E - The Environmental Magazine

E. coli 0157:H7 (Escherichia Coli 0157:H7) - A bacterium that lives harmlessly in the intestines of animals such as cattle, reptiles, and birds. However, in humans the bacterium, which can be transmitted through foods, can cause bloody diarrhea, and also lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a life threatening disease. Although other known strains of E. coli are thought to be harmless to humans, the 0157:H7 strain is particularly virulent and dangerous. It has been implicated in several major outbreaks of foodborne illness in recent years. After a 1993 outbreak in the West, caused by the consumption of undercooked hamburgers, resulted in hundreds of illnesses and several deaths, USDA began regularly testing samples of ground beef for the pathogen. USDA, as part of its new hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) rule, also now requires all meat and poultry slaughter plants to regularly test carcasses for generic E. coli (as opposed to the 0157:H7 strain) in order to verify that their sanitary systems are effectively controlling fecal contamination.

e.g. - For example

EA - Earth Action

EA - Ease of Access

EA - Easement Area

EA - Eco-Agenda

EA - Ecology Alliance

EA - Elected Accountability

EA - Eligible Activity (Transportation Enhancements)

EA - Eligibility Application. The Eligibility Application identifies significant features of a corridor and outlines general goals to be accomplished through Scenic Highway designation. A draft of this report is available at http://www.glatting.com/theridge 

EA - Endangered America

EA - Enforcement Agreement

EA - Environmental Action

EA - Environmental Advocacy

EA - Environmental Analysis

EA - Environmental Assessment

EA - Environmental Auditing

EA - Equity Analysis

EA - Erosion Activity

EA - Extension Agents

EA - External Affairs

EAA - Educate America Act (Goals 2000)

EAB - External Advisory Board

EAC - Environmental Action Council

E & D - Exploration & Development

EAE - Efficient And Effective

EAF - Elimination of Armed Forces

EAG - External Advisory Group

EAGLE - Environmental Association for Great Lakes Education

EAI - Eco-Agenda Implementation

EAI - Enterprise for the Americas Initiative (IUCN)

EAI - Ethan Allen Institute

EAJA - The Equal Access to Justice Act

EAL - Everyone A Learner

EAM - Extremely Adhesive Material

EAMS - Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills

EAMST - Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills Test

EANY - Environmental Advocates of New York (formerly the Environmental Planning Lobby - EPL) http://www.eany.org 

E&O - Education and Outreach

EAP - Emergency Action Plan

EAP - Environmental Action Plan

EAPEI - East Asia and Pacific Environmental Initiative "USAID and State working with partners protecting the environment and improving livelihoods." From the EAPEI FAQ page at http://eapei.home.att.net/faqs.htm: "Are there other financial sources to support activities? European Tropical Forest Research Network has assembled a Funding Opportunities page, which might be useful. Another European funds source (all sectors) for a fee is at http://www.Welcomeeurope.com.  US Foundations such as Packard Foundation, Rockefeller Foundation, and MacArthur Foundation are all active in the EAPEI region. See also National Fish and Wildlife Foundation Grants." EAPEI 'Tool shed for partners:" http://eapei.home.att.net/tools.htm  (a Must-Read)

Early Forest Succession - The biotic (or life) community that develops immediately following the removal or destruction of vegetation in an area. For instance, grasses may be the first plants to grow in an area that was burned.

Early seral species - Shrubs, such as ceanothus, and hardwoods, usually in tree form, such as red alder, bitter cherry and big leaf maple. These species start growing in natural succession soon after a disturbance (fire or logging). - Bioenergy Glossary

Early Seral Stage - The period in the life of a forest stand from crown closure to ages 15-40. Due to stand density, the brush, grass, or herbs rapidly decrease in the stand. Hiding cover may be present. - BLM 2. A plant community with a species composition which is 0-25% of the potential natural community one would expect to find on that ecological site. - BLM

Early Successional (Young) Forest/Early Successional Habitat - Same as Older Fields. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/ 

Early Successional Habitat - See Early Successional Forest.

Early Successional Stage - One of the primary steps in a continuum leading to a mature biological community.

Earth Summit - See United Nations Conference on Environment & Development (UNCED).

Earthquake - A sudden motion or trembling of the earth caused by the abrupt release of accumulated stress along a fault (tectonic plate).

Earthquake swarm - A series of minor earthquakes, none of which may be identified as the main shock, occurring in a limited area and time. - USGS Earthquake glossary

Earthship - Housing constructed of castoff materials, such as aluminum cans and tires.

Earthwork - Any one or a combination of the operations involved in altering or movement of earth. EAS - Experiments And Studies

Easement - Authorization by a property owner for the use by another, of any designated part of such property. The right to use land owned by another for some specific purpose. An interest in land, less than ownership of title, which gives the holder of the easement certain rights, such as access to the land or specific uses of the land. A landowner sells or surrenders the right to develop a portion of the property, usually in return for a payment or some other benefit. Some local and state governments, and land trusts, have programs to acquire development easements from landowners to prevent conversion of farmland to other uses. Since the mid 1970s, conservation easements have been purchased to protect nearly 420,000 acres of farmland in 15 states, primarily in the Northeast.

Easement - A method of acquiring partial use rights of land with no transfer of fee title. - Cornell Preservation Glossary 2. A right, as a right of way, afforded to a person or other entity to make limited use of another's real property. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/ 

Easement - 1. An interest in land created by grant or agreement that confers a right upon owners to some profit, benefit, dominion, or lawful use of or over the estate of another; it is district from ownership of land. - Cadastral Data glossary 2. A restrictive covenant over land which one party purchases from another. Regulatory takings are unconstitutional easements compelled by government for the public at large from the private owner. "It is quite sufficient for the protection of all public interests to allow the state to do what no private owner could do: compel the surrender of the covenant against the will of the person who owns the land. It is wholly unnecessary, and ultimately mischievous, to give any state the additional power to compel the surrender of the covenant without payment of any compensation for the loss in value, great or small, that is brought about by the restriction in question." - Richard A. Epstein, with Institute for Justice et. al. Amica Curiae Brief to the U.S. Supreme Court, Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council 1991. - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary 3. Easement - A right to use or control the property of another for designated purposes.

EASM - Extremely Adhesive Synthetic Material

East Asia and Pacific Environmental Initiative (EAPEI) - "USAID and State working with partners protecting the environment and improving livelihoods." From the EAPEI FAQ page at http://eapei.home.att.net/faqs.htm: "Are there other financial sources to support activities? European Tropical Forest Research Network has assembled a Funding Opportunities page, which might be useful. Another European funds source (all sectors) for a fee is at http://www.Welcomeeurope.com.  US Foundations such as Packard Foundation, Rockefeller Foundation, and MacArthur Foundation are all active in the EAPEI region. See also National Fish and Wildlife Foundation Grants." EAPEI 'Tool shed for partners:" http://eapei.home.att.net/tools.htm  (a Must-Read)

EB - Egalitarian Beliefs

EB - Erroneous Beliefs

EBI - Environmental Benefits Index (USDA)

EBIC - Environmental Background Information Center

EBR - Excessive Buffer Restrictions

EBRPD - East Bay Regional Park District

EC - Earth Community

EC - Earth Crisis

EC - Ecologically Crucial

EC - Economic Consequences

EC - Electoral College

EC - Endorsed Campaign (the Ad Council)(does not bear the Ad Council logo)

EC - Engineering Criteria

EC - Environment Canada (Canadian version of EPA)

EC - Environmental Coalition

EC - Environmental Consequences

EC - Environmental Contaminants

EC - Environmental Council

EC - Erosion Control

EC - Ethnic Cleansing

EC - European Commission (UN)

EC - European Community

EC - European Communities (also called European Union)

ECA - Export Credit Agencies

ECA - Export Control Assistance

ECARP - Environmental Conservation Acreage Reserve Program

ECB - European Central Bank

ECB - External Costs and Benefits

ECCO - Exterior Code Compliance Ordinance

ECCP - European Climate Change Program

ECD - Environmental Conservation Districts

ECEF - Earth-Centered Earth-Fixed (GPS)

ECF - Earth Council Foundation (the legal umbrella of the Earth Council Institute)

ECF - Environmental and Climatic Forcing

EC4WDA - East Coast Four Wheel Drive Associations

ECG - East Coast Greenway http://www.nps.gov/ncrc/programs/rtca/news&events/ecgpress.pdf 

ECG - Export Credit Group

ECH - Evaluating Compliance History

ECHO - Each Community Helps Others

ECHO - The Enforcement and Compliance History Online database (EPA)

ECHO - Environmental Conservation Hotlinks

Echolocation - A process used by bats for locating distant or invisible objects (prey) by detecting sound waves reflected back from the objects. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

ECI - The Earth Charter Initiative

ECI - Earth Council Institute (UN)

ECL - Executive Control Language

ECLAC - Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

ECM - Environmental Contaminant Monitoring (DOI/USFWS)

ECO - Economic Cooperation Organization (UNEP)

ECO - Environmental Conservation Organization

ECO-ECO - Economy, Ecology

Ecoforestry - A form of passive forest management based on the values of deep ecology, and predicated upon the notion that human life has no more right to use forests than non-human life.

Ecological Approach - An approach to natural resource management that considers the relationships among all organisms, including humans, and their environment.

Ecological Balance - The stability of an ecosystem resulting from interacting processes of its components. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Ecological Community - An assemblage of species of a particular time and place.

Ecological Conditions - Components of the biological and physical environment that can affect the diversity of plant and animal communities, including species viability and the productive capacity of ecological systems. These could include the abundance and distribution of aquatic and terrestrial habitats, roads and other structural developments, human uses, and invasive and exotic species (Proposed Planning Rule, Section 219.36, August 2000). http://www2.srs.fs.fed.us/strategicplan/view_and_submit_comment.asp?ID=52 

Ecological Footprint - The area of land (and water) that is required to support the human population of a particular city, region or country at a specified standard indefinitely. (UNESCO)

Ecological Forestry - A set of forest management concepts that seek to maintain or recreate timber stand and landscape biological diversity. Also termed "New Perspectives", "New Forestry" and "Sustainable Forestry." (BLM)

Ecological Health - The condition of an ecosystem in which processes and functions are adequate to maintain diversity of biotic communities commensurate with those initially found there. (BLM)

Ecological pyramid - Conceptual scheme whereby the amount of biomass or energy at each level of the food "chain" decreases as you move from primary producers through the different levels of consumers. - Shoreland Mgmt. Glossary

Ecological Restoration - Altering an area in such a way as to reestablish an ecosystem's structure and function, usually bringing it back to its original (pre-disturbance) state or to a healthy state close to the original. Syn: rehabilitation - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Ecological Section - An area or region of land designated for study purposes that has distinct geology, landforms, soils, flora, and fauna that set it apart from surrounding geographic areas. - USDA/FS

Ecological Site - A kind of land with a specific potential natural community and physical site characteristics differing from other kinds of land in its ability to produce vegetation and to respond to management. - BLM

Ecological Site - A distinctive kind of rangeland that differs from other kinds of rangeland in its ability to produce a characteristic natural plant community.

Ecological Status - The present state of vegetation and soil protection in relation to the potential natural community for the site. Vegetation status is the expression of the relative degree to which the kind, proportions, and amounts of plants in a community resemble that of the potential natural community.

Ecological Status - The present state of vegetation and soil protection of an ecological site in relation to the potential natural community for the site. Vegetation status is the expression of the relative degree to which the kinds, proportions, and amounts of plants in a community resemble that of the potential natural community. If classes are used, they should be described in ecological rather than utilitarian terms. Soil status is a measure of present vegetation and litter cover relative to the amount of cover needed on the site to prevent accelerated erosion. - BLM

Ecological Succession - An ecosystem's gradual evolution to a stable state. If, through the ability of its populations and elements, an ecosystem can absorb changes, it tends to persist and become stable through time.

Ecological Sustainability - The maintenance or restoration of the composition, structure, and processes of ecosystems, including the diversity of plant and animal communities and the productive capacity of ecological systems (Proposed Planning Rule, Section 219.36, August 2000). http://www2.srs.fs.fed.us/strategicplan/view_and_submit_comment.asp?ID=52 

Ecology - A branch of biology dealing with the relations and interactions existing between organisms and their environment. The interrelationships of living things to one another and to their environment, or the study of those interrelationships.

Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) - A UN council of 54 members primarily concerned with population, economic development, human rights, and criminal justice. This high-ranking body receives and issues human rights reports in a variety of circumstances. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary

Economic Concentration - A measure of the degree to which a few large firms dominate total sales, production, or capacity within an industry or market. The concern is that the more concentrated an industry, the greater the likelihood of price and market manipulation. For example, meat packer concentration has long been a concern of cattle producers. It is common to express concentration as a ratio, by stating the share (%) held by the top 4, 8, or 12 firms.

Economic Democracy - The authority of demos (persons) in the economic sphere, which implies economic equality. The existence of a state means the separation of the citizen body from the political and economic process. Economic democracy relates to every social system that institutionalizes the integration of society and the economy. Ultimately, the demos control the economic process, within an institutional framework of demotic ownership of the means of production. This definition of economic democracy should be contrasted to a more narrow definition, used by socialists, according to which, economic democracy relates to every social system that institutionalizes the minimization of socio-economic differences, particularly those arising out of the unequal distribution of private property and the consequent unequal distribution of income and wealth. Economic democracy presupposes that there are no institutionalized economic processes of an oligarchic nature. Therefore, all `macro' economic decisions, namely, decisions concerning the running of the economy as a whole (overall level of production, consumption and investment, amounts of work and leisure implied, technologies to be used, etc.) are taken by the citizen body collectively and without representation, although "micro" economic decisions at the workplace or the household levels are taken by the individual production or consumption unit. It presupposes that there are no institutionalized economic structures embodying unequal economic power relations. This implies that the means of production and distribution are collectively owned and controlled by demos, the citizen body directly. Finally, the preconditions that must be satisfied for economic democracy to be feasible are community self-reliance, demotic ownership of productive resources, and confederal allocation of resources.

Economic Depression - A period marked by low production and sales and a high rate of business failures and unemployment. (WB-UN)

Economic Development - Improvements in the efficiency of resource use so the same or greater output of goods and services is produced with smaller throughputs of natural, manufactured and human capital. (UNESCO)

Economic Entity - Refers to a legal or social entity, or a group of entities, that engage(s) in economic activities and transactions in its/their own right, such as corporations, non-profit institutions or government units. An economic entity has legal, administrative, or fiduciary arrangements, organizational structures or other parties having the capacity to efficiently allocate resources in order to achieve objectives. Economic entities are often used as a specific classification unit or a statistical unit. (UN)

Economic Globalization - The process of becoming entwined in the global economy. (UNESCO)

Economic Growth/Development - The process by which a country increases its ability to produce goods and services. (WB-UN)

Economic Impact - The change, positive or negative, in economic conditions (including distribution and stability of employment and income in affected local and regional economies) that directly or indirectly result from an activity, project, or program. - BLM

Economic Multiplier - See Response Coefficient. - USDA/FS

Economic Research Service (ERS) - USDA's in-house agricultural economics analysis and research agency. It employs about 600 people and has an annual budget of about $53 million.

Economic, Social, Cultural Rights - Rights that concern the production, development, and management of material for the necessities of life. The right to preserve and develop one's cultural identity. Rights that give people social and economic security, sometimes referred to as security-oriented or second generation rights. Examples are the right to food, shelter, and health care.

Economic Tigers - One of the burgeoning beehive countries of the western Pacific Rim. Using postwar Japan as a model, these countries have experienced significant modernization, industrialization, and Western-style economic growth since 1980. The three leading economic tigers are: Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. (Hong Kong: Xinggang) was a leading economic tiger before its 1997 reunification with China.

Economic User Sectors (or markets) - Estimates of quantities used and user expenditures for pesticides are broken out separately for the three general economic user sectors (or markets) as follows: agriculture, industrial/commercial/governmental, and home/garden. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Economies of Size - The concept that the average cost of production per unit declines as the size of the operation grows. One reason farms have been growing in size is to make more economical use of machines capable of covering more ground with less labor, to capture economies of size. Larger sized farms can typically get volume discounts on such inputs as chemicals and seed.

Economy - Measures of Economic Development, such as: GNP per capita, Population Growth, Occupational Structure of the Labor Force, Urbanization, Consumption per capita, Infrastructure, Social Conditions, literacy rate, life expectancy, health care, caloric intake infant mortality, and so forth.

Ecopsychology - Environmental psychology, or ecopsychology, means different things to different people. For many, 'ecopsychology' means the vision quest, the wilderness excursion, the full-moon ritual, the blockade of a logging road, yoga, or the meditation practice. At a more linguistic level, such actions - and particularly those that involve 'bridges' between culture and nature (such as, say, gardening, sexuality, child-raising, food finding and preparation, shelter, etc.) - are seen not so much as synonymous with ecopsychology, but an essential experiential source of psychological language (i.e., from experience-to-language rather than from philosophy-to-language). It can refer to returning to earth-based rituals such as sweat lodges or vision quests, looking at technology as a projection and reflection of our inner conflicts, reconnecting to the earth and non-human world to heal ourselves emotionally, ecofeminism, or sustainable living, to give just a few examples. The underlying concept is that environmental health and mental health are synonymous and must be in harmony. Ecopsychology means the study of soul in relationship to the natural world. - from ecopsychology.org

Ecoregion - An area over which the climate is sufficiently uniform to permit development of similar ecosystems on sites that have similar properties. Ecoregions contain many landscapes with different spatial patterns of ecosystems.

Eco Region - Eastern Cornbelt Plains - Madison (OH)

ECOS - Environment Council of the States http://www.sso.org/ecos/ 

Ecoscape - lreid@fs.fed.us (Leslie Reid) We used the term "ecoscape" because bioscience folks thought we were excluding their interests when we referred to "landscape" -- while physical science folks thought we were excluding them when we mentioned "ecosystem." Not surprisingly, biosci people assumed that "ecosystem" refers to both physical and biological aspects, while physical types maintained that "landscape" includes both bio and physical aspects. So we coined a term to combine the two concepts. By coming up with a word that didn't carry any preconceptions, we were able to carry on the discussions in a way that included both the physical and biological systems on equal footing. So the working definition that we've been using is that ecoscape = ecosystem + landscape. I doubt that there's any "official Forest Service definition" for the term; "we" refers to the authors of the documents you referenced -- Northwest Forest Plan http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/rsl/projects/water/6MONITORC.htm -- and to the participants in the discussions.

Ecosection - An ecological unit based on climate and physiography.

ECOSOC - Economic and Social Council of the United Nations

Ecosystem - The complex of a community of organisms and its environment functioning as an ecological unit in nature. (Webster's dictionary.) - USDA Forest Service

Ecosystem - A community of interacting organisms (including people) and their environment that functions together to sustain life. A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. A complex system in nature where living organisms and their environment operate as one unit. A dynamic and interrelated complex of plant and animal communities and their associated non-living environment. A system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with its environment. Derived from ecological system. An arrangement of living and non-living things and the forces that move among them. Living things include plants and animals. Non-living parts of an ecosystem may be rocks and minerals. Weather and wildfire are two of the forces that act within ecosystems. A functioning community of nature that includes fauna and flora together with the chemical and physical environment with which they interact. Ecosystems vary greatly in size and characteristics; an ecosystem can be a mud puddle, a field or orchard, or a forest. An ecosystem provides a unit of biological study and can be a unit of management.

Ecosystem - A dynamic complex of plant, animal, fungal and micro-organism communities and the associated non-living environment with which they interact.

Ecosystem Approach - A strategy or plan to protect and restore the natural function, structure, and species composition of an ecosystem, recognizing that all components are interrelated.

The Ecosystem Enhancement Program (EEP) - "Ecosystem Enhancement Program Will Reshape the Environmental Mitigation Process - Greensboro, North Carolina, July 22, 2003: Officials with the state departments of Transportation and Environment and Natural Resources today entered into an agreement with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers creating a new multi-agency environmental initiative designed to enhance habitat, stream and water quality protection while reducing road construction delays. Col. Charles Alexander of the Corps of Engineers joined Transportation Secretary Lyndo Tippett and DENR Secretary Bill Ross at Hillsdale Park, the site of an on-going innovative stream restoration project, to announce the formal creation of the Ecosystem Enhancement Program. The new program, the first of its kind in the nation, will reshape the way the state offsets or alleviates the unavoidable impacts of highway construction on streams and wetlands. The benefits of the EEP include: Increased protection of North Carolina's natural resources; Creation of mitigation strategies that are tailored to the needs of each river basin; Additional protection of tens of thousands of acres of ecologically important areas; More effective collaboration with the private sector and conservation groups, and Reduced cost and improved delivery of transportation projects. The participating agencies have created and started implementing a transition plan to manage compensatory mitigation during the next two years. Beginning July 2005, the EEP will handle transportation mitigation efforts. "The goal is to protect and enhance North Carolina's ecosystem -- that incredibly valuable asset upon which we all ultimately depend for our health, prosperity and happiness," DENR Secretary Bill Ross said. "The EEP will allow all agencies involved in the mitigation process to combine their efforts for the common good, which will have a substantial positive effect on our state's ecological health." State transportation and environmental officials joined representatives from the Corps of Engineers in calling the innovative new mitigation approach a significant improvement over existing inefficient and ineffective approaches. "The Hillsdale Park restoration project will provide mitigation credits for a much needed transportation project -- the Greensboro Outer Loop," said DOT Secretary Lyndo Tippett. "Through the Ecosystem Enhancement Program, the Hillsdale Park restoration project also will give citizens a restored, more natural watershed -- not to mention cleaner water in the Cape Fear River." We believe that the Ecosystem Enhancement Program goes beyond what any other state has in place to ensure that development is carried out in a manner that takes great care of North Carolina's natural resources," Col. Alexander said. "The Wilmington District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is proud to be a part of this program and is hopeful it will become the national model for compensatory mitigation. Today's agreement solidifies an already strong partnership with the state and our commitment to environmental sustainment." "Instead of performing 'foot-by-foot' stream mitigation and acre-by-acre wetland mitigation as we have done in the past, we'll be working with other agencies to develop comprehensive plans to improve water quality, habitat protection for entire river basins," Ross said. "Our objective will be to produce larger scale and accelerated ecosystem enhancement programs." When Gov. Mike Easley took office in January 2001, he directed the leaders of the state's transportation and environmental departments to improve the agencies' working relationship and to review processes managed by the organizations. In response to the governor's charge, the Department of Transportation and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources embarked on a partnership based upon mutual support for environmental stewardship and responsible and timely transportation decision making. EEP developed as a result of that partnership. In April, DENR and DOT received a national award from the Federal Highway Administration for their unprecedented partnership to deliver transportation projects while improving North Carolina's environment. Presented by FHWA Administrator Mary Peters, the Environmental Leadership Award recognizes outstanding transportation projects, processes and people who incorporate environmental stewardship into their transportation programs. DOT and DENR were specifically honored for their successful partnership based on mutual support for environmental stewardship and responsible and timely transportation decision-making. This partnership led to the creation of a senior leadership team made up of the secretaries and two deputy secretaries from each department, who meet monthly to discuss strategic issues about transportation and the environment. This leadership team has overseen improvements in the environmental permit approval process, air quality programs and landmark wildlife conservation -- serving as a model for interagency partnerships for environmental stewardship and streamlining. http://www.enr.state.nc.us/newsrels/20030722_wetlandagreement.html 

Ecosystem Integrity - The completeness of an ecosystem that, at multiple geographic and temporal scales, maintains its characteristic diversity of biological and physical components, spatial patterns, structure, and functional processes within its approximate range of historic variability. These processes include: disturbance regimes, nutrient cycling, hydrologic functions, vegetation succession, and species adaptation and evolution. Ecosystems with integrity are resilient and capable of self-renewal in the presence of the cumulative effects of human and natural disturbances. (Proposed Rule, Section 219.36, 1999.) - www.fireplan.gov glossary

Ecosystem Management - The careful and skillful use of ecological, economic, social, and managerial principles in managing ecosystem integrity and desired conditions, uses, products, and services over the long term. - USDA Forest Service

Ecosystem Management - The careful and skillful use of ecological, economic, social, and managerial principles in managing ecosystem integrity and desired conditions, uses, products, and services over the long term. - www.fireplan.gov glossary

Ecosystem Management - The skillful use of ecological, economic, social, and managerial principles in managing ecosystems to produce, restore, or sustain ecosystem integrity and desired conditions, uses, products, values, and services over the long-term. A process of land and resource management that emphasizes the care and stewardship of an area to ensure that human activities will be carried out to protect natural processes, natural biodiversity, and ecological integrity. An ecological approach to natural resource management to assure productive, healthy ecosystems by blending ecological, social, economic, physical, and biological needs and values that make up the whole of the system.

Ecosystem Process - The actions or events that link organisms and their environment, such as predation, mutualism, successional development, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, primary productivity, and decay. Natural disturbance processes often occur with some periodicity (From Webster's dictionary, adapted to ecology.) - USDA Forest Service

Ecosystem Process - The actions or events that link organisms and their environment, such as predation, mutualism, successional development, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, primary productivity, and decay. Natural disturbance processes often occur with some periodicity (From Webster's dictionary, adapted to ecology.) - www.fireplan.gov glossary

ECOT - (or eCOT) Electronic Classroom Of Tomorrow

Ecotone - The transition zone between two biotic communities, such as between the Ponderosa pine forest type and the mixed conifer forest, which is found at higher elevations than the pine. A relatively narrow overlap zone between two ecological communities. The boundary or transition zone between adjacent plant communities.

Ecotone - A transitional zone between two adjacent communities, containing species characteristic of both as well as other species occurring only within the zone. - USDA/FS

Ecotope - An area with uniform environmental conditions and characteristic plants and animals. Syn: biotope - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Ecotourism - Travel undertaken to witness sites or regions of unique natural or ecologic quality, or the provision of services to facilitate such travel. - UNDP/WRI

Ecotox Thresholds (ET) - Ecotox Thresholds are sufficient amounts of media-specific contaminant concentrations that indicate further site investigation is needed. Superfund site managers use ETs as screening tools to efficiently identify contaminants that may pose an ecological threat and to focus further site activities on those contaminants and the media in which they are found. - EPA

Ecotype - A genetically differentiated subpopulation that is restricted to a specific habitat. - UNDP/WRI

Ecotype - A population of a species in a given ecosystem that is adapted to a particular set of environmental conditions.

ECOWAS - The Economic Community of West African States (16 countries are members; founded in 1975) http://www.ecowas.int/ 

ECP - Emergency Conservation Program (USDA)

ECP - Enterprise Community Program (EZEC)

ECPPR - Ecologically Crucial Predator/Prey Relations

ECRA - Economic Cleanup Responsibility Act

ECS - Environmental Council of the States

ECS - Extension Coffee Shops (County)

ECSA - Equinox CSA

ECSC - Environmental Common Sense Coalition. ECSC is a group of multiple/wise use, access type folks pooling our resources, mostly within California, but with designs regionally, and then nationally.

Ecumene - The habitable or settled portions of the earth's surface. Physical criteria, which describe where people live, includes the following: near coasts, along rivers/near fresh water, flat terrain, temperate climates, fertile soil (river valleys, volcanic soils, other).

ECWG - Earth Cover Working Group

ED - Earth Day

ED - Eco-Defense

ED - Economic Damage

ED - Environmental Defense

ED - Economic Development

ED - Ecosystem Defenders

ED - Environmental District

ED - Ethnic Diversity

ED - Eye Distance

EDA - Earth Day Alternatives initiative

EDA - Economic Development Administration

EDA - Economic Development Administration (Federal)

EDA - Economic Development Authority

EDA - Ecosystem Demonstration Areas

Edaphic - Of or having to do with soil. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Edaphology - The science that deals with the influence of soils on living things, particularly plants, including human use of land for plant growth.

EDC - Economic Development Council

EDC - Environmental Data Center

EDD - Enforcement Decision Document

EDD - Expansion Development District

EDF - Environmental Defense Fund

EDF - Environmental Diplomacy Fund [VERY IMPORTANT TO READ] (UN) http://sustainable-development.edf.fr/enviro/impact/nature.php3 

EDG - Environment Directorate-General (European Commission, Brussels, Belgium)

Edge - Where plant communities meet or where successional stage or vegetation conditions within the plant community come together. The margin where two or more vegetation patches meet, such as a meadow opening next to a mature forest stand, or a ponderosa pine stand next to an aspen stand.

Edge Effect - The resulting influence two starkly different plant communities (e.g. forest-meadow) have on the animals that inhabit the area. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

EDI - Electronic Data Interchange

Edible landscaping - Planting trees/shrubs that produce fruits and vegetables which can be eaten by the public. - UNEP Children's Glossary

EDM - Engineering Document Management

EDP - Eminent Domain Procedure

EDPS - Efficient Delivery of Public Services

EDRC - Economic Development Rural Center

EDS - Economic Development Strategy

Edward R. Madigan U.S. Agricultural Export Excellence Award - An award established by the FAIR Act of 1996 to recognize companies' and other entities' entrepreneurial efforts in the food and agricultural sector for advancing U.S. agricultural exports.

EDZ - Emission Density Zoning

EE - Eco-Extremism

EE - Economic Entity

EE - Economic Espionage

EE - Electronic Exchanges

EE - Environmental Education - Office of Environmental Education's Strategic Framework - Mission: To advance and support education efforts that develop an environmentally conscious and responsible public. Goal: To ensure that environmental education (EE) is a recognized and appropriately utilized tool for protecting human health and the environment. Cross-Cutting Assumptions: To target underserved populations, such as people of color and low-income communities, and seek multi-sector partnerships. Strategic Objectives: To increase the quality and quantity of EE in grades K-12 by linking EE and education reform. To ensure long-term effectiveness and sustainability of EE programs by supporting state capacity building (i.e., the development of leaders and organizations that coordinate EE across a state). To catalyze EE research that assesses effectiveness in environmental protection and educational improvement. To effectively communicate and demonstrate what EE is and why it's relevant to our lives. To improve the quality, access, and coordination of EE information, resources, and programs." (EPA) http://www.epa.gov/enviroed/  Also: http://www.blm.gov/education/ 

EE - Environmental Emergency

EE - Environmental Encroachment

EE - Environmental Engineering

EE - Environmental Enhancement (USDA/NRCS/RC&D - Ann Veneman) http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/news/index.html#rcd 

EE - Environmental Exceptions

EE - Environmental Extremists

EEA - Environmental Education Association

EEA - European Environment Agency (UN)

EEB - Economic and Environmental Benefits

EEB - Environmental Education Barter Network "The Environmental Education Barter Network is: A network of EE organizations and professionals who are committed to sharing expertise and experiences related to 'capacity building' for environmental education. An online community where you can find EE resource specialists who are willing to barter their services to help others learn more about EE initiatives or organizational development." http://www.edgateway.net/cs/eeb/query/q/649 

EEBN - Environmental Education Barter Network "The Environmental Education Barter Network is: A network of EE organizations and professionals who are committed to sharing expertise and experiences related to 'capacity building' for environmental education. An online community where you can find EE resource specialists who are willing to barter their services to help others learn more about EE initiatives or organizational development." http://www.edgateway.net/cs/eeb/query/q/649 

EEC - Environmental Engineering Company

EEC - European Economic Community

EEC - Environment, Ecology and Conservation http://www.cnu.edu/library/serials/environ.html  (Christopher Newport University, Newport News, Virginia)

EECO - Environmental Economic Communities Organization

EEE - Energy-Efficient Equipment

EEEEE - Economy, Ecology, Equity, Education, Evaluation

EEF - Environmental Education Fund (EPA)

EEG - Electroencephalograph (test)

EEGS - Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society

EEI - Edison Electric Institute

EELINK - Endangered Species Link Heaven

EEIU - Eco-Ethics International Union

EEMP - The Environmental Enhancement and Mitigation Program

EEMS - Enhanced Environmental Management System (EPA)

EEN - Envirolink Environmental News

EEN - Evangelical Environmental Network

EEP - The Ecosystem Enhancement Program http://www.enr.state.nc.us/newsrels/20030722_wetlandagreement.html 

EER - Environmental Evaluation Report

EER - Experimental Ecological Reserve

EES - Economic and Environmental Sustainability

EEZ - Exclusive Economic Zone

EF - Eagle Forum

EF - Ecology Fund (a link on the VHEMT Links page) Includes side-by-side counters for human population growth and wildlife habitat loss.

EF - Engineering Foundation

EF - Environmental Facilities

EF - Environmental Federation

EF - Evergreen Foundation

EF - Excessive Force

EF - Exclosure Fence

EF! - Earth First

EFA - Education For All (UNESCO)

EFA - Education For All (UN - UNESCO) http://www.unesco.org/education/efa/ 

EFA - The Educational Foundation of America

EFFD - Earth-Family Fun Day

Effective Date - Sets forth the date upon which a plan or action becomes legally enforceable.

Effective population size - The size of the ideal, hypothetical population in which all individuals mate randomly and all contribute equally to reproduction. Variation in reproductive success and other processes in a real population affect how many genes are conserved in subsequent generations. The concept of effective population size is used to control for the effects of such processes when discussing genetic conservation. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf 

Effective precipitation (rainfall) - 1. That part of the precipitation that produces runoff. 2. A weighted average of current and antecedent precipitation that is "effective" in correlating with runoff. 3. As described by U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (1952, p. 4), that part of the precipitation falling on an irrigated area that is effective in meeting the consumptive use requirements. - USGS

Effects - Effects include: (1) Direct effects, which are caused by the action and occur at the same time and place. (2) Indirect effects, which are caused by the action and are later in time or farther removed in distance, but are still reasonably foreseeable. Indirect effects may include growth inducing effects and other effects related to induced changes in the pattern of land use, population density or growth rate, and related effects on air and water and other natural systems, including ecosystems. Effects and impacts are synonymous. Effects includes ecological, aesthetic, historic, cultural, economic, social, or health, whether direct, indirect, or cumulative. Effects may also include those resulting from actions, which may have both beneficial and detrimental effects, even if on balance the agency believes that the effect will be beneficial. 40 CFR 1508.8.

Effects (or impacts) - Environmental consequences (the scientific and analytical basis for comparison of alternatives) as a result of a proposed action. Effects may be either direct, which are caused by the action and occur at the same time and place, indirect, which are caused by the action and are later in time or farther removed in distance, but are still reasonably foreseeable, or cumulative.

Efflorescence - Soluble salts forming on a surface. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Effluent - Waste, usually liquid, released or discharged to the environment. Generally the term refers to point source discharges of sewage or contaminated wastewaters into surface waters. 2. Waste discharge from a sewage tank, water treatment facility, or from an industrial plant or process. (UNESCO)

Effluent Limitation - An EPA 'standard of performance' reflecting the maximum degree of discharge reduction achievable by the best available technology for various categories of sources of water pollution. These categories include feedlots, grain mills, and several kinds of food processing.

EFH - Essential Fish Habitat

EFH - Essential Fish Habitat (ESA)

EFJ - Environmentalists For Jobs

EFO - Environmental Federation of Oregon

EFU - Exclusive Farm Use

EFSC - Energy Facility Siting Council

EFSR - Emergency Food Security Reserve

EG - Economic Geology

EG - Ethnic Groups

EG - Exploration Geology

e.g. - For Example

EGA - Environmental Grantmakers Association

EGA - Essential Government Agencies

EGAG - Environmental Grantmakers Affinity Group

EGCUA - Environmental Geology of Canada's Urban Areas

EGF - Environmental Grantmakers Fund

Egress: The act of right of going out; to exit.

EH - Ecological Health

EH - Essential Habitat

EHC - Environmental Health Center http://www.nsc.org/ehc/ 

EHIS - Emission History Information System

EHL - Essential Habitat Linkages

EI - Ecologic Integrity

EI - Ecological Indicators

EI - Economic Information

EI - Economic Interdependence

EI - Education Initiative

EI - Emotional Intelligence (why it can be more important than IQ)

EI - Enhanced Infiltration

EI - Environics International

EI - Erosion Index (USDA)

EI - The Equator Initiative (UN)

EIA - Electronic Industries Association

EIA - Energy Information Administration

EIA - Environmental Impact Assessment

EIAP - Environmental Impact Analysis Process

EIBUS - Export-Import Bank of the United States

EIC - Environmental Industry Council

EID - Employment Information Data

8.5 SMA - 8.5 Square Mile Area (Florida)

8.5 Square Mile Area - An area of low-lying land west of the L-31 North canal in Miami-Dade County. - EvergladesPlan glossary

EII - Earth Island Institute

EIN - Employer Identification Number

EIP - Effective Information Programs

EIR - Environmental Impact Report

EIR - Environmental Impact Review

EIS - Environmental Impact Statement

EISCAT - European Incoherent Scatter Association

EIS Study Area - The following 12 western states: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

EIU - Economist Intelligence Unit

EJEISA - European Journal of Engineering for Information Society Applications (AESOPIAN)

EJLDF - Earth Justice Legal Defense Fund

Ejido - A communally owned farm in Mexico. The result of a government sponsored land redistribution program where large haciendas were given back to the Amerindians.

EJW - Equal Justice Works (this is 'Our Global Village' site and 'info') http://www.napil.org/ 

EL - Edible Landscapes

EL - EnviroLink

ELAN - Export Legal Assistance Network

ELAP - Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Program

Elastic wave - A wave that is propagated by some kind of elastic deformation, that is, a change in shape that disappears when the forces are removed. A seismic wave is a type of elastic wave. - USGS Earthquake glossary

ELDF - Earth Justice Legal Defense Fund

ELE - Effective Learning Experience

Electrowinning - The recovery of metal from an ore by means of electrochemical processes. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Element (of ecosystems) - An identifiable component, process, or condition of an ecosystem.

Elephantiasis - A disease, often found in tropical countries, in which parts of the human body become enlarged. It is caused by small roundworms that are injected into the body by mosquitoes. (WB-UN)

ELF - Earth Liberation Front

ELG - Effluent Limitations Guidelines (EPA)

ELI - Environmental Law Institute

ELI - Environmental Legal Instruments

Eligible River - A river or river segment found, through interdisciplinary team and, in some cases, interagency review, to meet Wild and Scenic River Act criteria of being free-flowing and possessing one or more outstandingly remarkable values. (BLM)

Eligibility of areas - Part 34, Section 4 - In order to receive payments under the Act...these areas must be solely or primarily administered by the Service (USFWS).

Eligible river or river segment - To be eligible for addition to the Wild and Scenic River system, a river segment must meet both of the following criteria: (1) it must be free-flowing, and (2) it must possess one or more Outstandingly Remarkable Values. - FS

Eligible River Segment - A section of a river that qualifies for inclusion into the National Wild and Scenic River System through determination that it is free-flowing and with its adjacent land area possessing at least one river-related value considered to be outstandingly remarkable. - BLM

Eligibility Application - The package of information submitted to the Department for determination of a roadway's eligibility as a Scenic Highway. - Scenic Byways Program Glossary

Eligibility Phase - The first phase of the process for the Scenic Highways Program where the Highway Department determines whether or not a roadway is eligible for designation as a Scenic Highway. - Scenic Byways Program Glossary

Eligible River Segment - A section of a river that qualifies for inclusion into the National Wild and Scenic River System through determination that it is free-flowing and with its adjacent land area possessing at least one river-related value considered to be outstandingly remarkable. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

ELMR - Estuarine Living Marine Resources

ELN - National Liberation Army

ELR - Eligible Land Requirements (USDA)

ELRB - Exposition Light Rail and Bikeway (California)

ELS - Environmental Law Society

ELT - Emergency Locator Transmitter

Elteto, Koves and Szulc Method (EKS Method) - A multilateral method developed by Elteto, Koves and Szulc that computes the nth root of the product of all possible Fisher indices between n countries. It has been used at the detailed heading level to obtain heading parities, and also at the GDP level as a method of aggregation. EKS has the properties of base-country invariance and transitivity. (UN)

ELU - Existing Land Use

Eluviation - The movement of material in true solution or colloidal suspension from one place to another within the soil. Soil horizons that have lost material through eluviation are eluvial; those that have received material are illuvial. - USDA 2. A process of removal of organic material and clay in solution or in suspension from the soil by percolating waters. The removal of soil material in suspension or solution from a layer or layers of a soil. The loss of material in solution is usually called "leaching." See ILLUVIATION. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

EM - Emergency Management

EM - Emitted Material

EM - Environmental Mediation

EMA - Environmental Management Activities

EMA - Environmental Modeling and Assessment

EMA - Eureka Ministerial Association

EMA - Experimental Management Actions

EMAM - Emitted Moisture-Absorbing Material

Emancipated minor - A person under 18 years of age who is married or who is determined by a court of competent jurisdiction to be legally able to care for himself or herself. - DOI-BIA Glossary

EMAP - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is a research program to develop the tools necessary to monitor and assess the status and trends of national ecological resources. EMAP's goal is to develop the scientific understanding for translating environmental monitoring data from multiple spatial and temporal scales into assessments of current ecological condition and forecasts of future risks to our natural resources. EMAP aims to advance the science of ecological monitoring and ecological risk assessment, guide national monitoring with improved scientific understanding of ecosystem integrity and dynamics, and demonstrate multi-agency monitoring through large regional projects. EMAP develops indicators to monitor the condition of ecological resources. EMAP also investigates designs that address the acquisition, aggregation, and analysis of multi-scale and multi-tier data. (EPA) http://www.epa.gov/emap/ 

EMAS - European Eco-Management and Audit Scheme

EMB - Environmental Management Bureau

Embargo - A government-ordered prohibition or limitation on trade with another country. Under an embargo, all trade, or selected goods and services, may be restricted. The Food Security Act of 1985 states that U.S. policy is: (1) to foster and encourage agricultural exports, (2) not to restrict or limit such exports except under the most compelling circumstances, (3) that any prohibition or limitation on such exports should be imposed only when the President declares a national emergency under the Export Administration Act, and (4) that contracts to export agricultural commodities and products agreed upon before any prohibition or limitation should not be abrogated. Whenever commercial export sales of an agricultural commodity are suspended for reasons of short supply, but to a country with which the United States continues commercial trade, the Food and Agriculture Act of 1977 requires USDA to set the commodity price support loan rate at 90% of the parity price. The Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 contains contract sanctity provisions that place constraints on the embargo of agricultural commodities from the United States. The 1990 Act also: (1) provides for agricultural embargo protection that, if certain conditions are met, compensates producers with payments if the President suspends or restricts exports of a commodity for national security or foreign policy reasons, and (2) requires USDA to develop plans to alleviate the adverse effects of embargoes if imposed. The FAIR Act of 1996 requires USDA to compensate producers of a commodity, or commodities, if the U.S. government imposes an export embargo on any country for national security or foreign policy reasons, and if no other country joins the U.S. embargo within 90 days. Compensation may take the form of payments to producers or funds made available to promote agricultural exports or food aid. A restriction imposed by a government on another country to prevent certain resources and/or products from being imported or exported.

EMC - Environmental Management Commission (part of a state's Department of Natural Resources)

EMC - Environmental Management Commission

EMD - Environmental Management Districts

EMDB - Economic Mineral Data Base

Emergency assistance - Emergency assistance is one of the types of international assistance available under the provisions of the World Heritage Fund. States Parties may request emergency assistance "for work in connection with cultural and natural properties included or suitable for inclusion in the World Heritage List and which have suffered severe damage due to sudden, unexpected phenomena" (UNESCO February 1996: 32, Paragraph 92). Requests for emergency assistance should be submitted to the UNESCO World Heritage Centre on form WHC/5 (UNESCO 1990d). See International assistance, World Heritage Fund - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Emergency Conservation Program - A program administered by the Farm Service Agency to help farmers to rehabilitate farmland damaged by natural disasters by sharing in the cost of rehabilitation.

Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act - 42 U.S.C. 11001 et seq. (1986) Also known as Title III of SARA, EPCRA was enacted by Congress as the national legislation on community safety. This law was designated to help local communities protect public health, safety, and the environment from chemical hazards. To implement EPCRA, Congress required each state to appoint a State Emergency Response Commission (SERC). The SERCs were required to divide their states into Emergency Planning Districts and to name a Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) for each district. Broad representation by fire fighters, health officials, government and media representatives, community groups, industrial facilities, and emergency managers ensures that all necessary elements of the planning process are represented.

The Emergency Response Notification System (ERNS) - A database used to store information on notifications of oil discharges and hazardous substance releases. ERNS is now part of the National Response Center.

Emergency Wetlands Resources Act (1986) - Promotes the conservation of migratory waterfowl and offsets or prevents the serious loss of wetlands by the acquisition of wetlands and other essential habitats.

Emergency Wetlands Reserve Program (EWRP) - Authorized in 1993 under emergency supplemental appropriations to respond to widespread floods in the Midwest, EWRP provided payments to purchase easements and partial financial assistance to landowners who permanently restored wetlands at sites where the restoration costs exceeded the land's fair market value. EWRP was administered by Natural Resources Conservation Service as part of its Emergency Watershed Program and operated in seven midwestern states. Land in this program is considered to be a part of the land enrolled in the Wetland Reserve Program.

Emergent Vegetation - Aquatic plant species that are rooted in wetlands but extend above the water's surface. See SUBMERGENT VEGETATION. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Emergent Wetland - Wetlands dominated by erect, rooted, herbaceous (non-woody) plants, excluding mosses and lichens.

EMG - Employee Matching Gift

EMI - Electro Magnetic Influence

EMI - European Monetary Institute

Eminent Domain - The authority given to Federal agencies to condemn land for the public good. Although it is USFWS policy to purchase land only from willing sellers, it does have the authority and occasionally uses it to clear title with the consent of the landowner. (DOI)

The Eminent Domain Law of 1926 - The Eminent Domain law was enacted in 1926. This law allowed for forced sales of property against the will of the property owner. The doctrine behind this law is that the general welfare prevails over private good. When this law is exercised, the landowner receives market value for his or her property.

Emission - Waste released or emitted to the environment. The term is commonly used in referring to discharges of gases and particles to the atmosphere, i.e., air pollutants, and also is used in referring to particles or energy released radioactively. Sometimes the term is used broadly, encompassing any pollutant discharge.

Emission offset - A reduction in the air pollution emissions of existing sources to compensate for emissions from new sources. - Bioenergy Glossary

EMLF - Eastern Mineral Law Foundation

EMP - Ecosystem Management Plan DOI/USFWS

EMP - Electro Magnetic Pulse

EMP - Environmental Management Program

EMP - Environmental Master Plan (DOI)

EMP - Ecosystem Management Plans

EMP - Electro Magnetic Pulse

The Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community program (EZEC) - The Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community program (EZEC) is designed to afford communities real opportunities for growth and revitalization. The framework of the program is embodied in four key principles: Economic Opportunity, Sustainable Community Development, Community-based Partnerships, and a Strategic Vision for Change. Economic Opportunity: The first priority in revitalizing distressed communities is to create economic opportunities- jobs and work- for all residents. The creation of jobs, both within the community and throughout the region, provides the foundation on which residents will become economically self-sufficient and communities can revitalize themselves. Opportunities for entrepreneurial initiatives, small business expansion, and training for jobs that offer upward mobility are other key elements for providing economic opportunity and direction. Sustainable Community Development: The creation of jobs is the first critical step toward the creation of a livable and vibrant community where human initiative, work, and stable families can flourish. However, economic development can only be successful when part of a coordinated and comprehensive strategy that includes physical development as well as human development. A community where streets are safe to walk, the air and water are clean, housing is secure, and human services are accessible, and where a vital civic spirit is nurtured by innovative design, is a community that can be a source of strength and hope to its residents. A community where learning is a commitment for life can foster the skills, habits of mind, and attitudes that will make work rewarding and families nurturing. The EZ/EC Program seeks to empower communities by supporting local plans that coordinate economic, physical, environmental, community, and human development. Community-Based Partnerships: The road to economic opportunity and community development starts with broad participation by all segments of the community. The residents themselves, however, are the most important elements of revitalization. Others may include the political and governmental leadership, community groups, health and social service groups, environmental groups, religious organizations, the private and nonprofit sectors, centers of learning, and other community institutions. Communities cannot succeed with public resources alone. Private and nonprofit support and involvements are critical to the success of a community seeking revitalization. Partners also must be created within and among the levels of government. Government departments and agencies on all levels must work together to ensure that relevant programs and resources can be used in a coordinated, flexible, and timely fashion to help implement the community's strategic plan and that regulatory and other barriers to sustainable growth are removed. Through the Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community process, the Federal government offers a compact with communities and State and local governments: if you plan comprehensively and strategically for real change, if the community designs and drives the course, we, the Federal government, will waive burdensome regulations whenever possible, and work with you to make our programs responsive to your plan. Strategic Vision for Change: A bold and innovative vision for change describes what the community wants to become -- for example, the community may envision itself as a center for emerging technologies with links to a nearby university or community college; a key export center for certain farm products, customized manufacturing goods, or health and other human services; or a vibrant residential area focused around an active local school, with access to jobs, retail markets, recreation, and entertainment. The vision for change is a comprehensive strategic map for revitalization. It is a means to analyze the full local context and the linkages to the larger region. It builds on the community's assets and coordinates its response to its needs -- such as public safety, human and social services, and environmental protection. It integrates economic, physical, environmental, community and human development in a comprehensive and coordinated fashion so that families and communities can work together and thrive. A strategic plan also sets real goals and performance benchmarks for measuring progress and establishes a framework for assessing how new experience and knowledge can be incorporated on an on-going basis into a successful plan for revitalization.

EMPRES - Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases (FAO-UN)

EMR - Energy and Mineral Resources

EMS - Emergency Medical Services

EMS - Environmental Management System http://www.nrca.org/policies/ems/reports/Legislative%20Instruments.doc  (http://www.nrca.org is the National Environment & Planning Agency's home page)

EMWDP - Everglades Modified Waters Deliveries Project

EMWIN - Emergency Managers Weather Information Network

EN - Earth Negotiations (UN)

Enabling Legislation - A state law that allows municipalities to pass and enforce such land-use controls as zoning.

ENB - The Earth Negotiations Bulletin

Enclave - A piece of territory that is surrounded by another political unit of which it is not a part.

Enclosed or Semi-enclosed Sea - A gulf, basin or sea surrounded by two or more States and connected to another sea or the ocean by a narrow outlet or consisting entirely or primarily of the territorial seas and exclusive economic zones of two or more coastal States.

Encumbrance - A mortgage, deed of trust or other instrument which secures a debt owed by a permittee to a lender or other holder of a leasehold mortgage on the permit interest. - DOI-BIA Glossary

Endangered area - An area where ecological factors favour the establishment of a pest whose presence in the area will result in economically important loss. - UN/FAO International Plant Protection Convention Glossary

Endangered Species - Endangered species are identified by the Secretary of the Interior in accordance with the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Any species of plant or animal defined through the Endangered Species Act as being in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range, and published in the Federal Register, other than a species of the Class Insecta determined by the Secretary to constitute a pest whose protection under the Act would present an overwhelming and overriding risk to man. (Author's note: Can a human be an endangered species?)

Endangered Species Act (1973) (ESA) - Requires all Federal agencies to carry out programs for the conservation of endangered and threatened species.

Endangered Species Act - 7 U.S.C. 136; 16 U.S.C. 460 et seq. (1973) The Endangered Species Act provides a program for the conservation of threatened and endangered plants and animals and the habitats in which they are found. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS, ) of the Department of the Interior () maintains the list of 632 endangered species (326 are plants) and 190 threatened species (78 are plants). Species include birds, insects, fish, reptiles, mammals, crustaceans, flowers, grasses, and trees. Anyone can petition FWS to include a species on this list. The law prohibits any action, administrative or real, that results in a "taking" of a listed species, or adversely affects habitat. Likewise, import, export, interstate, and foreign commerce of listed species are all prohibited. EPA's decision to register a pesticide is based in part on the risk of adverse effects on endangered species as well as environmental fate (how a pesticide will affect habitat). Under FIFRA, EPA can issue emergency suspensions of certain pesticides to cancel or restrict their use if an endangered species will be adversely affected. Under a new program, EPA, FWS, and USDA () are distributing hundreds of county bulletins that include habitat maps, pesticide use limitations, and other actions required to protect listed species.

Endemic - The population of potentially injurious plants, animals or diseases that are at their normal balance level, in contrast to epidemic.

Endemic - Restricted to a particular geographic region or soil type. (NPS Rare Plant glossary) 2. Naturally existing at low levels in the environment. - Bioenergy Glossary 3. Endemic (endemism) - Species restricted to a particular geographic area; for aquatic species, usually limited to one or a few small streams, a single drainage, or an ecological section. - FS

Endemic Plant/Organism - A plant or animal that occurs naturally in a certain region and whose distribution is relatively limited geographically.

Endemism - See Endemic.

ENDS - Environmental Data Services http://www.ends.co.uk 

Energy - The ability to do work. - Bioenergy Glossary

Energy Conservation - Taking care to be efficient in the use of energy (usually in the form of electricity) so that it is not wasted. Some forms of energy production have significant impact on the environment. By becoming more efficient in the use of energy, the demand for energy can be reduced so that new energy production facilities are not required. (UNESCO)

Energy crops - Crops grown specifically for their fuel value. These include food crops such as corn and sugarcane, and nonfood crops such as poplar trees and switchgrass. Currently, two energy crops are under development: short-rotation woody crops, which are fast-growing hardwood trees harvested in 5 to 8 years, and herbaceous energy crops, such as perennial grasses, which are harvested annually after taking 2 to 3 years to reach full productivity. - Bioenergy Glossary

Energy Facility Siting Council (EFSC) - A seven-member council that coordinates and approves siting for power plants, transmission lines, and pipelines. - Bioenergy Glossary

Energy use per capita - The amount of energy a country consumes in a certain period- usually one year- divided by the population of that country. This includes fossil fuels burned by machines (such as cars), as well as electricity generated from nuclear power, geothermal power, hydropower, and fossil fuels. No matter what its source, energy use per capita is measured in equivalent amounts of oil. Though substantial in some developing countries, energy from biomass -- fuelwood, charcoal, dung -- not considered in this statistic because reliable data are not available. - World Bank Glossary

ENFORCE - Enforcement Case Tracking System

Enforce - To take steps to require a landowner to comply with the terms of a conservation covenant, such as by exercising an enforcement option within the covenant or by going to court.

Engineer's Chain - A 100 foot chain (actually, a tape with each chain equaling 1 foot). - Cadastral Data glossary

Enhancement - Measures which develop or improve the quality or quantity of existing resources beyond a condition or level that would have occurred without an action. - Everglades Plan glossary

Enhancement - Measures that develop or improve the quality or quantity of existing conditions. - BOR Water Acquisition Glossary 2. A short-term management prescription with the express purpose of increasing positive scenic attributes where few exits. - FS

ENJ - Endangered New Jersey (created by three 6th graders)

Enlibra - Enlibra is a newly created word (by governors Mike Leavitt of Utah and John Kitzhaber of Oregon) meaning balance and stewardship. A New Shared Doctrine for Environmental Management, Enlibra is the name of an evolving set of new principles for environmental management. Enlibra is based upon principles that have proven effective in resolving environmental and natural resource debates in a more inclusive, faster and less expensive fashion. The word was coined by the Western Governors to symbolize balance and stewardship. http://www.westgov.org/wga/initiatives/enlibra/  provides background information on Enlibra and links to other resources. "Enlibra" comes from two Latin words, en or "Behold!" and libra meaning balance or the scale. The Republican governor said he picked "enlibra" because there isn't a good symbol for the middle - the notion that says people working together can create jobs and protect the environment. "We are making environmental progress in this country, but it's too slow, too cumbersome and too expensive," Leavitt said. "We need a way to increase the velocity of environmental progress." Enlibra, he said, propelled that ambitious stride. Support for the Enlibra program is provided by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation and by Region IX of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Source: http://www.westgov.org/wga/initiatives/enlibra/enlibrafaq.htm 

Enlibra Principles - 1. National Standards, Neighborhood Solutions - Assign Responsibilities at the Right Level. 2. Collaboration, Not Polarization - Use Collaborative Processes to Break Down Barriers and Find Solutions. 3. Reward Results, Not Programs - Move to a Performance-Based System. 4. Science For Facts, Process for Priorities - Separate Subjective Choices from Objective Data Gathering. 5. Markets Before Mandates - Pursue Economic Incentives Whenever Appropriate. 6. Change A Heart, Change A Nation - Environmental Understanding is Crucial. 7. Recognition of Benefits and Costs - Make Sure All Decisions Affecting Infrastructure, Development and Environment are Fully Informed. 8. Solutions Transcend Political Boundaries - Use Appropriate Geographic Boundaries for Environmental Problems

ENN - Environmental News Network

ENR - Environment & Natural Resources

ENRICH - European Network for Research in Global Change

Enterprise Unit - An institutional unit or the smallest combination of institutional units that encloses and directly or indirectly controls all necessary functions to carry out its production activities. (UN)

Entitle - To give a title or legal right. - Cadastral Data glossary

Entitlement water - Water guaranteed under contract for delivery, contingent on supply. - Bureau Of Reclamation -- BOR -- Water Acquisition Glossary

Entity - any object about which an organization chooses to collect data. - Cadastral Data glossary

Entity relationship diagram - an illustration of data entities, their attributes, and their associations. - Cadastral Data glossary

Entry - An application to acquire title to public lands. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Entry into Force - Typically, the provisions of the treaty determine the date on which the treaty enters into force. Where the treaty does not specify a date, there is a presumption that the treaty is intended to come into force as soon as all the negotiating states have consented to be bound by the treaty. Bilateral treaties may provide for their entry into force on a particular date, upon the day of their last signature, upon exchange of the instruments of ratification or upon the exchange of notifications. In cases where multilateral treaties are involved, it is common to provide for a fixed number of states to express their consent for entry into force. Some treaties provide for additional conditions to be satisfied, e.g., by specifying that a certain category of states must be among the consenters. The treaty may also provide for an additional time period to elapse after the required number of countries have expressed their consent or the conditions have been satisfied. A treaty enters into force for those states which gave the required consent. A treaty may also provide that, upon certain conditions having been met, it shall come into force provisionally. Art.24, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969] (UN)

Enumerated Zoning Districts - The various use districts established; there is no limit to the type and number of zoning districts that a community may establish.

Environment - Everything around us, plants, air, land, life, etc. - UNEP Children's Glossary

Environment - The physical attributes of an area and not the result of the subject's selective interpretation. The aggregate of physical, biological, economic, and social factors affecting organisms in an area. The totality of the surrounding external conditions--biological, chemical, and physical--within which an organism, community, or object exists. The term is not exclusive in that organisms can be and usually are part of another organism's environment. Thus one can speak of the environment as that within which humankind lives, i.e., separate and external; or, one can speak of humankind as a component of the environment. 2. The complex set of physical, geographic, biological, social, cultural and political conditions that surround an individual or organism and that ultimately determines its form and nature of its survival. (WB-UN)

EnvironMentors program - EnvironMentors asks that mentors and students meet once a week for approximately two hours throughout the course of the seven-month program. During these meetings, mentors work with their student [one on one] to help him or her to develop an environmental research, experimental, or community service project including identification of a project topic; development of a research question and research methods; conducting research in the library, on the web, and in many cases in the field; analyzing data; and formulating conclusions; and developing a presentation of his/her findings. In April, each student will present their project to an elementary school class. The season culminates in early May with the EnvironMentors Fair and Awards Ceremony at which students present their projects to a panel of judges. All student participants are recognized for their hard work and the most outstanding projects are awarded prizes and scholarships. Some students choose to also present their EnvironMentors projects at their school's science fair... http://www.environmentors.org/ 

Environment(al) [CERCLA 101(8)] - A) The navigable waters, the waters of the contiguous zone, and the ocean waters of which the natural resources are under the exclusive management authority of the United States under the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976, and (B) any other surface water, ground water, drinking water supply, land surface or subsurface strata, or ambient air within the United States or under the jurisdiction of the United States. (DOE 4700.1) Air and water quality, land disturbances, ecology, climate, public and occupational health and safety, and socioeconomic (including non-availability of critical resources and institutional, cultural, and aesthetic considerations). For conciseness, these are normally referred to as environmental, health, and safety considerations. - EPA

Environmental - 1) In a scientific context, a combination of external or extrinsic conditions present in nature. 2) In a planning context, a category or analytical studies or aesthetic values, ecological resources, cultural (historical) resources, sociological and economic conditions, etc.

Environmental Analysis - An analysis of alternative actions and their predictable long and short-term environmental effects. Environmental analyses include physical, biological, social, and economic factors.

Environmental Assessment (EA) - A systematic analysis to determine if proposed actions would result in a significant effect on the quality of the environment. A brief version of an Environmental Impact Statement. A concise public document for which a U.S. federal agency is responsible to generate to determine potential impacts of a proposed project. An EA serves (1) to provide sufficient evidence and analysis for determining whether to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or a finding of no significant impact; and to aid an agency to achieve compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act when no EIS is needed; and (2) to facilitate preparation of an EIS when one is needed. (See Environmental Impact Statement).

Environmental Commission - A group established by municipal ordinance and empowered to conduct research and make recommendations on the use of land, water resource management, on open space preservation, air pollution control, solid waste management, soil and landscape protection among other concerns. Environmental Commissions are also required to collect and maintain information on open lands and various resources for use in the municipal master plan and in planning development.

Environmental Consequence - A temporal or spatial change in the human environment caused by an act of man. The change should be (1) perceptible, (2) measurable, and (3) relatable through a change agent to a proposed action or alternative. A consequence is something that follows an antecedent (as a cause or agent). Consequences are synonymous with impacts and effects. - BLM

Environmental Consequences - A situation that naturally or logically follows as a result of an action. Commonly used in environmental impact statements for discussions about how the human environment, which includes the natural and physical environment and the relationship of people with that environment, is influenced by the action.

Environmental Conservation Acreage Reserve Program (ECARP) - An umbrella program authorized by the FACT Act of 1990 that includes the Conservation Reserve Program, and the Wetland Reserve Program. The FAIR Act of 1996 continues the CRP and WRP and creates the Environmental Quality Incentives Program. The goal of the ECARP is to provide long-term protection of environmentally sensitive land. Contracts, easements, and cost-share payments are used to assist landowners and operators of farms and ranches to conserve and enhance soil, water, and related natural resources, including grazing land, wetland, and wildlife habitat.

Environmental Control Formula - In certain areas (i.e. where public infrastructure is not provided), this formula may be used to determine maximum number of lots permitted of minimum lot size.

Environmental, Cultural, and Developmental Rights - Sometimes referred to as third generation rights, these rights recognize that people have the right to live in a safe and healthy environment and that groups of people have the right to cultural, political, and economic development. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary

Environmental Degradation - Deterioration in environmental quality from ambient concentrations of pollutants and other activities and processes such as improper land use and natural disasters.

Environmental and Economic Equity (EEE) - A program-level activity, referred to in early phases of the program as Socioeconomic and Environmental Justice, which provides a framework for the activities and analyses related to the social aspects of implementing the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Environmental Equity/Justice - Equal protection from environmental hazards for individuals, groups, or communities regardless of race, ethnicity, or economic status. This applies to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies, and implies that no population of people should be forced to shoulder a disproportionate share of adverse impacts of pollution.

Environmental Features - Significant resources, facilities, or other features of a study area located in or adjacent to an existing or proposed corridor study area that serve to restrain, restrict, or prevent the ready implementation of proposed improvements in a given area; may include natural or physical resources, important structures, communities facilities, or topographic features.

Environmental Heterogeneity - The physical or temporal patchiness of the environment. Heterogeneity exists at all scales within natural communities, ranging from habitat differences between the top and underside of a leaf, to habitat patches created by treefalls within a forest, to the pattern of forests and grasslands within a region. The mosaic of habitat patches within an ecosystem is created by such disturbances as fire and storms; differences in microclimate, soils, and history; and both deterministic and random population variation. Patches in early stages of succession provide unique structural habitats and contain different species than those in late-successional stages do. - UNDP/WRI

Environmental impact report (EIR) - A detailed statement prepared under CEQA describing and analyzing the significant environmental effects of a project and discussing ways to mitigate or avoid the effects. California Resources Agency, Title 14, section 15362.

Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) - A detailed written statement as required by section 102(2)(C) of NEPA. 40 CFR 1508.11. 2. A document similar to, but much more extensive than, an EA. An EIS must analyze all cumulative, direct, and indirect impacts of a proposed action. - Bioenergy Glossary

Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) - A detailed written statement required by sections 102 (2) (C) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analyzing the environmental impacts of a proposed action, adverse effects of the project that cannot be avoided, alternative courses of action, short-term uses of the environment versus the maintenance and enhancement of long-term productivity, and any irreversible and irretrievable commitment of resources. A statement of environmental effects of a proposed action and alternatives to it. The EIS is released to other agencies and the public for comment and review. An analytical document that portrays potential impacts on the human environment of a particular course of action and its possible alternatives. Required by the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), an EIS is prepared for use by decision-makers to weigh the environmental consequences of a potential decision.

Environmental Justice (EJ) - The pursuit of equal justice and equal protection under the law for all environmental statutes and regulations without discrimination based on race, ethnicity, and/or socio-economic status. Presidential Executive Order No. 12898 (issued February 11, 1994) requires Federal agencies to respond to the issue of environmental justice by "identify[ing] and address[ing] disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects of its programs, policies, and activities on minority and low income populations." - USDA/FS The fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people in the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies. - EPA

Environmental Law - The practice of law dealing with the protection or enhancement of human health or the environment. The practice includes representation concerning air quality, water quality, soil contamination, environmental remediation, hazardous materials and toxic substances, hazardous and solid waste, wildlife protection, the environmental aspects of land use planning, natural resources law and real property transactions; environmental compliance, environmental auditing, environmental assessments and impact statements, radioactive materials and environmental common law.

Environmental Law - Environmental law is based on compliance and enforcement, that is EPA, State, or local legal actions to obtain compliance with environmental laws, rules, regulations, or agreements and/or obtain penalties or criminal sanctions for violations. (EPA)

Environmental Overview - A beginning inventory or summary assessment of environmental features in a study area, usually performed during systems planning or preliminary environmental activities. From this preliminary information, the environmental impacts of the study alternative will be determined. This overview may sometimes be referred to as Environmental Screening.

Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) - A program created by the FAIR Act of 1996 to provide primarily cost- sharing assistance, but also technical and educational assistance, aimed at reducing soil, water, and related natural resource problems. The program replaces the Agricultural Conservation Program, the Water Quality Incentives Program, the Great Plains Conservation Program, and the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program. EQIP is authorized at $1.3 billion in mandatory spending over 7 years (total), with at least half of the funding targeted to environmental concerns associated with livestock production; spending in general is to be targeted to state-designated priority areas. EQIP is to be operated to maximize the environmental benefits per dollar expended.

Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) - EQIP provides federal cost-sharing to producers for environmental costs, with 60 percent earmarked for livestock producers. A new provision in the law will allow concentrated animal feeding operations of 1,000 or more to receive funds to build waste lagoons. Funding per farmer is capped at $450,000 over six years. The Secretary may use a portion of EQIP funding for innovative grants.

Environmental Resource Inventory (ERI) - A description and analysis of natural resources and systems, as well as of environmental problems, generally prepared by an Environmental Commission for use in comprehensive planning of a municipality or county and to aid in review of development applications. Sometimes known as Natural Resource Inventories (NRI).

The Environmental Response Team (ERT) - Established under Section 311 of the Clean Water Act to provide on-site expertise as required by the National Contingency Plan (NCP) section on Special Forces. - EPA

Environmental stochasticity - Random changes in environmental conditions and their effects on populations. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf 

Environmental Threshold Carrying Capacity - An environmental standard necessary to maintain a significant scenic, recreational, educational, scientific or natural value of the region or to maintain public health and safety within the region. Such standards shall include but not be limited to standards for air quality, water quality, soil conservation, vegetation preservation and noise.

Environmentally Sensitive Features - The following natural and cultural resources, the disturbance of which tends to impair the physical, biological, social, or aesthetic quality of the resource. (1) aquifer recharge and well head protection areas, (2) coastal dunes, beaches, barrier islands, and shorelines, (3) Critical Slope Areas, (4) Flood Plains, (5) habitats of endangered and threatened species, (6) habitats with wide diversity of resident species, (7) historic sites and areas, (8) public water supply reservoirs, (9) ridge lines or ravines, (10) scenic vistas and corridors, (11) staging areas for migratory species, (12) stream corridors, (13) wetlands and ponds, (14) wildlife corridors. (15) any area that exhibits one or more of the features used to delineate Planning Area 5, whether or not greater than one square mile in extent: (a) trout production waters and trout maintenance waters and their watersheds, (b) pristine non-tidal Category I waters and their watersheds upstream of the lowest Category I stream segment, (c) watersheds of existing or planned potable water supply sources, (d) aquifer recharge areas of potable water supply sources and carbonate formations associated with recharge areas or aquifers, (e) habitats of populations of endangered or threatened plant or animal species, (f) coastal wetlands, (g) contiguous freshwater wetlands systems, (h) significant natural features such as beaches, coastal spits and barrier islands critical slope areas, ridge lines, gorges and ravines, unique geological features (including limestone outcrops) or unique ecosystems, and (I) prime forested areas, including mature stands of native species, OR (j) natural landscapes of exceptional value, in combination with one or more other environmentally sensitive features pursuant to these criteria, and (16) Critical Habitat.

Environmentally-Sensitive Resource - A floodplain/wetland, habitat for a threatened or endangered species, refuge or flyway for migratory birds, historic property (see separately), sacred site where religious rites or ceremonies are performed, area inhabited by sacred animals or plants, area that includes a Wild and Scenic River designation, ecologically pristine area, or Native traditional subsistence use area. - EPA

Environs - The area outside the Community Development Boundaries of Centers.

Enzymatic hydrolysis - A process by which enzymes (biological catalysts) are used to break down starch or cellulose into sugar. - Bioenergy Glossary

EO - Emergent Oil

EO - Executive Order

EOA - Edge Of Appalachia

EOA - Elected Official Accountability

EODA - Eastern Ohio Development Alliance

EOE - Evaluation Of Evidence

EOIR - Executive Office for Immigration Review

EOMA - Eastern Oregon Mining Association

Eolian Ice Cells - Perennial ice formed from snowfall and insulated from summer heat by a cover of windblown sands. This ice feeds small ponds within the dunes. BLM-DOI

EOS - Earth Observing System

EOS - Electrical Outlet Sealer

EP - Earth Protectors

EP - Ecological Patterns

EP - Ecological Philosophy

EP - Ecosystem Partnerships

EP - Emergency Preparedness

EP - Energy Plan

EP - Enteric Pathogens

EP - Environmental Party

EP - Environmental Politics

EP - Environmental Preservation

EP - Environmental Procedure

EP - Environmental Project

EP - Environmental Puritanism

EP - Erosion Potential

EP - Esoteric Preservation

EP - Estate Planning

EP - European Parliament

EP - Existing Policy

EP - Experimental Population

EP - Extraction Procedure

EP Toxicity - A test defined by the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to check a substance for the presence of arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, or silver. 40 CFR 261.24 defines the concentrations constituting hazardous waste and the test procedure. - Bioenergy Glossary

EPA - Emergency Powers Act

EPA - Environmental Protection Agency

EPA - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protects human health and safeguards the natural environment (air, water, and land) upon which life depends.

EPAC - Environmental Political Action Committee

EPACT - Energy Policy Act (1992)

EPAW - EPA Watch

EPC - Economic Policy Council

EPC - Environmental Protection Council (IUCN)

EPCA - Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975

EPCR - Everglades Plant Community Response (USGS)

EPCRA - Emergency Planning & Community Right-To-Know Act

EPD - Emergency Planning District

EPGY - Education Program for Gifted Youth

Ephemeral - Characterized as episodic and lasting a short duration. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Ephemeral - An activity which last only a short period of time.

Ephermeral Range - A rangeland that does not consistently produce enough forage to sustain a livestock operation but may briefly produce unusual volumes of forage to accommodate livestock grazing. - BLM

Ephemeral Rangelands - Rangelands characterized by low, highly seasonal and often episodic rainfall, resulting in annual plants comprising a significant proportion of annual primary production. - BLM

Ephemeral Streams - Streams that flow only as the direct result of or response to rainfall or snowmelt events. The have no permanent flow (base flow).

EPI - Employment Policies Institute

EPIC - Electronic Privacy Information Center

EPICA - The Ecumenical Program on Central America and the Caribbean - Their statement: "A nonprofit, faith-based organization in solidarity with the poor of Central America, Mexico, the Caribbean and the United States. EPICA is a voice of solidarity and partner for grassroots organizations and churches in the Americas, combining critical social analysis, faith reflection and action for justice." Based in Washington, D.C.

Epidemic - A disease which attacks many people at about the same time. - UNEP Children's Glossary

Epidemic - The populations of plants, animals and diseases that build up, often rapidly, to highly abnormal and generally injurious levels.

Epidemiology - Study of the distribution of disease, or other health-related conditions and events in human or animal populations, in order to identify health problems and possible causes.

Epilimnion - The upper, wind-mixed layer of a thermally stratified lake. This water is turbulently mixed throughout at least some portion of the day and because of its exposure, can freely exchange dissolved gases (such as O2 and CO2) with the atmosphere. - Shoreland Mgmt. Glossary

Epiphyte - An air plant that receives water and nutrients from the air and rain, and which usually uses other plants for support. - Everglades Plan glossary

EPL - The Environmental Planning Lobby, now known as: Environmental Advocates of New York (EANY) http://www.eany.org 

EPR - Evaluation Procedures Report

EPR - Extended Product Responsibility (EPA)

EPS - Economic and Planning Systems. Conducts 'vernal pool analysis' for the government, among other things. "Economic & Planning Systems is an urban economics consulting firm specializing in real estate feasibility, fiscal analysis, public finance, regional forecasting, and international economic development. EPS has offices in Berkeley, Sacramento, and Denver." http://www.epsys.com/ 

EPSE - Exemplary Public Service Efforts (the Ad Council)

EPU - E Pluribus Unum ("out of many, one" - Latin)

Epuration (ep-yuh-RAY-shun) noun - Purification, especially removal of officials or politicians believed to be disloyal; purge. [From French epuration, epurer, to purify + ation.] "Tito's epuration in 1945-46 of the Yugoslavs he considered a threat to him took the lives, Mr. Malcolm reminds us, of 250,000 people." J.B. Kelly, Slaughterhouse: Bosnia and the Failure of the West (book review), National Review (New York), May 29, 1995. "On the shelf, however, it remained, a brand-new ten-and-sixpenny example of what in those days Faber, mistaking pomposity for high-mindedness, referred to as `paper-covered editions,' only rescued from periodic library epuration by my superstitious dread of what happens if you give away what others give to you." Jonathan Keates, The call of the wild, The Spectator (London), Jan 2, 1999.

EQC - Environmental Quality Commission

EQIP - Environmental Quality Incentives Program

EQUAL - Enhanced Quality of Life

Equestrian - Of horses, horsemen, or horseback riding. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

EQL - Equitable Quality of Life

ER - Ecological Restoration

ER - Economic Reserves

ER - Economic Revolution

ER - Ecosystem Restoration (DOI/USFWS)

ER - Education Reform

ER - Elected Representative

ER - Eligibility Requirements

ER - Emergency Relief

ER - Energy Resource

ER - Environmental Regulation

ER - Environmental Resource

ER - Environmental Restraints

ER - Environmentally Responsible

ER - Expenditure Responsibility

ERA - Economic Regulatory Agency, Equal Rights Amendment

ERA - European Research Area

ERAAS - Earth-Raping, Animal-Abusing Scum (view of Earth Liberation Front toward multiple users)

ERB - Energy Resource Base

ERC - Emission Reduction Credits

ERC - English Ruling Class

ERC - Environmental Research Center

ERC - European Research Community

ERCA - Environmentally Responsible Commercial Activities

ERDA - Energy Research and Development Agency

ERDAS - A raster based satellite image processing system

ERG - The Environics Research Group

ERFO - Emergency Relief Federally Owned

ERL - Environmental Research Laboratory

ERMA - Extensive Recreation Management Areas

Erodibility index (EI) - A numerical expression of the potential of a soil to erode, considering the physical and chemical properties of the soil and climatic conditions where it is located. The higher the index, the greater the investment needed to maintain the sustainability of the soil resource base if intensively cropped. EI scores above 8 are equated to highly erodible land. - National Resources Inventory

EROS - Earth Resources Observation System data center (South Dakota - The U.S. Geological Survey)

Erosion - The wearing away of the land surface by wind or water. The detachment and movement of individual soil and rock particles by gravity and/or other geologic agents, wind, water, freezing and thawing, and/or other natural phenomena. Natural erosion is a geologic process that occurs under natural conditions of climate and vegetation. 2. The process of soil and nutrient loss, which leads to a decline in biological productivity. (UNESCO)

Erosion (accelerated) - Erosion much more rapid than geologic erosion, mainly as a result of the activities of man or other animals or of a catastrophe in nature, for example: fire, that exposes the surface. - USDA

Erosion Blanket - Material such as straw, jute matting, or rock that is applied to the surface to minimize erosion of soil particles caused by the impact of rain drop splash and water flowing over the surface. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Erosion (erodibility) Index (EI) - The erosion (sometimes called erodibility) index is created by dividing potential erosion (from all sources except gully erosion) by the 'T' value, which is the rate of soil erosion above which long term productivity may be adversely affected. The erodibility index is used in the conservation compliance and Conservation Reserve Programs. For example, one of the eligibility requirements for the CRP is that land have an EI greater than 8.

Erosion (geologic) - Erosion caused by geologic processes acting over long geologic periods and resulting in the wearing away of mountains and the building up of such landscape features as flood plains and coastal plains. Synonym: natural erosion. - USDA

ERP - Ecosystem Restoration Program

ERP - Enforcement Response Policy

ERR - Environmentally Responsible Recreation

ERS - Economic Research Service

ERT - Economic Revitalization Team

ERT - Emergency Response Team

ERT - Emergency Response Time

ERU - Emergency Response Unit

ERW - Extraordinary Resource Waters (EPA)

ES - Eagle Society

ES - Earth Sciences

ES - Ecological Services

ES - Ecological Sustainability

ES - Economic Security

ES - Economic System

ES - the Economics of Sustainability

ES - Electronic Surveillance

ES - Emerging Science

ES - Endangered Species

ES - Energy Sensitive

ESA - Ecological Society of America (partners with The Nature Conservancy)

ESA - Economic Study Area - DOI/NPS/BLM

ESA - Endangered Species Act of 1973

ESA - Environmentally Sensitive Area

ESA - European Space Agency

ESA - European Seed Association

ESAGC - ESA Grassroots Coalition

ESARP - Endangered Species Act Reform Project http://www.pacificlegal.org 

ESC - Endangered Species Coalition

ESC - The Endangered Species Coalition

ESC - Endangered Species Committee (God Squad)

ESC - Endangered Species Consultations

ESC - Ecological Science Center

ESCAP - Economic And Social Commission For Asia And The Pacific (UN)

ESCAPA - Empire State Concrete and Aggregate Producers Association

Escape Cover - Vegetation of sufficient size and density to hide an animal, or an area used by animals to escape from predators.

ESCP - Energy-Smart Community Planning

ESCP - Energy Star Congregation program (EPA designed for Jewish Synagogues)

ESD - Ecologically Sustainable Development (IUCN)

ESD - Energy for Sustainable Development

ESDA - Environmentally Sensitive Development Area

ESDC - Empire State Development Corporation

ESEA - Elementary and Secondary Education Act

ESECA - Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974

ESEP - Environmentally Sound Economic Progress

ESEP - Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics

ESF - Exchange Stabilization Fund

ESFO - Endangered Species Field Offices (DOI/USFWS)

ESFP - Environmentally sustainable food production

ESG - Early Successional Growth

ESH - Early Successional Habitat

ESHOD - Environmentally sensitive habitat overlay district (UN)

ESI - Earth Sciences Investigations (USGS)

ESIA - Eastern Sierra Interpretive Association http://www.fs.fed.us/r5/inyo/maps/esia/ 

ESIC - Earth Science Information Center (U.S. Geologic Survey)

ESL - Endangered Species Listing

ESL - English as a Second Language (part of 'Our Global Village' 'education') http://courses.international.edu/bc680/nmcgahn/links/Useful%20Resources.html  http://www.eli.vt.edu/home/resources.html http://palc.sd40.bc.ca/palc/esl.htm 

ESL - Environmentally Sensitive Land

ESM - Evaluation Species Model (wildlife habitat)

ESMP - Endangered Species Management Plan DOI/USFWS

ESRI - Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc.

ESSF - Early Seral Stage Forests

Establishment - Perpetuation, for the foreseeable future, of a pest within an area after entry. - UN/FAO International Plant Protection Convention Glossary

Estate - The condition or circumstances in which an owner stands with reference to his property. The degree, quality, nature, and extent of one's interest in, or ownership of, property, real, personal, and mixed. "Estate" describes property, particularly real property, of which one is possessed. - Cadastral Data glossary

Estuarine - Of or having to do with the area where the sea meets a freshwater stream/river. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Estuarine system - Deepwater tidal habitats and adjacent tidal wetlands that are semienclosed by land but have open, partly obstructed, or sporadic access to the open ocean, and in which ocean water is at least occasionally diluted by freshwater runoff from the land. [USFWS] - NRI Glossary 2. Wetlands occurring in the Estuarine System, one of five systems in the classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats (see Wetlands, Cowardin et al. 1979). Estuarine wetlands are tidal wetlands that are usually semienclosed by land but have open, partly obstructed or sporadic access to the open ocean, and in which ocean water is at least occasionally diluted by freshwater runoff from the land. The most common example is where a river flows into the ocean. - National Resources Inventory

Estate Planning - Making financial and legal arrangements for one or more persons to provide for retirement and for passing assets to their heirs.

Estuary - Regions of interaction between rivers and near- shore ocean waters, where tidal action and river flow mix fresh and salt water. Such areas include bays, mouths of rivers, salt marshes, and lagoons. These brackish water ecosystems shelter and feed marine life, birds, and wildlife. Estuaries typically include adjoining wetlands. A semi-enclosed coastal body of water that has a free connection with the open sea. It is strongly affected by tidal action, and within it seawater is mixed, and usually measurably diluted, with fresh water. 2. Partially enclosed coastal area at the mouth of a river where its fresh water, carrying fertile silt and runoff from the land mixes with salty seawater. (UNESCO)

ESU - Endangered Species Update (published monthly by the University of Michigan)

ESU - English-Speaking Union

ESU - Evolutionarily Significant Unit/Units

ESW - Endangered Species and Wetlands

ESW - The Environmental Summit on the West

ESWR - Endangered Species and Wetlands Report (monthly)

ET - Economic Target

ET - Economic Trends

ET - Eco-Terrorism

ET - Eco-Theocracy

ET - EcoTrust

ET - Emissions Testing

ET - Epidemic Threshold

ET - E Trade

ET - European Theater

ET - Event Trees (part of risk analysis)

ET - Extractive Technologies

ETC - Education To Careers

ETC - Environmental Technology Centre (Canadian government agency - ETC provides specialized scientific support and undertakes research and development for Environmental Protection programs. The Centre focuses on four main areas: technologies for measuring air pollutants in ambient air and from mobile and stationary sources; analysis of a wide variety of organic and inorganic compounds in diverse samples; assessments and clean-up of contaminated sites; and prevention of and response to pollution emergencies such as oil and chemical spills.)

ETC - Environmental Tectonics Corporation

ETF - The Energy Task Force

ETH - Excessive Timber Harvest

Ethanol - C2H50H; the alcohol product of carbohydrate fermentation used in alcoholic beverages and for industrial purposes (also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol). It is blended with gasoline to make gasohol. In the 1997/98 corn-marketing year, about 485 million bushels of corn were used to produce about 1.2 billion gallons of ethanol.

Ethics - Our beliefs about what is right and wrong behavior. (UNESCO)

Ethnographic Resources - Basic expressions of human culture, such as a site, structure, object, landscape, or natural resource feature. These resources are assigned traditional legendary, religious, subsistence, or other significance in the cultural system of a group traditionally associated with it. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/ 

ETJ - Extraterritorial Jurisdiction

ETL - Environmental Timeline

ETP - Education Technology Plan

ETP - Emissions Trading Policy

ETTC - Eco-Terrorism Training Camp

ETZA - Extra-Territorial Zone Authority

EU - End User

EU - European Union

EU - Exclusion Unit (DOI/NPS)

EUA - Environment and Urban Affairs

EUDA - End-Users of Derivatives Association

EUP - Environmental Use Permit

EurlG - European Interest Group

Eurl on TBP - European Interest Group on Telematics Best Practice

European Community (EC) - A regional organization created by the Treaty of Rome (1957), which provided for the gradual elimination of customs duties and other interregional trade barriers, a common external tariff, and gradual adoption of other integrating measures, including the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), and guarantees of free movement of labor and capital. Of the current 15 member countries, the original six were Belgium, France, West German, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. Membership expanded to include Denmark, Ireland, and the United Kingdom in 1973; Greece in 1981; Spain and Portugal in 1986; and Austria, Finland, and Sweden in 1995. In 1993, with establishment of the European Union (EU), the EC became the customs union component of the EU.

European Comparison Program (ECP) - The set of ICP comparisons for Europe carried out under the auspices of the Economic Commission for Europe. In the 1985 comparison the ECP was built on the EEC and part of the OECD comparisons and a group of Eastern European countries for which Austria served as the center for a set of binary comparisons. (UN)

European Union (EU) - Since 1993, the term used to describe the European Community and related institutions. The entry into force of the Maastricht Treaty of European Union on November 1, 1993 introduced this change in terminology regarding the EC and many of its institutions. The EU today consists of: France, Belgium, Germany, The Netherlands, Italy, Luxembourg, United Kingdom, Austria, Spain, Portugal, Sweden, Finland, Ireland, Denmark, and Greece.

Eutrophic - A body of water which is excessively rich in dissolved nutrients and usually poor in dissolved oxygen. Opp: oligotrophic - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Eutrophication - The process of excessive addition of inorganic nutrients, organic matter and/or silt to lakes and reservoirs, leading to increased biological production and a decrease in volume. Process by which a lake or pond becomes rich in plant nutrient minerals and organisms but deficient in oxygen. The process by which a body of water acquires a high concentration of plant nutrients, especially nitrates or phosphates. This nutrification promotes algae growth that, when it dies, can lead to the depletion of dissolved oxygen, killing fish and other aquatic organisms. While eutrophication is a natural, slow-aging process for a body of water, human activities can greatly accelerate the process.

EUTZ - European Union Trade Zone

EV - Economic Value

EV - Economic Viability

EV - Ecosystem Valuation. From The Scout Report for Science & Engineering, Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2000. http://scout.cs.wisc.edu/. "Developed as a collaborative project of the USDA, NRCS, US Department of Commerce, NOAA-Sea Grant Office, and University of Maryland, Center for Environmental Science, this new Website examines how economists attempt to assign values to ecosystem services. Topics are explained in terms that laypersons will understand (a glossary is also provided) but without compromising the quality of information. Anyone interested in learning more about this controversial but increasingly important area will find this site an excellent starting point." http://www.ecosystemvaluation.org/default.htm 

EV - Emerging Virus

EV - Emotional Validation

EV - Exceptional Value (waters of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, including wetlands)

Evaluation - Section F of the Operational Guidelines establishes "Guidelines for the evaluation and examination of nominations" (UNESCO February 1996: 18-19). At the beginning of Section F, Paragraph 57 states that: The evaluation of whether or not individual sites nominated by States Parties satisfy the criteria and the conditions of authenticity/integrity will be carried out by the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) for cultural properties and by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) for natural properties. In the case of nominations of cultural properties in the category of 'cultural landscapes', as appropriate, the evaluation will be carried out in consultation with the World Conservation Union (IUCN) (UNESCO February 1996:18). Paragraphs 57 to 63 of the Operational Guidelines provide further guidance as to the preparation of technical evaluations by ICOMOS and IUCN (UNESCO February 1996: 18-19). Section H of the Operational Guidelines in outlining the "Procedure and timetable for the processing of nominations", refers to the timing of the preparation of evaluations by IUCN and ICOMOS and to their examination by the World Heritage Committee and its Bureau (UNESCO February 1996: 23-25). See also Comparative evaluation, ICOMOS evaluation, IUCN evaluation, Timetable - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Evaluation (Cultural Resources) - The analysis of cultural resource inventory records, the application of professional judgment to identify characteristics that contribute to possible uses for recorded cultural resources, and the recommendation of appropriate use(s) for each resource or group of resources. National Register eligibility criteria, 36 CFR Part 60, are interpreted through or with reference to BLM evaluation criteria. - BLM

Evaluation (Plan Evaluation) - The process of reviewing the land use plan and the periodic plan monitoring reports to determine whether the land use plan decisions and NEPA analysis are still valid and whether the plan is being implemented. - BLM

Evans-Allen Funds - Federal funds distributed to the 1890 land grant colleges of agriculture under a provision in the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977, to support research programs. The provision became known by the names of two of its primary proponents in Congress, Representative Frank Evans of Colorado and Representative James Allen of Alabama.

Evaporation - The process by which water is changed from the liquid or the solid state into the vapor state. In hydrology, evaporation is vaporization that takes place at a temperature below the boiling point. - USGS

Evaporation opportunity (relative evaporation) - The ratio of the rate of evaporation from a land or water surface in contact with the atmosphere, to the evaporativity under existing atmospheric conditions. It is the ratio of actual to potential rate of evaporation, generally stated as a percentage. (Derived from Meinzer, 1923, p. 14.) The opportunity for a given rate of evaporation to continue is determined by the available moisture supply. (Meyer, 1928, p. 244.) - USGS

Evaporation pan - An open tank used to contain water for measuring the amount of evaporation. The U.S. Weather Bureau class A pan is 4 feet in diameter, 10 inches deep, set up on a timber grillage so that the top rim is about 16 inches from the ground. The water level in the pan during the course of observation is maintained between 2 and 3 inches below the rim. - USGS

Evaporation, total - The sum of water lost from a given land area during any specific time by transpiration from vegetation and building of plant tissue; by evaporation from water surfaces, moist soil, and snow; and by interception. It has been variously termed "evaporation," "evaporation from land areas," "evapotranspiration," "total loss," "water losses," and "fly off." (Lee, 1949, p. 314.) - USGS

Evaporativity (potential rate of evaporation) - The rate of evaporation under the existing atmospheric conditions from a surface of water that is chemically pure and has the temperature of the atmosphere. (Meinzer, 1923, p. 13.) - USGS

Evapotranspiration, potential - See Potential evapotranspiration. - USGS

Evapotranspiration - A physical process by which plants uptake water from adjacent soil or body of water and evaporate the water into the atmosphere through the surfaces of the plant. A collective term that describes water movement back to the atmosphere as a result of evaporation from soil surfaces and surface water bodies, and by plant transpiration. The loss of water from the soil both by evaporation and by transpiration from the plants growing in the soil.

EVC - Economically Viable Community

EVC - Existing Visual Condition

Even Aged Management - Timber management actions that result in the creation of stands of trees in which the trees are essentially the same age. The application of a combination of actions that result in the creation of stands in which trees of essentially the same age grow together. Clear-cut, shelter wood or seed tree harvest methods produce even-aged stands.

Even Aged Stands - Stands in which all trees are of about the same age (a spread of 10 to 20 years is generally considered one age class).

Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) - Land in the northern Everglades that was drained for agricultural development. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Everglades Construction Project (ECP) - Composed of twelve inter-related construction projects located between Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades, the cornerstone of which is six stormwater treatment areas (constructed wetlands) totaling over 47,000 acres, which use biological processes to reduce the level of phosphorous entering the Everglades to an interim goal of 50 parts per billion. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Everglades Stormwater Program - A program to ensure that water quality standards are met at all structures not included in the Everglades Construction Project. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Everglades Trust Fund - A fund created by law (Chapter 97-258, Florida Statutes) to support ecosystem restoration. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Evergreen - Bearing green leaves or stems over the winter; not deciduous. (NPS)

Evolve - Proceeding through the natural process of change caused by genetic mutations and selection upon those mutations for environmentally favorable traits. Two different environments can lead to the evolution of two different organisms from one ancestor. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Evolution - Any gradual change. Organic evolution is any genetic change in organisms from generation to generation. - UNDP/WRI

Evolution - One of the fundamental theories of modern biology which postulates that changes in species through time are the result of natural selection acting on the genetic variation that is present among the individuals of any given species (United Nations).

Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESU) - The National Marine Fisheries Service came up with another word for distinct population segments, which is "evolutionarily significant units" or ESUs. Like many of the new words and acronyms invented by the government, this ESU term doesn't mean what it says at all. None of these units are significant to the evolution of the salmon. Any one of them could disappear, and the salmon species would go right on living. Note: it was used in US district court for the District of Oregon Case No. 99-6265-HO where the validity of the listing of the Coho Salmon was successfully challenged. In that case, it is stated, "The ESA defines 'species' to include any subspecies of fish or wildlife or plants, and any distinct population segment of any species of vertebrate fish or wildlife which interbreeds when mature." 16 U.S.C. 1532(16)

EVRW - Exceptional Value Resource Waters

EVU - Evolutionary Significant Unit

EW - Earth Warriors

EW - Earth Worship

EW - Earth Worshippers

EW - Edelman Worldwide

EW - Emergent Wetland

EW - Escrow Waiver

EWA - The Engineered Wood Association

EWA - Exotic Wildlife Association

EWCH - Endangered Without Critical Habitat (DOI/USFWS)

EWF - Eco Web Fronteriza, also known as BEP - The Border Ecology Project (UN) http://www.borderecoweb.sdsu.edu/bew/drct_pgs/b/bep.html 

EWG - Ecology Working Group (part of TNC - 1994)

EWG - Environmental Working Group

EWGCC - East-West Gateway Coordinating Council

EWL - Environmental Web Links

EWPP - Emergency Watershed Protection Program

EWRI - The Environmental & Water Resources Institute

EWS - Early Warning System

EWSE - European Wide Service Exchange

EWW - Enterprise Works Worldwide

EWWH - Exceptional Warm Water Habitat DOI/USFWS

Ex situ - Removed from the original place and context, as in a museum. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/ 

Ex situ Conservation - A conservation method that entails the removal of germplasm resources (seed, pollen, sperm, individual organisms, from their original habitat or natural environment. Keeping components of biodiversity alive outside of their original habitat or natural environment. - UNDP/WRI

Excavation and Mining - Requirements governing certain minimum aspects of the operation of such facilities such as hours of operation, amount of truck traffic, noise and dust; also establishes setback requirements and may be subject to special permit and site plan approval; additionally, municipalities may exclude mining facilities from locating anywhere within their respective borders.

Exaction - "Exactions" have gained credibility in zoning. For example, an applicant must donate park land, a buffer zone or money toward such in order to secure a permit. See Dolan v. Tigard and Nollan v. California Coastal Commission under Extortion, Nexus, Proportionality. Or -- in the extreme -- he must pay the salary of a government official instead of it being paid through the normal government channels. Black's Law Dictionary, 4th Ed. defines exaction as: "The wrongful act of an officer or other person in compelling payment of a fee or reward for his services, under color of his official authority, where no payment is due." "Between 'extortion' and 'exaction' there is this difference: that in the former case the officer extorts more than is his due; in the latter, he exacts what is not his due, when there is nothing due to him." - Henry Campbell Black, Black's Law Dictionary, Rev. Fourth Ed., West Publ. 1968, p664 (See Nexus, Proportionality) - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary

Examiner - A person who analyzes a chain of title to land, passes on the validity of various instruments, and then renders an opinion. - Cadastral Data glossary

EXECOM - The Executive Committee of Non-Governmental Organizations Associated with The United Nations Department of Public Information

EXCEL - EXcellence through Choice in Education League

Exception - An exception withdraws a part of the thing described as granted, and which would pass but for the excepting clause. The word "except" means "not included". Lot 12, excepting the east 30 feet clearly conveys that portion of lot 12 lying west of the east 30 feet, Lot 12 and 13, except the east 30 feet is not clear since the exception might apply to either lot or both. Lot 13 and lot 13, except the east 30 feet of lot 13 is better. - Cadastral Data glossary

Excess annual growth - The amount by which new forest growth exceeds removal in a year. The annual quantity of wood produced in a forest in excess of market demand. - Bioenergy Glossary

Excess fines - Excess silt and clay in the soil. The soil is not a source of gravel or sand for construction purposes. - USDA

Excess Land - Irrigable land, other than exempt land, owned by any landowner in excess of the maximum acreage limitation (ownership entitlement) under the applicable provision of reclamation law. (UN)

ExEx - Expected Exceedance

Exchange of Letters/Notes - States may express their consent to be bound by an "exchange of letters/notes". The basic characteristic of this procedure is that the signatures do appear not on one letter or note but on two separate letters or notes. The agreement therefore lies in the exchange of both letters and notes, each of the parties having in their possession one letter or note signed by the representative of the other party. In practice, the second letter or note, usually the letter or note in response, will typically reproduce the text of the first. In a bilateral treaty, letters or notes may also be exchanged to indicate that all necessary domestic procedures have been completed. [Art.13, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969] (UN) 2. An "exchange of notes" is a record of a routine agreement that has many similarities with the private law contract. The agreement consists of the exchange of two documents, each of the parties being in the possession of the one signed by the representative of the other. Under the usual procedure, the accepting State repeats the text of the offering State to record its assent. The signatories of the letters may be government Ministers, diplomats or departmental heads. The technique of exchange of notes is frequently resorted to, either because of its speedy procedure, or, sometimes, to avoid the process of legislative approval. (UN)

Exclusion - An environmentally sensitive area where rights-of-way would be granted only in cases where there is a legal requirement to provide such access. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Exclusion Areas - Areas on public lands where future rights-of-way may be granted only when mandated by law. 2. An environmentally sensitive area where rights-of-way would be granted only in cases where there is a legal requirement to provide such access. - BLM

Exclusive Ownership - An ownership of real property that is free from any legal or equitable interest that another might have in that property. - Cadastral Data glossary

Executive Order 11988 (1977) - Each Federal agency shall provide leadership and take action to reduce the risk of flood loss and minimize the impact of floods on human safety, and preserve the natural and beneficial values served by the floodplains.

Executive Order 11990 - Directs Federal agencies to 1) minimize destruction, loss, or degradation of wetlands and 2) preserve and enhance the natural and beneficial values of wetlands when a practical alternative exists.

Executive Order 12372 (Intergovernmental Review of Federal Programs) - Directs USFWS to send copies of the Environmental Assessment to State Planning Agencies for review.

Executive Order 12898 (1994) - Establishes environmental justice as a Federal government priority and directs all Federal agencies to make environmental justice part of their mission. Environmental justice calls for fair distribution of environmental hazards.

Executive Order 12986 - Effective Date January 11, 1996. INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES. By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including sections 1 and 14 of the International Organizations Immunities Act (22 U.S.C. 288 et seq., as amended by section 426 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, fiscal years 1994 and 1995, Public Law 103-236), I hereby extend to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural resources the privileges and immunities that provide or pertain to immunity from suit. To this effect, the following sections of the International Organizations Immunities Act shall not apply to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources: Section 2(b), 22 U.S.C. 288a(b), that provides international organizations and their property and assets with the same immunity from suit and judicial process as is enjoyed by foreign governments. Section 2(c), 22 U.S.C. 288a(c), that provides that the property and assets of international organizations shall be immune from search and confiscation and that their archives shall be inviolable. Section 7(b), 22 U.S.C. 288d(b), that provides the representatives of foreign governments in or to international organizations and the officers and employees of such organizations with immunity form suit and legal process relating to acts performed by them in their official capacity and falling within their functions. /s/William J. Clinton THE WHITE HOUSE.

Executive Order 12996 (1996) - (Management and General Public Use of the National Wildlife Refuge System) Defines the mission, purpose, and priority public uses of the National Wildlife Refuge System. It also presents four principles to guide management of the System.

Executive Order 13007 (1996) - (Indian Sacred Sites) Directs Federal land management agencies to accommodate access to and ceremonial use of Indian sacred sites by Indian religious practitioners, avoid adversely affecting the physical integrity of such sacred sites, and where appropriate, maintain the confidentiality of sacred sites.

Executive Order 13112 - February 3, 1999. Invasive Species. By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), Non-indigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990, as amended (16 U.S.C. 4701 et seq.), Lacey Act, as amended (18 U.S.C. 42), Federal Plant Pest Act (7 U.S.C. 150aa et seq.), Federal Noxious Weed Act of 1974, as amended (7 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.), Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), and other pertinent statutes, to prevent the introduction of invasive species and provide for their control and to minimize the economic, ecological, and human health impacts that invasive species cause, it is ordered as follows: Section 1. Definitions. (a) "Alien species" means, with respect to a particular ecosystem, any species, including its seeds, eggs, spores, or other biological material capable of propagating that species, that is not native to that ecosystem. (b) "Control" means, as appropriate, eradicating, suppressing, reducing, or managing invasive species populations, preventing spread of invasive species from areas where they are present, and taking steps such as restoration of native species and habitats to reduce the effects of invasive species and to prevent further invasions. (c) "Ecosystem" means the complex of a community of organisms and its environment. (d) "Federal agency" means an executive department or agency, but does not include independent establishments as defined by 5 U.S.C. 104. (e) "Introduction" means the intentional or unintentional escape, release, dissemination, or placement of a species into an ecosystem as a result of human activity. (f) "Invasive species" means an alien species whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health. g) "Native species" means, with respect to a particular ecosystem, a species that, other than as a result of an introduction, historically occurred or currently occurs in that ecosystem. (h) "Species" means a group of organisms all of which have a high degree of physical and genetic similarity, generally interbreed only among themselves, and show persistent differences from members of allied groups of organisms. (i) "Stakeholders" means, but is not limited to, State, tribal, and local government agencies, academic institutions, the scientific community, non-governmental entities including environmental, agricultural, and conservation organizations, trade groups, commercial interests, and private landowners. (j) "United States" means the 50 States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, and all possessions, territories, and the territorial sea of the United States. Section 2. Federal Agency Duties. (a) Each Federal agency whose actions may affect the status of invasive species shall, to the extent practicable and permitted by law, (1) identify such actions;(2) subject to the availability of appropriations, and within Administration budgetary limits, use relevant programs and authorities to: (i) prevent the introduction of invasive species; (ii) detect and respond rapidly to and control populations of such species in a cost-effective and environmentally sound manner; (iii) monitor invasive species populations accurately and reliably; (iv) provide for restoration of native species and habitat conditions in ecosystems that have been invaded; (v) conduct research on invasive species and develop technologies to prevent introduction and provide for environmentally sound control of invasive species; and (vi) promote public education on invasive species and the means to address them; and (3) not authorize, fund, or carry out actions that it believes are likely to cause or promote the introduction or spread of invasive species in the United States or elsewhere unless, pursuant to guidelines that it has prescribed, the agency has determined and made public its determination that the benefits of such actions clearly outweigh the potential harm caused by invasive species; and that all feasible and prudent measures to minimize risk of harm will be taken in conjunction with the actions. (b) Federal agencies shall pursue the duties set forth in this section in consultation with the Invasive Species Council, consistent with the Invasive Species Management Plan and in cooperation with stakeholders, as appropriate, and, as approved by the Department of State, when Federal agencies are working with international organizations and foreign nations. Section 3. Invasive Species Council. (a) An Invasive Species Council (Council) is hereby established whose members shall include the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Transportation, and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. The Council shall be Co-Chaired by the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, and the Secretary of Commerce. The Council may invite additional Federal agency representatives to be members, including representatives from sub-cabinet bureaus or offices with significant responsibilities concerning invasive species, and may prescribe special procedures for their participation. The Secretary of the Interior shall, with concurrence of the Co-Chairs, appoint an Executive Director of the Council and shall provide the staff and administrative support for the Council. (b) The Secretary of the Interior shall establish an advisory committee under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., to provide information and advice for consideration by the Council, and shall, after consultation with other members of the Council, appoint members of the advisory committee representing stakeholders. Among other things, the advisory committee shall recommend plans and actions at local, tribal, State, regional, and ecosystem-based levels to achieve the goals and objectives of the Management Plan in section 5 of this order. The advisory committee shall act in cooperation with stakeholders and existing organizations addressing invasive species. The Department of the Interior shall provide the administrative and financial support for the advisory committee. Section 4. Duties of the Invasive Species Council. The Invasive Species Council shall provide national leadership regarding invasive species, and shall: (a) oversee the implementation of this order and see that the Federal agency activities concerning invasive species are coordinated, complementary, cost-efficient, and effective, relying to the extent feasible and appropriate on existing organizations addressing invasive species, such as the Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force, the Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds, and the Committee on Environment and Natural Resources, (b) encourage planning and action at local, tribal, State, regional, and ecosystem-based levels to achieve the goals and objectives of the Management Plan in section 5 of this order, in cooperation with stakeholders and existing organizations addressing invasive species, (c) develop recommendations for international cooperation in addressing invasive species, (d) develop, in consultation with the Council on Environmental Quality, guidance to Federal agencies pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act on prevention and control of invasive species, including the procurement, use, and maintenance of native species as they affect invasive species, (e) facilitate development of a coordinated network among Federal agencies to document, evaluate, and monitor impacts from invasive species on the economy, the environment, and human health, (f) facilitate establishment of a coordinated, up-to-date information-sharing system that utilizes, to the greatest extent practicable, the Internet; this system shall facilitate access to and exchange of information concerning invasive species, including, but not limited to, information on distribution and abundance of invasive species; life histories of such species and invasive characteristics; economic, environmental, and human health impacts; management techniques, and laws and programs for management, research, and public education, and (g) prepare and issue a National Invasive Species Management Plan as set forth in section 5 of this order. Section 5. Invasive Species Management Plan. (a) Within 18 months after issuance of this order, the Council shall prepare and issue the first edition of a National Invasive Species Management Plan (Management Plan), which shall detail and recommend performance-oriented goals and objectives and specific measures of success for Federal agency efforts concerning invasive species. The Management Plan shall recommend specific objectives and measures for carrying out each of the Federal agency duties established in section 2(a) of this order and shall set forth steps to be taken by the Council to carry out the duties assigned to it under section 4 of this order. The Management Plan shall be developed through a public process and in consultation with Federal agencies and stakeholders. (b) The first edition of the Management Plan shall include a review of existing and prospective approaches and authorities for preventing the introduction and spread of invasive species, including those for identifying pathways by which invasive species are introduced and for minimizing the risk of introductions via those pathways, and shall identify research needs and recommend measures to minimize the risk that introductions will occur. Such recommended measures shall provide for a science-based process to evaluate risks associated with introduction and spread of invasive species and a coordinated and systematic risk-based process to identify, monitor, and interdict pathways that may be involved in the introduction of invasive species. If recommended measures are not authorized by current law, the Council shall develop and recommend to the President through its Co-Chairs legislative proposals for necessary changes in authority. (c) The Council shall update the Management Plan biennially and shall concurrently evaluate and report on success in achieving the goals and objectives set forth in the Management Plan. The Management Plan shall identify the personnel, other resources, and additional levels of coordination needed to achieve the Management Plan's identified goals and objectives, and the Council shall provide each edition of the Management Plan and each report on it to the Office of Management and Budget. Within 18 months after measures have been recommended by the Council in any edition of the Management Plan, each Federal agency whose action is required to implement such measures shall either take the action recommended or shall provide the Council with an explanation of why the action is not feasible. The Council shall assess the effectiveness of this order no less than once each 5 years after the order is issued and shall report to the Office of Management and Budget on whether the order should be revised. Section 6. Judicial Review and Administration. (a) This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch and is not intended to create any right, benefit, or trust responsibility, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or equity by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any other person. (b) Executive Order 11987 of May 24, 1977, is hereby revoked. (c) The requirements of this order do not affect the obligations of Federal agencies under 16 U.S.C. 4713 with respect to ballast water programs. (d) The requirements of section 2(a)(3) of this order shall not apply to any action of the Department of State or Department of Defense if the Secretary of State or the Secretary of Defense finds that exemption from such requirements is necessary for foreign policy or national security reasons. /S/ William J. Clinton THE WHITE HOUSE, February 3, 1999. [FR Doc. 99-3184] http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/020399em.htm 

Executive Order #13158 - [Federal Register: July 23, 2003 (Volume 68, Number 141)] [Notices] [Page 43495-43498] From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov] [DOCID:fr23jy03-30] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [Docket No. 030530139-3139-01; I.D. 010401B] Marine Protected Areas and an Inventory of Existing Marine Managed Areas. AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Solicitation of public comments on proposed criteria for building an Inventory of Marine Managed Areas. SUMMARY: NOAA and the Office of the Secretary, Department of the Interior (DOI), jointly propose criteria, definitions, and data fields that will be used in development of an Inventory of U.S. Marine Managed Areas or MMAs. The MMA Inventory will provide information that will lead to the fulfillment of requirements of Executive Order (E.O.) 13158 on Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). This action requests comments on the working criteria for including existing sites in the MMA Inventory, and describes data fields to provide consistent information about each site. This notice also makes clear that the development of the MMA Inventory is Phase I, to be followed by the development of the List of MPAs (Phase II) called for in E.O. 13158. The intent of this document is to solicit public participation in the development of an inventory of existing U.S. MMAs (Federal, state, commonwealth, territorial, and tribal sites) as a resource for managers, scientists, and the general public. DATES: Comments must be received on or before September 22, 2003. ADDRESSES: Comments regarding the proposed MMA Inventory criteria, definitions, and data fields should be sent to Joseph Uravitch, National MPA Center, N/ORM, NOAA, 1305 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910. Comments also will be accepted if submitted via e-mail to mpa.comments@noaa.gov E-mail comments should state "MMA Inventory Comments'' on the subject line. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Joseph Uravitch, NOAA, 301-713-3155, x195, or Piet deWitt, DOI, 202-208-6224. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Electronic Access. This Federal Register document also is accessible via the Internet at the Office of the Federal Register's web site at http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs/aces/aces140.html  Background. E.O. 13158 directs DOC and DOI, in consultation with the Department of Defense, the Department of State, the United States Agency for International Development, the Department of Transportation, the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Science Foundation, and 'other pertinent Federal agencies,' to work with 'non-Federal partners' to 'protect' significant natural and cultural resources within the marine environment of the United States, including the Great Lakes, by strengthening and expanding a scientifically-based comprehensive national system of MPAs. A key purpose of E.O. 13158 is to "enhance the conservation of our Nation's natural and cultural marine heritage and the ecologically and economically sustainable use of the marine environment for future generations.'' A first step in developing this scientifically based national system of MPAs is the development of an inventory of MMAs. This inventory will become the initial pool of sites from which the List of MPAs called for in section 4(d) of E.O. 13158 will be developed. DOC and DOI were given specific roles by E.O. 13158. DOC has delegated lead responsibility to the Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere. DOI has delegated its lead to the Assistant Secretary, Lands and Minerals Management. NOAA and DOI have stewardship responsibilities for marine resources under various Federal laws, including: the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, the Endangered Species Act, the Marine Mammal Protection Act, the Coastal Zone Management Act, the National Marine Sanctuaries Act, the Antiquities Act, the National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act, the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, and the National Park Service Organic Act. These and other authorities direct DOC and DOI agencies to manage marine areas for a wide variety of objectives. Area-based management has been used for years to protect marine habitats and submerged cultural resources, rebuild and sustain fisheries, provide recreational opportunities, promote marine research, recover endangered species, and support local economies that depend on ocean resources. These areas have been managed in different ways ranging from restricting specific activities and allowing sustainable use of natural resources within an area, to the establishment of marine reserves that limit access and close the site to all uses except research. The MMA Inventory will be used in Phase I to inform Federal, state, commonwealth, territorial, local, and tribal agencies of the locations and characteristics of existing MMAs and to form a pool from which sites may later be considered for placement on the List of MPAs (Phase II). Resource managers and others can use this information to better manage these areas and determine the effectiveness of individual sites, as well as regional and national assemblages. The core purposes of the MMA Inventory are: Providing centralized, easily accessed information and maps on existing Federal, state, commonwealth, territorial, local, and tribal MMAs in the United States; Providing information and tools for environmental assessments and effectiveness monitoring (supporting independent analyses and studies of a wide variety of marine issues by governmental and non-governmental users); Providing important site-specific information for developing and maintaining the official nationwide List of MPAs required by section 4(d) of E.O. 13158; and Providing information to fulfill other requirements of E.O. 13158. NOAA and DOI have placed a variety of protective or restrictive measures on different marine areas to achieve different management purposes. The definitions and working criteria proposed in this notice are being used to build the MMA Inventory and may, at some future date, be used in determining which sites should be placed on the List of MPAs (Phase II). However, these definitions and criteria are not final and are subject to change based on public comment and through experience gained by using the MMA Inventory and implementing E.O. 13158. The public will be informed of changes to the criteria through the Federal Register and the MPA web site, http://www.mpa.gov. It is important to distinguish between the MMA Inventory and the List of MPAs. The MMA Inventory is not designed to fulfill the requirement of E.O. 13158 for a List of MPAs but is the first step toward development of that List. The List is to be established at some future date after an administrative process for listing has been established. After public comment on this notice, NOAA and DOI will decide if the working criteria for building the MMA Inventory should be broadened, narrowed, or otherwise modified. A notice of agency decision will be published in the Federal Register and the MPA web site, http://www.mpa.gov  will be modified appropriately. Proposal. E.O. 13158 defines a "marine protected area'' as ''any area of the marine environment that has been reserved by Federal, State, territorial, tribal, or local laws or regulations to provide lasting protection for part or all of the natural and cultural resources therein.'' The E.O. defines ''marine environment'' to mean ''those areas of coastal and ocean waters, the Great Lakes and their connecting waters, and submerged lands thereunder, over which the United States exercises jurisdiction, consistent with international law.'' The E.O. does not define other key terms in the MPA definition such as ''lasting,'' ''protection,'' and ''cultural resources.'' Given the breadth of these terms and the wide array of sites they could include, NOAA and DOI are clarifying key terms within the E.O.'s MPA definition that will serve as criteria for determining MMAs. Therefore, NOAA and DOI jointly propose the following definitions for: ''area,'' ''marine,'' ''reserved,'' ''lasting,'' ''protection,'' and ''cultural.'' These definitions serve as criteria and include a description of the characteristics necessary for inclusion in the MMA Inventory and a description of features that would exclude a site from the MMA Inventory. Area. To be included in the MMA Inventory, the site: Must have legally defined geographical boundaries, and may be of any size, except that the site must be a subset of the U.S. Federal, state, commonwealth, territorial, local or tribal marine environment in which it is located. Application of this criterion would exclude, for example: Generic broad-based resource management authorities without specific locations. Areas whose boundaries change over time based on species presence. Marine. To be included in the MMA Inventory, the site: must be: (a) ocean or coastal waters (note: coastal waters may include intertidal areas, bays or estuaries); (b) an area of the Great Lakes or their connecting waters; (c) an area of lands under ocean or coastal waters or the Great Lakes or their connecting waters; or (d) a combination of the above. The term ''intertidal'' is understood to mean the shore zone between the mean low water and mean high water marks. An MMA may be part of a larger site that includes uplands, however, the terrestrial portion is not considered an MMA. For mapping purposes, an MMA may show an associated terrestrial protected area. NOAA and DOI propose to use the following definition for the term ''estuary'': ''Part of a river or stream or other body of water having unimpaired connection with the open sea, where the sea water is measurably diluted with fresh water derived from land drainage, and extending upstream to where ocean-derived salts measure less than 0.5 parts per thousand during the period of average annual low flow.'' Application of this criterion would exclude, for example, strictly freshwater sites outside the Great Lakes region that contain marine species at certain seasons or life history stages unless that site is a component of a larger, multi-unit MMA. Estuarine-like sites on tributaries of the Great Lakes will be considered for inclusion if they are located within the eight digit U.S. Geological Survey cataloging unit adjacent to a Great Lake or its connecting waters. Reserved. To be included in the MMA Inventory, the site: Must be established by and currently subject to Federal, state, commonwealth, territorial, local or tribal law or regulation. Application of this criterion would exclude, for example: Privately created or maintained marine sites. Lasting: To be included in the MMA Inventory, the site: Must provide year-after-year protection for at least three months of each year. Must be established with an expectation of, or at least the potential for, permanence. If the reservation will expire on a date certain, the reservation must provide a minimum of two years of continuous protection and must have a specific mechanism to consider renewal of protection at the expiration of the reservation. Application of this criterion would exclude, for example: Areas subject only to temporary protections, such as areas protected only by emergency fishery regulations under the Magnuson-Stevens Act, which expire after 180 days, and areas that are protected by annual management specifications. Protection: To be included in the MMA Inventory, the site: Must have existing laws or regulations that are designed and applied to afford the site with increased protection for part or all of the natural and submerged cultural resources therein for the purpose of maintaining or enhancing the long-term conservation of these resources, beyond any general protections that apply outside the site. Application of this criterion would exclude, for example: Areas closed to avoid fishing gear conflicts. Area-based regulations established solely to limit fisheries by quota management or to facilitate enforcement. In addition, the Executive Order uses the term cultural resources. NOAA and DOI interpret this to mean any submerged historical or submerged cultural feature, including archaeological sites, historic structures, shipwrecks, artifacts, and subsistence uses in the marine environment. Taken together, these definitions and criteria provide the basis for selecting sites to be included in the MMA Inventory. MMA Inventory Data Fields: In addition to the above proposal, comments are solicited on what data and information should be provided about each site in the MMA Inventory. To make the MMA Inventory a useful resource for managers, scientists, users and the public, NOAA and DOI propose to provide specific information in a consistent format for each site. This information could be used by both government and non-government entities to aid analyses of protection of marine resources and improve regional and national coordination among existing sites. Data in the MMA Inventory eventually will be used to assess whether or not specific sites meet the definitions and criteria to be placed on the List of MPAs. In order to use existing mapping data, maps for sites with upland components will depict the entire area (i.e., the marine area constitutes the MMA by these proposed definitions/criteria; however, the maps in the MMA Inventory also will show any upland component of the national park, national estuarine research reserve, etc.). NOAA and DOI propose to collect, use, and make available to the public the following information (listed below and found on the web site http://www.mpa.gov) for each site in the MMA Inventory. The agencies request public comments on these data fields to determine what information will be most useful for managers, scientists, user-groups, and other members of the public. Proposed data fields: MMA Name (name of the site protected); Type of Area (national marine sanctuary, National Park, etc.); Level of Government Managing Site (Federal, state, local, tribal); Management Organizations (government agency/department responsible for site management); Purpose of Protections (explanation of what the site was established to protect or manage); Site Description (brief description of site including general features and most prominent, noteworthy, and unique features); Information Web Reference (primary informational web home page address); Location (nearest state, territory or commonwealth); Site Boundaries (if available provide: text description, latitude/longitude coordinates, digital coverage of site boundary, and digital or hard-copy map); Size of Area (number of square miles of surface of both water and land areas within site); Additional Location/Size Information (approximate shoreline length, overlap with other protected areas, connectivity with other protected areas); Marine Components (oceans, bays, estuaries, intertidal areas, Great Lakes, submerged lands, and/or other); Natural Features (biological and geological features); Cultural Features (archaeological remains, historic shipwrecks, subsistence uses); Legal Basis for Establishment (name, citation, and summary of legal authority for creating MMA); Date Established (date initial protection afforded to marine natural or submerged cultural resources, other important dates of increasing protection or expansion of site); Primary Restrictions (brief summary of primary restrictions in MMA); Legal Basis for Implementation (citation to regulations or other legal basis for implementing MMA); Expiration Date of Protections (date, if any, of expiration of regulations or other authority); Site Programs and Plans (types of management programs and plans developed for the MMA); Enforcement (government agencies/departments responsible for enforcing restrictions on site); Effectiveness (measures used to determine management effectiveness); Zone Information (if management of the site is zoned: general zone information, zone purposes, zone boundary delineation, zone resource protections, zone activity and use restrictions); and Information Sources (site staff/contact, publications, web sites, other sources). Process: An initial and partial MMA Inventory comprised primarily of Federal sites, such as fisheries management zones, national parks, national wildlife refuges, and national marine sanctuaries, has been assembled and published on the MPA web site, http://www.mpa.gov  This initial MMA Inventory also includes state-federal national estuarine research reserves and some state sites in the Gulf of Maine and Western Pacific regions. More sites will be added to the MMA Inventory in the future. The MMA Inventory will not contain all currently protected or managed sites in the marine environment. For example, sites developed by Regional Fishery Management Councils (RFMC), in conjunction with the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), NOAA, that provide less than three-months' protection or afford only annual restrictions would not appear in the MMA Inventory on the basis of the proposed working criteria. Some MMA Inventory sites presumably will not meet all of the criteria necessary for placement on the List of MPAs during Phase II of this process. However, these sites will be maintained as part of the MMA Inventory to provide managers, analysts, and other interested parties with a comprehensive database of U.S. MMAs, including sites that may be considered for the List of MPAs, sites on the List of MPAs, and sites determined not to meet the criteria for the List of MPAs. Additional information will be added to the MMA Inventory as it becomes available. Consultation and Public Comment. E.O. 13158 requires NOAA and DOI to develop the national MPA system in consultation with the Department of Defense, the Department of State, the United States Agency for International Development, the Department of Transportation, the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Science Foundation, and other pertinent Federal agencies. NOAA and DOI are also to consult with states and territories that contain portions of the marine environment, tribes, Regional Fishery Management Councils, and other entities, as appropriate, to promote coordination of Federal, state, territorial, and tribal actions to establish and manage MPAs. NOAA and DOI actively solicit comments from these entities and from the general public on any aspect of this notice of proposed MMA Inventory criteria, definitions, and data fields. Preliminary draft definitions and criteria, as well as inventory data fields, were first released to the public on December 21, 2000, when NOAA and DOI unveiled their MPA web site at http://www.mpa.gov. The public was invited informally to comment on any aspect of the web site including the definitions and criteria. For purposes of developing a final notice, comments made in response to the web site invitation will be considered as well as those made in response to this notice. Following review of comments received, NOAA and DOI will publish a final notice of MMA Inventory criteria, definitions, and data fields in the Federal Register and http://www.mpa.gov. Classification. Regulatory Planning and Review. This action is not a regulatory action subject to E.O. 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). This notice would not impose a compliance burden on the economy generally because the proposed definitions and MMA Inventory criteria provided here are only designed to collect data that may later be used to implement E.O. 13158. Energy Effects. NOAA and DOI have determined that this action will have no effect on energy supply, distribution, or use as required by Executive Order 13211 (66 FR 28355). Administrative Procedure Act. Pursuant to authority at 5 U.S.C. 553(b)(A), prior notice and an opportunity for public comment are not required to be given, as this is a document concerning agency procedure or practice. Nevertheless, NOAA and DOI want the benefit of the public's comment and are voluntarily giving prior notice and opportunity for public comment. Dated: June 25, 2003. Conrad C. Lautenbacher, Jr., Vice Admiral, U.S. Navy (Ret.), Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere. [FR Doc. 03-18733 Filed 7-22-03; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3510-08-S. http://frwebgate1.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/waisgate.cgi?WAISdocID=09587614241+3+0+

0&WAISaction=retrieve 

Executive Steering Committee - The top management team responsible for developing and sustaining the process management approach in the organization, including selecting and evaluating reengineering projects. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm 

Existing condition - The current condition, inclusive of advancing deterioration, of the physical fabric defining a site, structure, building, or object. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Existing Scenic Integrity - ("Existing visual condition") Current state of the landscape, considering previous human alterations. - FS

Exotic - A species that is foreign to a geographic area and usually alienated from its natural competitors and predators. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Exotic Species - A species that is not native or indigenous to the area or region where it is found. May pose a risk to endemic species.

Exotic Vegetation - A plant that is not native to the region in which it is found.

Explanatory Note - Assists users of classifications to distinguish the boundary and scope of each category. Detail varies from classification to classification, but the intention is to explain precise meaning of categories and the underlying concepts. This is often done through the provision specific examples of inclusions and exclusions and cross-references to other categories. Refer also to Definition. (UN)

Exploration - The work of investigating a mineral deposit to determine by geological surveys, geophysical surveys, geochemical surveys, boreholes, pits, and underground workings if it is feasible to mine. Exploration is undertaken to gain knowledge of the size, shape, position, characteristics, and value of the deposit. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Export - To sell goods or services to a buyer outside your country. (WB-UN)

Export Administration Act of 1979 - P.L. 96-72 (September 29, 1979) provided legal authority to the President to control U.S. exports for reasons of national security, foreign policy, and/or short supply. However, the FACT Act of 1990 (P.L.101- 624) provides for contract sanctity by prohibiting the President from restricting the export of any agricultural commodity already under contract for delivery within 270 days from the date the embargo is imposed, except during national emergency or war. With the Act's expiration in August 1994, the President (exercising authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act) issued an executive order to continue the 1979 Act's export control regulations.

Export Allocations or Quotas - Controls applied to exports by an exporting country to limit the amount of goods leaving that country. Such controls usually are applied in time of war or during some other emergency requiring conservation of domestic supplies, as well as to advance foreign policy and national security objectives of the exporting country. The European Union, in 1996, used a licensing system to allocate and restrict exports of wheat because of short supplies and high prices.

Export Credit - Loans for the purpose of trade and which are not represented by a negotiable instrument. They may be extended by the official or the private sector. If extended by the private sector, they may be supported by official guarantees. - Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) Glossary

Export Enhancement Program (EEP) - Started in May 1985 under the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act to help U.S. exporters meet competitors' prices in subsidized markets. Under the EEP, exporters receive subsidies based on the volume of exports to specifically targeted countries. The program has been reauthorized by the 1985 and subsequent Acts. The 1996 Act modifies and extends the program through 2002. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

Exposure Assessment - Identifying the pathways by which toxicants may reach individuals, estimating how much of a chemical various individuals are likely to be exposed to, and estimating the number likely to be exposed at each level.

Express Consent - The consent allowed under statutes that must be a written, informed consent, which is by definition an "express" consent.

Extended Family - A large family grouping comprising grandparents, their children and grandchildren, usually living in the one house or grouped set of houses. (UNESCO)

Extension Service - Refers to a nationwide continuing education system that is based on the academic programs of the land grant colleges of agriculture (see Cooperative Extension System). The term also is the former name of the USDA agency that distributes federal funds to the states under the Smith-Lever Act of 1914 to carry out Extension programs. The 1994 USDA reorganization merged this agency with the Cooperative State Research Service (CSRS) to form the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service.

Extensive Recreation Management Areas (ERMA) - All BLM-administered lands outside Special Recreation Management Areas. These areas may include developed and primitive recreation sites with minimal facilities. (BLM)

Externalities - Effects of a person's or firm's activities on others, which causes a lasting interest in or effective management control over an enterprise. Foreign direct investment can include buying shares of an enterprise in another country, reinvesting earnings of a foreign- owned enterprise in the country where it is located, and parent firms extending loans to their foreign affiliates. International Monetary Fund (IMF) guidelines consider an investment to be a foreign direct investment if it accounts for at least 10 percent of the foreign firm's voting stock of shares. However, many countries set a higher threshold because 10 percent is often not enough to establish effective management control of a company or demonstrate an investor's lasting interest. - World Bank Glossary 2. A cost or benefit not accounted for in the price of goods or services. Often "externality" refers to the cost of pollution and other environmental impacts. - Bioenergy Glossary

Externality - A cost or benefit that is not included in the price of a good, e.g., the cost of air pollution to society is not included in the price of the goods and services that create the air pollution.

Externality - The unintended real (generally non-monetary) side effect of one party's actions on another party. (FAO-UN)

Extinction - The evolutionary termination of a species caused by the failure to reproduce and the death of all remaining members of the species; the natural failure to adapt to environmental change. ("A History of Extinction", "Species Extinctions: Causes and Consequences", and "Extinction-Prone Groups of Species.") - UNDP/WRI

Extinction Quote: It is probably a healthy exercise, when considering the extinction of species in this age, to remember that many thousands of life forms have ceased to exist from wholly natural causes -- dinosaurs spring invariably to mind. And further that some organisms -- especially primitive forms which, as it were, are "past their prime" -- will pass into oblivion both without human assistance and in spite of it. - from The Birdwatcher's Companion, page 229, authored by Christopher Leahy of the Massachusetts Audubon Society, 1982.

Extinguish - Discharge or cancel (as in a covenant).

Extirpation - The local extinction of a species that is no longer found in a locality or country, but exists elsewhere in the world. (Author's note: farming? ranching? mining? logging? resource providing?)

Extirpated Species - A species that has become extinct in a given area. - Everglades Plan glossary

Extortion - Dolan v. Tigard (U.S. Supreme Court 1994) states the following (citing Nollan v. California Coastal Commission in turn citing J.E.D. Associates, Inc. v. Atkinson, 1981) "How enhancing the public's ability to 'traverse to and along shorefront' served the same governmental purpose of 'visual access to the ocean' from the roadway was beyond our ability to countenance. The absence of a nexus left the Coastal Commission in the position of simply trying to obtain an easement through gimmickry, which converted a valid regulation of land use into 'an out-and-out plan of extortion.' " - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary

Extra Lateral Rights - Rights relating to the apex law. If a vein outcrops (apex or highest point) on the surface of a claim, the claimant of the vein's apex has rights to all of the vein that is continuous in the downward dip, including the portion of the vein outside the claim boundary. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Extra-long Staple (ELS) Cotton - Also called American Pima, this cotton has a staple length of 1-3/8" or more, is characterized by fineness and high fiber strength, and is used in high-value products such as sewing thread and expensive apparel. It is grown chiefly in west Texas, New Mexico and Arizona.

Extraordinary circumstances - See Unforeseen circumstances

Extraterritoriality - Politico-geographical concept suggesting that the property of one state lying within the boundaries of another actually forms an extension of the first state.

Exxon Valdez - An oil tanker which went aground causing huge environmental destruction in Alaska in 1992 - UNEP Children's Glossary

EZEC - Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Communities

 

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