
Buck - To cut a log into smaller portions. - Bioenergy Glossary
Bucket-Line Dredge (Bucket-Ladder Dredge) - A dredge whose digging mechanism consists of a ladderlike truss on the periphery of which is attached an endless chain that rides on sprocket wheels and on which buckets are attached. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Budding - One of two processes of new group formation in red-cockaded woodpeckers, but contains active cavity trees in use or kept active by birds from a neighboring cluster. Referring to the splitting of one territory into two. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf
BUILD - Businesses United for Independent Local Development
Buffer - A land area that is designated to block or absorb unwanted impacts to the area beyond the buffer. Buffer strips along a trail could block views that may be undesirable. Buffers may be set aside next to wildlife habitat to reduce abrupt change to the habitat.
Buffer Strips - Small areas of erosion-resistant vegetation planted on fields, usually along the contour or along the boundaries, to slow the flow of runoff and reduce erosion.
Bufferyard - A unit of land, together with a specified amount of plantings thereon, and any structures (e.g. fences, walls, berms) which may be required between land uses to eliminate or minimize conflicts between them.
Buffer Zone - An area of land separating two distinct land uses that acts to soften or mitigate the effects of one land use on the other. Where a commercial district abuts a residential district, for example, additional use, yard, or height restrictions may be imposed to protect residential properties. The terms may also be used to describe any zone that separates two different zones such as a multi-family housing zone between single-family housing and commercial uses. 2. Paragraph 17 of the Operational Guidelines defines a buffer zone as: ... an area surrounding the property which has restrictions placed on its use to give an added layer of protection; the area constituting the buffer zone should be determined in each case through technical studies (UNESCO February 1996: 5). Paragraph 17 of the Operational Guidelines further states that: Whenever necessary for the proper conservation of a cultural or natural property nominated, an adequate "buffer zone" around a property should be provided and should be afforded the necessary protection ... Details on the size, characteristics and authorized uses of a buffer zone, as well as a map indicating its precise boundaries, should be provided in the nomination file relating to the property in question (UNESCO February 1996: 5).
Buffer Zones - Areas of moderate, though restricted, use that surround core areas. Buffer zones are primarily drawn from private land. Areas of land between areas that require special protection and other, surrounding lands.
Build Out - Estimated future development.
Build-Out Analysis - An estimation of the projected population, employment and types and sizes of land uses in an area, generally a municipality or county, when it has been fully developed in accordance with the zoning ordinance and other applicable regulations and planned investments. It may include such things as the physical appearance of the area and the demand for utilities and services, and can be based on simple projections or sophisticated modeling.
Buildable Area - The portion of the property or lot that remains after the required bufferyards have been provided.
Building - An enclosed structure with walls and a roof, consciously created to serve some residential, industrial, commercial, agricultural or other human use. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/
Building Blocks (elementary items) - Are the most elementary items of a statistical classification, i.e. the most detailed code for a variable. They may be used alone or in combination to describe a category in one or more classifications, or to compare classifications. A prime example is the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HCDCS or HS), the categories of which are used not only for the construction of country specific tariff and trade classifications, but also as the building blocks of the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC Rev. 3) and the goods component of the Central Product Classification (CPC). The SITC and the CPC regroup individual HS categories to meet differing statistical needs. Another example is the General Industrial Classification of Economic Activities within the European Community (NACE) which can be combined to reconstruct higher levels of ISIC. (UN)
Built environment - Buildings, structures, and ancillaries comprising an inter-related man-made area, often architectural in character. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Built-up land. See Urban and built-up areas.
Bulk Density - The mass (weight) of dry soil per unit bulk volume.
Bulkhead - A partition or wall in mines for protection against gas, fire, and water. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
BUND - A Berlin-based association for the protection of the environment and nature in Germany
Bureau - See World Heritage Bureau - UNESCO World Heritage Glossary
BuRec - The U.S. Department Of Interior's Bureau Of Reclamation, also known as the BOR
Bureau Assessment Species - Plant and animal species on List 2 of the Oregon Natural Heritage Data Base, or those species on the Oregon List of Sensitive Wildlife Species (OAR 635-100-040), which are identified in BLM Instruction Memo No. OR-91-57, and are not included as federal candidate, state listed or Bureau sensitive species. (BLM)
Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS) - Federal Agency in charge of enforcing immigration laws and overseeing the immigration process.
Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), Department of the Interior - The BIA serves Indian and Alaska Native tribes living on or near reservations. The BIA administers and manages approximately 52 million acres of land held in trust for Indians by the United States and works with local tribal governments on issues including road construction and maintenance, social services, police protection, and economic development. - USDA glossary
Bureau of Land Management (BLM) - Organization within the U.S. Department of the Interior responsible for managing land and natural resources. It has exclusive jurisdiction over about 268 million acres of federally owned lands. Approximately one- third of this area is in Alaska. The majority of the remaining acreage is in the Western States.
BLM Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Department of the Interior - Under the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, the BLM administers and manages approximately 300 million acres of public lands primarily located in the western half of the lower 48 States and Alaska. Public lands in the U.S. contain mineral and timber reserves, support habitat for a host of wildlife, and provide recreational opportunities. - USDA glossary
Bureau of Reclamation - A bureau within the Department of the Interior, whose mission is to manage, develop, and protect water and related resources. The agency replaced the Reclamation Service, which was established pursuant to the Reclamation Act of 1902. The Bureau built, operates, and maintains more than 300 storage dams on rivers throughout the western United States.
BOR Bureau of Reclamation (BOR), Department of the Interior - The BOR was chartered in 1902 with the responsibility to reclaim arid lands in the western U.S. for farming by providing secure, year-around water supplies for irrigation. The BOR's responsibilities since have expanded to include generating hydroelectric power; overseeing municipal and industrial water supplies, river regulation, and flood control; enhancing fish and wildlife habitats; and researching future water and energy requirements. - USDA glossary
Bureau Sensitive Species - Plant or animal species eligible for federal listed, federal candidate, state listed, or state candidate (plant) status, or on List 1 in the Oregon Natural Heritage Data Base, or approved for this category by the State Director. (BLM)
Burning Period - That part of each 24-hour period when fires spread most rapidly, typically from 10:00 a.m. to sundown. - FS
BUS - Base Unit of Society (the individual)
BUSETIK - Bring the U.S. Economy To Its Knees
Bushel - A dry volume measure of varying weight for grain, fruit, etc., equal to four pecks or eight gallons (2150.42 cubic inches). A bushel of wheat, soybeans, and white potatoes each weighs 60 pounds. A bushel of corn, rye, grain sorghum, and flaxseed each weighs 56 pounds. A bushel of barley, buckwheat, and apples each weighs 48 pounds.
Bushhogging - See Brushhogging.
Business Advisory Meeting - A special purpose public meeting held to discuss specific concerns of the business community affected by the project.
Business Case - A structured proposal for business improvement that functions as a decision package for organizational decision makers. A business case includes an analysis of business process performance and associated needs or problems, proposed alternative solutions, assumptions, constraints, and risk-adjusted cost/benefit analysis. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm
Business Process Reengineering - A systematic, disciplined improvement approach that critically examines, rethinks, and redesigns mission-delivery processes in order to achieve dramatic improvements in performance in areas important to customers and stakeholders. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm
BUSY - Being Under Satan's Yoke
Butte - An isolated hill that rises abruptly above surrounding land. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary
Butted and Bounded - Sometimes used in a deed to introduce the traverse of real property boundaries. - Cadastral Data glossary
Butt log - The log taken from the base of a tree; often slightly irregular. - Bioenergy Glossary
Butyl membrane - A rubberized sheet membrane utilizing butyl. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
BVC - Bureau of Verification and Compliance
BW - Bank Waiver
BW - Bretton Woods (UN)
BWA - By What Authority...?
BWC - Bretton Woods Conference (July 1-22, 1944 in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire; spawned the International Monetary Fund)
BWD - Ballast Water Discharges
BWRWWP - Black Warrior River Waterbasin Watershed Partnerships
BY - Budget Year
BY - Buffer Yard
By - In a deed, "by a road" is construed as including the land to the center of the street, but "by the east side of the road" means "along the east side" and not "along the centerline". "To", "on", or "by" means to the limits of the grantor's land. - Cadastral Data glossary
By-pass Flow - Water required by a regulating or permitting entity to be retained in-stream to protect fish habitat and other water-based functions and values. For example, the Forest Service requires some operators to allow a certain amount of water to bypass their dams to preserve endangered fish habitat. The FAIR Act of 1996 contains a provision (Section 389) that prohibits the Forest Service from placing limits on bypass flow across lands it manages as a condition when renewing permits while a task force studies five specified questions.
BZ - Buffer Zone