HA - Homeowners Association
HA - Heidelberg Appeal
HA - Heritage Area
HA - Highway Access
HA - Hiring Assistance
HA - Human Activity
HA - Human Alteration
HAA - Home Automation Association
HAARP - High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program
HABDI - A consortium of Cuban American developers (Florida Everglades)
Habitat - Natural home of plant or animal. - UNEP Children's Glossary
Habitat - The natural abode of a plant or animal, including all biotic, climatic, and soil factors affecting life. The area where a plant or animal lives and grows under natural conditions, including vegetation, soil, water and other factors. The sum total of environmental conditions of a specific place occupied by a wildlife species or a population of such species. The place where a population (e.g., human, animal, plant, microorganism) lives, characterized by physical features (e.g., desert) and/or dominant plants (e.g., deciduous forest).
Habitat - The kind of place where a particular animal or plant lives or grows naturally, or, thrives. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
HABITAT I - United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (1976)
Habitat Capability - The ability of a land area or plant community to support a given species of wildlife.
Habitat composition - The makeup or relative proportion of the General cover categories occurring about a point (see Primary sample unit). - National Resources Inventory
Habitat configuration - The arrangement of the nine General cover categories occurring about a point (see Primary sample unit). - National Resources Inventory
Habitat Conservation Plan Assurances - See Habitat Conservation Plan Assurances ("No Surprises") Rule
Habitat Conservation Plan Assurances ("No Surprises'') Rule - Effective March 25, 1998. SUMMARY: This final rule codifies the Habitat Conservation Plan assurances provided through section 10(a)(1)(B) permits issued under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended. Such assurances were first provided through the "No Surprises'' policy issued in 1994 by the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), (jointly referred to as the "Services,'') and included in the joint FWS and NMFS Endangered Species Habitat Conservation Planning Handbook issued on December 2, 1996 (61 FR 63854). The No Surprises policy announced in 1994 provides regulatory assurances to the holder of a Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) incidental take permit issued under section 10(a) of the ESA that no additional land use restrictions or financial compensation will be required of the permit holder with respect to species covered by the permit, even if unforeseen circumstances arise after the permit is issued indicating that additional mitigation is needed for a given species covered by a permit. The Services issued a proposed rule on May 29, 1997 (62 FR 29091) and the comments received on that proposal have been evaluated and considered in the development of this final rule. This final rule contains revisions to parts 17 (FWS) and 222 (NMFS) of Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations necessary to implement the Habitat Conservation Plan assurances. http://endangered.fws.gov/r/f980223.html DOI/FWS and NMFS/NOAA/Commerce
Habitat Conservation Plans (HCPs) - Plans prepared under the Endangered Species Act, by non-federal parties wishing to obtain permits for incidental taking of threatened and endangered species. The number of HCPs has expanded enough in the last 5 years that there are concerns over cost, effectiveness, and contributions to recovery, monitoring, and other issues.
Habitat Diversity - A number of different types of wildlife habitat within a given area.
Habitat effectiveness - Wildlife habitat that is 'generally undisturbed' by roads and trails and that is 'buffered from most human influence' (Arapaho-Roosevelt National Forest 1997 Revised Management Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix B, pp.13-16). The Forest Service has developed "habitat effectiveness standards" that define the maximum route (road and trail) densities that allow a piece of land to be used effectively by wildlife. Too many roads can result in wildlife avoiding an area, making it unusable, or "ineffective," for essential life cycle needs such as forage, cover and reproduction. Route densities are defined as miles of routes per square mile. Studies show that many species of wildlife are sensitive to, and will avoid areas with route densities of more than one mile of road per square mile. - USDA/FS
Habitat Fragmentation - The fragmentation of a large area of habitat into isolated patches or into discrete islands that are not linked through corridors.
Habitat Generalist - Animals that can find food and shelter in a variety of ways and can survive quite well in different habitats. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Habitat Linkage - Areas of land and/or water that provide a substantial degree of connectivity between core habitat areas and feature substantial natural habitat in order to promote genetic flow and continuous recolonization of habitats by all plant and animal species within an ecosystem, or between ecosystems. Habitat linkages typically are much wider than wildlife corridors. All habitat linkages serve as wildlife corridors, but wildlife corridors do not always serve as habitat linkages.
Habitat Loss - The process of conversion of a natural ecosystem to degraded system incapable of supporting native wildlife. Habitat loss is largely caused by human activities. (UNESCO)
Habitat Management Plan - An activity plan for wildlife/plant resources for a specific geographical area of public land. It identifies wildlife habitat and related objectives, establishes the sequence of actions for achieving objectives, and outlines procedures for evaluating accomplishments. - BLM
Habitat patch - A term used to describe an area displaying a relatively uniform General cover type. Nine General cover categories are used to classify areas of relatively uniform cover. Each individual area is referred to as a habitat patch. - National Resources Inventory
Habitat selection - Use of a resource above what is expected based on the availability of that resource. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf
Habitat Type - The collective area that one plant association occupies or will come to occupy as succession advances. The habitat type is defined and described as succession advances. The habitat type is defined and described on the basis of the vegetation and its associated environment. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho
Habitat Type - A way to classify land area. An aggregation of all land areas potentially capable of producing similar plant communities at climax stage. A habitat type can support certain climax vegetation, both tree and undergrowth species. Habitat typing can indicate the biological potential of a site.
HABS - Historic American Buildings Survey
HABS/HAER - Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record (DOI/NPS)
HACERE - Headquarters Army Corps of Engineers Real Estate
HACCP - Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point, a Food and Drug Administration -- FDA - program
Hacienda - Literally, a large estate in a Spanish-speaking country. Sometimes equated with the plantation, but there are differences between these two types of agricultural enterprise.
Hack - A hack is a mark on a tree made by cutting out a V notch well into the live wood. - Cadastral Data glossary
Hafer v. Melo (U.S. Supreme Court 1991): Government officials are personally liable for civil rights damages, if they acted in their government capacity but outside the law. The Supreme Court quoted 42 U.S. Code 1983 as follows: "every person who, under color of statute, ordinance, regulation, custom, or usage, of any State... subjects, or causes to be subjected, any citizen of the United States or other person within the jurisdiction of any rights, privileges, or immunities secured by the Constitution and laws, shall be liable to the party injured..." - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary
HAER - Historic American Engineering Record
Hage v U.S. - In the Court of Federal Claims' 41-page published opinion on the motion for summary judgment, on March 8, 1996, it pointed out that federal and state administrative rules cannot extinguish the property that derives from state law. And, a decision or opinion emanating from the Court of Federal Claims, Mr. Hage elaborated, is persuasive on every federal district court in the country. Additionally, if the United States appeals that decision and loses, the opinion will be binding on every district court in the country. In conclusion, he explained, the Court of Federal Claims will sit in Reno, on September 28, 1998, to hear Hage and find whether there is sufficient proof to establish use of the range prior to 1907 and prior to 1934, show ownership of water rights, and show commensurate base property for an economic ranch unit. That adjudication will determine whether there is an ownership interest in the Hage property and, if so, why it is necessary to continue with the permit process. If it is determined that there is no ownership interest, he said, then all of those persons in like circumstances can do something else with their assets and stop drowning in this "regulatory swamp." Prior Existing Rights - Prior existing rights [in that range] are "property" and are not extinguished by federal or state administrative rules. The court agreed with the position that federal and state administrative rules cannot extinguish the property that derives from state law and, based on that premise, if Hage and his predecessors had property rights in that range in the 1880s, presumptively those rights still exist today. United States Court of Federal Claims - It is critical that suits regarding range rights are tried in the appropriate venue, which is the United States Court of Federal Claims, rather than the Federal District Court. Federal District Court is an administrative court (which hears tort claims) that does not base its decisions on federal common law; therefore, common law or property rights claims must be taken before the Court of Federal Claims. Because property rights cases taken to the Court of Federal Claims now cannot include tort claims, Hage v. U.S. contains no tort issues. When action is brought against the United States in the Court of Federal Claims, property has to be rooted in state law, because the United States cannot create property (with the exception of copyrights and patents). All real property derives from state law. The Court of Federal Claims, therefore, required proof that under Nevada law the ownership of a stockwater right also gives access to the range. To comply with the requirement of the court, Hage offered a case from Nevada's Fourth District Court. In that case, the court found that, although Nevada's statutes did not define what a stockwater right was, it "never seemed necessary to explain the obvious, but inasmuch as the obvious has become a controversy, the court will set forth what Nevada's law means in stockwater rights." The court stated, in effect: (1) Under custom and culture, the rules of the court of the State of Nevada, from the beginning, recognized that the only reason for having a stockwater right was to utilize the range around it; (2) The range around that water, within the distance that an animal would utilize it, was the range associated with that water, and that was what one has a claim to under Nevada law; and (3) Stockwater law did comport with the rest of Nevada water law, which demands that you have a manmade point of diversion, a manmade method of conveying the water to the land, and beneficial use of the water on the land. In that case, the court further explained that the definite point of diversion was where the cow puts her head down to drink; the manmade improvement was the cow that the man put there to drink the water; the manmade method of transporting the water to land was the cow that drinks that water and then walks out on the land; and the beneficial use of the water on the land was the cow when it grazes the forage.
HAGNC - Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle
HALC - Helping Adults Learn and Change
Half Section - The south-half, north-half, east-half, or west-half of a section would be that half according to the government survey. The general and proper acceptance of the terms section and half section as well as their construction by the B.L.M., denotes the land in the sections and subdivision lines, and not the exact quantity which a perfect measurement of an obstructed surface would declare. - Cadastral Data glossary
HAM - Human Activity Management
Hamlet - A small scale, compact residential settlement with one or more community-related functions that accommodates development in a more compact form than might occur otherwise in scattered clusters and single tract, standard design subdivisions on nearby individual tracts of land. (UN)
Hammock - Localized, thick stands of trees that can grow on natural rises of only a few inches in the land. - EvergladesPlan glossary
HAMPPACA - Higher Annual Maintenance Payments Per Acre for Certain Activities
Han Chinese - A group of people comprising 92% of the Chinese population.
Hanging Garden - Small pockets of vegetative associations surrounding "canyon-wall" springs that often contain a wide variety of unique plant and insect species. Hanging gardens are characteristic of flat-lying strata with deeply incised canyons of the Colorado Plateau. - BLM
Hand pile - A pile of slash constructed by a crew, not by machine. Hand piles are typically less than 10' high and less than 12' in diameter. - Bioenergy Glossary
HAP - Hazardous Air Pollutants
HAP - Home Automation Products
Hapl - Minimum horizon development.
HAR - Habitat acre restoration - USDA Forest Service
Hardpan - A hardened soil layer in the lower A horizon or the B horizon caused by cementation of soil particles with organic matter or with materials such as silica or calcium carbonate. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Hardwood - A broad-leaved tree.
Hardwood Site - A forest site occupied by hardwoods that is unsuitable for the production of conifer species. (BLM)
Hardwoods - Dicotyledonous trees, usually broadleaf and deciduous, which can be divided into two broad timber groups: Soft Hardwoods: Soft-textured hardwoods such as boxelder, red and silver maples, hackberry, loblolly-bay, sweetgum, yellow-poplar, magnolia, sweetbay, water tupelo, blackgum, sycamore, cottonwood, black cherry, willow, basswood, and elm. Hard hardwoods: Hard-textured hardwoods such as sugar maple, birch, hickory, dogwood, persimmon (forest grown), black locust, beech, ash, honeylocust, holly, black walnut, mulberry, and all commercial oaks. - USDA/FS
Harmonic movement - Coordinated movement due to the effects of wind loading. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Harmonization - To ensure the careful selection of properties for inclusion in the World Heritage List the Committee has recommended the harmonization of tentative lists and of cultural properties for geo-cultural regions or areas (UNESCO February 1996: 4 and 31, Paragraph 9 and Paragraph 90). Harmonization is not mentioned in the Operational Guidelines with reference to natural properties or their inclusion on tentative lists. Harmonization is not referred to in the Convention.
Harmonization - The process of establishment, recognition, and application of internationally recognized measures or standards. Used most often in reference to tariffs (as in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTSUS)), technical standards, or sanitary and phytosanitary measures applied to imported food products. 2. Classification harmonization involves the alignment, wherever possible, of the underlying concepts and definitions of both similar and disparate classifications to produce classifications that can related to the maximum extent possible within the constraints of the requirements of individual classifications. Harmonization is the process of combining or comparing data for purposes of analysis, either through the use of similar standard definitions and classifications, or through a complex set of explanations on how to achieve comparisons across standards and classifications. In the harmonization of classifications, building blocks for common groupings and regroupings of items from different structures of the classifications are identified. The process is facilitated by reducing or eliminating minor differences among the classifications. Harmonization of classifications requires continuous co-ordination and exchange of information between the custodians of the relevant classifications on a regular basis. Without such exchange, different interpretations of similar concepts and categories will occur. In the harmonization process the classifications could be described as reference, derived or related classifications. (UN)
Harmonized phytosanitary measures - Phytosanitary measures established by contracting parties based on international standards. - UN/FAO International Plant Protection Convention Glossary
Harmonized System - The international classification system for goods, implemented by most countries on January 1, 1998, which is used for tariff classification, trade statistics, and ultimately, transport documentation. Officially known as the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System, conversion was begun by the Customs Cooperation Council in 1970 as a replacement for the Customs Cooperation Council Nomenclature also known as the Brussels Tariff Nomenclature.
HARP - Hunters, Anglers, Rights Protection Group, Inc.
HARPG - Hunters, Anglers, Rights Protection Group, Inc.
Harvested Acres -- The cropland actually harvested for a particular crop, usually somewhat smaller at the national level than planted acres due to weather damage or abandonment because of low market prices.
Harvested Volume or Harvested Acres - Refers to timber sales where trees are cut and taken to a mill during the fiscal year. Typically, this volume was sold over several years. This is more indicative of actual support for local economies during a given year. - BLM
HAS - Hands Across the Sawgrass (Miami-Dade County, Florida, farmers' group)
HASL - Human Accelerated Soil Loss
Hatch Act of 1887 - The permanent statute (24 Stat. 440) authorizing federal funds to state agricultural experiment stations affiliated with the land grant colleges of agriculture. Congress last amended the act in 1955, adding a formula that USDA uses to allocate the annual appropriation among the states. The formula provides for each state to receive what it received in 1955 as a base amount. Sums appropriated in excess of the 1955 level are distributed as follows: 20% is allotted equally to each state; 52% is allocated on the basis of a state's share of U.S. rural and farm population; a maximum of 25% is allocated to the states for research projects that involve more than one state; and 3% is reserved for administration. On average, Hatch Act formula funds constitute 10% of total funding for each experiment station.
Haying and Grazing Rules - Under previous commodity support law, farmers were permitted, for limited time periods (usually during droughts) and under specific circumstances, to harvest hay or graze cattle on land idled under acreage reduction programs. These rules were eliminated by the FAIR Act of 1996
Hayland - A subcategory of Cropland managed for the production of forage crops that are machine harvested. The crop may be grasses, legumes, or a combination of both. Hayland also includes land in set-aside or other short-term agricultural programs. - National Resources Inventory
HAVOC - Headwaters Action Video Collective
HAWIAA - Henry A. Wallace Institute for Alternative Agriculture
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) - A production quality control system now being adopted throughout much of the food industry as a method for minimizing the entry of food-borne pathogens into the food supply in order to protect human health. Under a HACCP system, potential hazards are identified and risks are analyzed in each phase of production; critical control points for preventing such hazards are identified and constantly monitored; and corrective actions are taken when necessary. Record keeping and verification procedures are used to ensure that the system is working. HACCP is one of the major elements of regulations, issued by USDA in July 1996, to control pathogens in meat and poultry products. Under the rules, all meat and poultry slaughter and processing plants with 500 or more employees must develop and implement, by January 1998, a USDA-approved HACCP plan for each of their processes and products. Plants with 10 to 500 employees have until January 1999 to comply, and plants with less than 10 employees have until January 2000, to implement HACCP. Seafood processors and importers also are required to implement HACCP plans, but under separate rules issued by the Food and Drug Administration in December 1995.
Hazard Fuel Reduction - Manual/mechanical treatment [that is] followed by prescribed fire pile burning (Maximum 200 acres/year on Olympic National Park -- ONP -- lands, including inholder property within ONP). http://www.nps.gov/olym/ea/Fmp/fmp2.htm
Hazardous Chemical - Chemical that can cause harm because it is flammable or explosive, or that can irritate or damage the skin or lungs (such as strong acidic or alkaline substances) or cause allergic reactions of the immune system. See hazardous waste. (UNESCO)
Hazardous Materials - Anything that poses a substantive present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed. - BLM
Hazardous Waste/Toxic Waste - Any waste that has the potential to inflict damage on either human health or the natural environment. The substances that make up most hazardous waste are acidic resins, arsenic residues, compounds of lead and mercury, organic solvents, pesticides and radioactive materials. Several ways of disposing of hazardous waste, each with varying degrees of safety and expense, have been developed. These include landfill, incineration, underground injection and the detoxification of wastes by bio-engineered organisms. But the preferred method of disposal has been to dump where it is cheapest, either at sea or in the Third World. Hazardous wastes pose a significant long-term danger. Persistent chemicals in landfill sites can cause surface and groundwater pollution, contamination of land and mass exposure of whole communities to highly toxic chemicals. If properly treated, most wastes can be rendered harmless. But the long-term solution lies in reducing waste rather than safe disposal. (UNESCO)
HBA - Home Builders Association
HBA - Hueco Bolson Aquifer
HC - Healing Codes
HC - Healthy Cities (UN)
HC - Healthy Communities (UN)
HC - Heritage Corridor
HC - Human Cloning
HCA - Hell's Canyon Alliance
HCA - Human-Caused Alteration
HCBS - Home- and Community-Based Services
HCC - Hillary Clinton Club
HCEF - Holmes County Education Foundation (Ohio)
HCHR - High Commissioner for Human Rights (UN)
HCI - Handgun Control, Inc.
HCP - Habitat Conservation Plan
HCP - Habitat Conservation Planning
HCP - Harvested and Cultured Products
HCPA - Habitat Conservation Plan Assurances
HCPC - Hells Canyon Preservation Council
HCR - Heritage Corridor Region
HCRS - Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service
HCS - Habitat Conservation Strategy
HCS - High Civil Servants
HCSIRRM - Historic, Cultural, Scientific and Industry-Related Reference Materials
HD - Hillside Ditch
HD - Historic Districts
HD - Human Dimension
HDC - Hardwoods Development Council
HDC - High Density Corridors
HDGC - Human Dimensions of Global Change
HDI - High density impact
HDI - Human Derived Impacts
HDIA - Human Dimension Impact Analysis
HDP - Human Dimensions of Global Change Program (UN)
HDR - Human Development Reports (UNDP)
HDS - High-Density Subdivision
HDS - Human Dimension Standards
HDV - Horse-Drawn Vehicle
HE - Habitat Enhancement
HE - High-End
HE - Human Ecology
HE - Human Environment (an international policy analysis newsletter providing an overview of environmental research themes)
HEAC - Historic, Environmental, and Aesthetic Considerations
Head - The vertical distance water drops from the highest level to the level of the receiving body of water. - Bioenergy Glossary
Head Month - A month's use and occupancy of rangeland by a single animal or equivalent. A full head month's fee is charged for each month of grazing by adult animals if the grazing animal (1) is weaned, (2) is 6 months old or older when entering National Forest System land, or (3) will become 12 months old during the period of use. For fee purposes, a head month is equivalent to one animal unit month.
Heading - Generally this refers to the title or caption of a document or section of a document. In the context of a classification it is the main descriptor of a category, also referred to as Name or Title (e.g. the heading under Division 01 in ISIC Rev. 3 is Agriculture, Hunting and Related Service Activities). (UN)
Head slope - The concave surface at the head of a drainageway where the flow of water converges downward toward the center and contour lines from concave curves. - USDA
Headwaters - The source, or upper part, of a stream. Often used in discussing water rights related to wilderness or other federal land designations. The watershed of a first order stream (one that is not fed by a tributary stream).
Headwaters - Headwaters means non-tidal rivers, streams, and their lakes and impoundments, including adjacent wetlands, that are part of a surface tributary system to an interstate or navigable water of the U.S. upstream of the point on the river or stream at which the average annual flow is less than five cubic feet per second. The Corps may estimate this point from available data by using the mean annual area precipitation, area drainage basin maps, and the average runoff coefficient, or by similar means. For streams that are dry for long periods of the year, the Corps may establish the point where headwaters begin as that point on the stream where a flow of five cubic feet per second is equaled or exceeded 50 percent of the time. 33 CFR § 330.2(d).
HEAL - Human Exposure Assessment Location
HEAP - Human Envelope of Accessible Passage
Heap - A large, engineered pile of ore over which chemical agents such as cyanide are sprinkled in extracting metals by heap leaching. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Heap Leaching - A low-cost technique for extracting metals from ore by percolating leaching solutions through heaps of ore placed on impervious pads. This method is generally used on low-grade ores. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Heap Leach Pad - A large impermeable foundation or pad used as a base for ore during heap leaching. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
HEAT - Human Envelope of Accessible Travel
Heat budget, annual (of a lake) - The amount of heat necessary to raise the water from the minimum temperature of winter to the maximum temperature of summer. (Welch, 1952, p. 65.) - USGS
Heat Island - The area of increased temperatures (and sometimes increased wind turbulence) that is formed over cities and other areas developed with a high proportion of hard surfaces.
Heavy Metal - Any of the metals that react readily with dithizone, including zinc, copper, cobalt, lead, bismuth, gold, cadmium, iron, manganese, nickel, tantalum, tellurium, platinum, and silver. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Heavy metals - Metals of high density which are often toxic to human health. - UNEP Children's Glossary
Heavy Use - Indicates that 60-80 percent of current year's forage production has been eaten or destroyed by grazing animals. - BLM
Heavy water - D2O. - Nuclear Regulatory Commission
HEC - Headwaters Environmental Center
Hectare - A unit of measure in the metric system equal to 10,000 square meters or 2.47 acres. - Everglades Plan glossary
Hectare - 100 metres x 100 metres. - UNEP Children's Glossary
Heirs and Assigns as Used in Deeds - Unless the words "and heirs" are used, the estate conveyed is only for the life of the grantee (estate for life). "And heirs" is not necessary in most states because of statutes abolishing the necessity. "And assigns" is included to take care of corporations, trustees, etc., which cannot have heirs. - Cadastral Data glossary
Helper - An adult that delays its own reproduction to assist in the rearing of another breeding pair's young. Typically, helpers are related to the breeding pairs that they assist. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf
Helsinki Rules - Helsinki rules on the Uses of the Waters of International Rivers, agreed in 1966, and since extended to include groundwater. (FAO-UN)
HEM - Human Exposure Modeling
Hemic soil material (mucky peat) - Organic soil material intermediate in degree of decomposition between the less decomposed fibric material and the more decomposed sapric material. - USDA
HEP - Habitat Evaluation Procedures
Herbaceous - A General cover category consisting of predominantly perennial herbaceous plants or noncultivated annuals or both. The tall woody canopy cover is less than 5 percent, and the short woody canopy cover is also less than 5 percent. Arid rangeland and desert can fall into this category although vegetation density and percentage of ground cover may be low. - National Resources Inventory
Herbaceous - Vegetation growth with little or no woody component. Non-woody vegetation, such as grasses and forbs.
Herbage - (1) Herbs taken collectively. (2) Total aboveground biomass of herbaceous plants regardless of grazing preference or availability. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho
Herbal remedies - Using herbs and plants to cure illnesses. - UNEP Children's Glossary
Herbivores - Animals that subsist mainly or entirely on plants or plant materials.
Herbivory - The loss of vegetation due to consumption by another organism. Syn: predation - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary
Herd Management Area (HMA) - The area of wild horse or burro habitat covered by a herd management area plan. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Herd Management Area Plan (HMAP) - A site-specific plan that defines objectives for a herd management area and prescribes actions to meet the objectives. This plan outlines details of burro or horse capture plans, adoption programs, and long-term population management. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs. 2. A written and officially approved plan for a specific geographical area of public land which identifies wild horse (or burro) herd use areas and habitat, identifies population and habitat objectives, establishes the sequence of actions for achieving objectives, and outlines procedures for evaluating accomplishments. - BLM
Heritage route - In November 1994 a meeting on "Routes as Part of Our Cultural Heritage" was held in Madrid, Spain. The expert meeting defined a heritage route as: ... composed of tangible elements of which the cultural significance comes from exchanges and a multi- dimensional dialogue across countries or regions, and that illustrate the interaction of movement, along the route, in space and time (von Droste et al 1995: 437, Annex IV). See Cultural landscape - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
Heritage Tree -
HEROES - Human beings Exercising Real Options for Environmental Sustainability
HES - Hazard Eliminating Safety
Heterogeneous - Anything which displays a varied composition or a mixture of elements. Opp: homogeneous - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary
HEZ - Human Exclusion Zone (UN/Agenda 21)
HEZ - Human Exclusion Zone (the Wildlands Project)
HF - Habitat Fragmentation
HF - Headwaters Forest
HF - Healthy Families (UN)
HF - The Heritage Foundation
HFA - Health For All (UNESCO)
HFAR - Humanitarian Food Assistance Reserve
HFC - Heritage Forest Campaign (Pew-created organization)
HFF - Hemispherical Free Field
HFH - Human-Free Habitat
HFI - high fog index
HFR - Hazard Fuel Reduction (DOI/NPS)
HG - Hunter-Gardeners
HG - Hunter-Gatherers
HGA - High Growth Agriculture (Nepal)
HGCZ - Human/Grizzly Conflict Zone
HGL - Historic Graph Levels
HGS - Houston Geological Society
HH - High Humidity
HH - Hull House (Chicago, Illinois)
HHC - Highway Heritage Corridor
HHE - Human Health and the Environment
HHP - High Human Population
HHS - Health and Human Services
HHS - Housing and Human Services
HHV - Higher heating value
HHWP - Hetch Hetchy Water & Power (California)
HI - Hawaiian Islands (also, abbreviation for Hawaii)
HI - Heartland Institute
HI - Hometown Indiana
Hi - Homosexual Indoctrination
HI - Hudson Institute
HI - Human Implication
HICC - Human-Induced Climate Change
Hiding Area/Cover - Vegetation capable of hiding ninety percent of an adult elk or deer from human's view at a distance of two hundred feet or less. Includes some shrub stands and all forested stand conditions with adequate tree stem density or shrub layer to hide animals. In some cases, topographic features can also provide hiding cover.
Hierarchy - Refers to the classification structure where a classification is arranged in levels of detail from the broadest to the most detailed level. Each level of the classification is defined in terms of the categories at the next lower level of the classification. (UN)
High Development - Mapping units that experienced a rate of development greater than their statewide mapping unit average and had at least 1,000 acres of urban conversion between 1982 and 1992. - USDA Census of Agriculture
High-Income Country - A country having an annual gross national product (GNP) per capita equivalent to $9,386 or greater in 1995. Most high-income countries have an industrial economy. There are currently about 26 high-income countries in the world with populations of one million people or more. Their combined population is about 0.9 billion, or less than one-sixth of the world's population. These countries are usually members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and are commonly referred to as the 'North'. (UNESCO)(WB-UN)
High-income developing economies - Economies that the United Nations classifies as developing even though their per capita incomes would place them with developed countries. This classification may be based on their economic structure or the official opinion of their governments. In 1995 this group included Hong Kong (China), Israel, Kuwait, Singapore, and the United Arab Emirates. - World Bank Glossary
Highland Climates (or H Climates) - Undifferentiated Highland climates. Climates of mountainous areas.
Highly Erodible Land (HEL) - Land that is very susceptible to erosion, including fields that have at least 1/3 or 50 acres of soils with a natural erosion potential of at least 8 times their 'T' level. More than 140 million acres are classified as HEL. Farms cropping highly erodible land and under production flexibility contract must be in compliance with a conservation plan that protects this cropland.
Hiking - Walking on extended trips for pleasure.
HIL - Historically Important Landscapes
HIP - Highway Improvement Program
HIPC - Heavily Indebted Poor Countries
The HIPC Initiative - Approved by the World Bank and IMF in the fall of 1996. Forty-one countries are eligible; these countries owed $221 billion in 1998 of which about $61 billion was owed to multilateral financial institutions. The report notes, inter alia: the conditionalities of the IMF's Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF) should not remain the sole gatekeeper for determining eligibility for debt relief; debt relief should be part of a much larger humanitarian assistance; the HIPC initiative should avoid excessive conditionality so as to allow for greater flexibility for countries facing major humanitarian crises or emerging from conflict; the Cologne Initiative (1999) which grants larger reductions of the total accumulated debt (the debt overhang) and quicker reductions in debt service payments and, places poverty reduction at the heart of an enhanced HIPC framework; the HIPC debt relief is caught in a complex web of IMF and World Bank eligibility conditions; HIPC/ESAF is a back-door way for both IMF and the World Bank to maintain control over the national development policies of poor and indebted countries; key UN specialized agencies, with extensive experience in poverty eradication, are completely excluded from playing a key role in the management of the HIPC initiative. In poverty reduction or eradication, the report notes, inter alia: poverty reduction is a new terrain for IMF; it is still doubtful that the Fund is genuinely interested or has the necessary internal capacity to integrate ESAF-macroeconomic conditions in broader social development goals; the structural factors that induce poverty are unlikely to be addressed by conventional structural adjustment programs; the decision to link debt relief to ESAF conditionalities is way for the IMF to dictate to countries unquestioning acceptance of its neo-liberal economic orthodoxy; high levels of non-compliance by countries is, in part, a symptom of the top-down approach by the Fund in the design of loan conditions; fulfilling ESAF conditionalities, rather than demonstrated government efforts toward poverty reduction, would ultimately determine qualification for debt relief; while debt relief is important in the short run, the extent to which additional fresh resources would be available for HIPC countries is not certain; the enhanced HIPC initiative could become more meaningful and poverty-oriented only if decisions on conditions and terms of debt relief are left to the countries themselves, subject to broad consultation with civil society organizations in the country; the initiative could also become effective if UN specialized agencies with a broad conception of the poverty problem (e.g. UNDP, ILO UNICEF) are invited to become partners with the Bretton Woods institutions in the management of the HIPC initiative. (UN)
High Quality Farmland - Farmland that is either prime farmland, unique farmland or both. - USDA
High Scenic Integrity Areas (SIA) - In high scenic integrity areas, activities may only repeat attributes of form, line, color, and texture found in the existing landscape character. - FS
High seas - The waters beyond the territorial sea or exclusive economic zone (or the equivalent) of any Nation, to the extent that such territorial sea or exclusive economic zone (or the equivalent) is recognized by the United States. - MFCMA
High seas fishing vessel - Any vessel of the United States used or intended for use on the high seas for the purpose of the commercial exploitation of living marine resources as a harvesting vessel, mothership, or any other support vessel directly engaged in a fishing operation. - MFCMA
High Value Products (HVP) - Agricultural products that are high in value, often but not necessarily due to processing. HVPs can be divided into three groups: 1) semi-processed products, such as fresh and frozen meats, flour, vegetable oils, roasted coffee, refined sugar; 2) highly processed products that are ready for the consumer, such as milk, cheese, wine, breakfast cereals; and 3) high-value unprocessed products that are also often consumer-ready, such as fresh and dried fruits and vegetables, eggs, and nuts. In recent years HVPs account for a greater percentage than bulk commodities in total U.S. agricultural exports.
Highwall - The unexcavated face of exposed overburden and ore in an open pit mine. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Highway Right-of-Way - The limit of property acquired to build a highway. It is usually marked by monuments or fences. Right-of-Way for roads, where no property was acquired originally, is normally the limit being used as the road. - Cadastral Data glossary
Highway, Road or Trail - A way or place that is publicly maintained and open to the public for vehicular travel without regard to which public agency has jurisdiction, operates or maintains it." (Note: This definition requires a road, trail, or highway to be PUBLICLY MAINTAINED in order to be valid. Therefore, any road, trail or way not maintained by a public entity is no longer legitimate and repudiates the many informal trails and roads that are long-established across BLM lands.)
Historic architectural inventory - A systematic inventory recording the physical fabric and setting for historic properties; usually accompanied by photography; here, using the Coast Defense Resource Checklist. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Hillside Management Areas - Hilly and mountainous areas with average slopes above 15 percent. Instituted to preserve the natural and scenic character of the area and to minimize the danger to life and property caused by fire and flood hazards, water pollution, soil erosion, and land slippage.
Hillslope - The steeper part of a hill between its summit and drainage line at the base of the hill. In descending order, a simple hillslope may include shoulder, back slope, foot slope, and toe slope. - USDA
Hired manager - A civil or juridical person who takes technical and administrative responsibility to manage a holding on a holder's behalf. Responsibilities are limited to making day-to-day decisions to operate the holding, including managing and supervising hired labour. Wages may be paid in cash and/or kind. A hired manager who shares economic and financial responsibilities, in addition to managing the holding, should be considered a holder or a joint holder. -FAO UN Glossary
Historic - Relating to or existing in times of written history; Within the Assessment area, the historic period is considered to begin with the expedition of Hernando de Soto in the 1540s. - USDA/FS
Historic Character - The sum of all visual aspects, features, materials, and spaces associated with a Cultural Landscape or structure's history. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/
Historic Corridor - A right-of-way or an area comprising one or more landmarks, historic sites, or an historic district.
Historic Cultural Resources - Historical cultural resources include all mines, ranches, towns, resorts, railroads, trails, and other evidence of human use from the time of the entrance of the Europeans to 1938. - BLM
Historic District - One or more historic sites and intervening or surrounding property united historically or aesthetically by plan or physical development. A district may also comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history significantly affecting or affected by the quality and character of the historic site or sites.
Historic Properties Leasing Program - A type of long-term agreement that provides for historic properties that are listed in - or eligible for listing in - the National Register of Historic Places, to be leased for non-governmental uses that are consistent with the park's mission (NPS 1994a). The historic properties are offered through a 'request for proposal' (RFP) process and preferred lessees are selected. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/
Historic Resource - A building, structure, site, district or object which is significant in American history, architecture, archaeology, engineering and culture.
Historic Resource or Historic Property - Any prehistoric or historic district, site, building, structure, or object included in, or eligible for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, including artifacts, records, and material remains related to such a property or resource 50 years of age or older. - SPRPMA
Historic Resource Protection - May include, but not be limited to, Historic Districts and Landmark Preservation.
Historic site - Generally, with respect to American preservation efforts, a prehistoric or historic archeology site meeting the requirements of eligibility for the National Register of Historic Places. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Historic Sites, Buildings and Antiquities Act (1935) - as amended: Declares it a national policy to preserve historic sites and objects of national significance, including those located on refuges. Provides procedures for designation, acquisition, administration, and protection of such sites. Any real property, man-made structure, natural object or configuration or any portion or group of the foregoing formally designated by the state, county or municipality or documented as being of historical, archaeological, cultural, or architectural significance.
Historic structure/resource - Generally, with respect to American preservation efforts, a building, structure, or object meeting the requirements of eligibility for the National Register of Historic Places.
Historic towns - See Groups of urban buildings, Inhabited historic towns - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
Historical Resources - Distinctive physical elements in the landscape, either natural or manmade, that reflect the actions of humans as they relate to past events, sites, or structures. These historical resources symbolize an important era in a state's history and portray a legacy that educates viewers while providing an appreciation of the past. Resources may include buildings, Indian habitations, trails, engineering structures, settlement patterns and landscapes. - Scenic Byways Program Glossary
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) - A virus that steadily weakens the body's defense (immune) system until it can no longer fight off infections such as pneumonia, diarrhea, tumors and other illnesses. All of which can be part of AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). Unable to fight back, most people die within three years of the first signs of AIDS appearing. Most of all HIV infections have been transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse with someone who is already infected with HIV. HIV can also be transmitted by infected blood or blood products (as in blood transfusions), by the sharing of contaminated needles, and from an infected woman to her baby before birth, during delivery, or through breast-feeding. HIV is not transmitted through normal, day-to-day contact. (Source: UNAIDS) (WB-UN)
HKSM - Henry Krumb School of Mines (Columbia University)
HL - Habitat Linkages (to surrounding habitat reserves -- this IS the Wildlands Project to depopulate most of the United States of people, being implemented by, in this and several cases, a state government) (DOI & USDA Forest Service) "Efforts to model, prioritize, and design habitat linkages, for example, are currently being co-funded by the Legacy Project. http://legacy.ca.gov/2002_RSAT_PAGE/inal_Health_and_Condition_Report_Text_Only.pdf See also: http://endangered.fws.gov/frpubs/f001024.pdf, http://www.prbo.org/calpif/pdfs/scrub.v-2.pdf and http://www.rcip.org/Documents/draft_mshcp_vol_2/b_2.0.pdf
HL - Historic Landscape
HLF - Habitat Limiting Factors
HLM - High Level Meetings
HLP - Health of the Land Priorities http://www.fs.fed.us/r5/fire/nfp/CA_nfp_summary_02_02.pdf
HLP - Higher Level Plan
HLT - Hilltown Land Trust
HLWA - The Homestead Land and Water Alliance (CA)
HM - Hate Mongering
HM - Hazard Mitigation (DOI)
HM - Hoofmasters
HM - Humanist Manifesto
HMC - Historical and Museum Commission
HMC - Holistic Management Concept (waterfowl)
HMES - Human-Mediated Ecosystem Stress
HMI - Humanist Manifesto I
HMII - Humanist Manifesto II
HMLA - Highwood Mountain Livestock Association
HMNF - Huron-Manistee National Forest (Michigan) http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/hmnf/
HMP - Habitat Management Plan
HMS - Highly Migratory Species
HMTA - Hazardous Materials Transportation Act
HMW - Human-modified world
HN - Heartland Network
HN - Human Nature
HNAWC - Human and Natural Agents of Watershed Change
HNHA - Human or Non-Human Animals (ALF reference pertaining to arson targets)
HNL - Human and Nature Linkages
HNMUN - Harvard (University) National Model United Nations (UN)
HOC - Headwaters Of California
HOD - Housing Overlay District
The Hodel Policy - Departmental Policy on Section 8 of the Act of July 26, l866 (1866 Mining Law), Revised Statute 2477 (Repealed), Grant of Right-of-Way for Public Highways (RS-2477) Although RS-2477 was repealed in the late 1970s, controversies periodically arise regarding whether a public highway was established pursuant to the congressional grant under RS-2477 and the extent of right obtained under that grant. Under RS-2477, the United States had (has) no duty or authority to adjudicate an assertion or application. However, it is necessary in the proper management of Federal lands to be able to recognize with some certainty the existence, or lack thereof, of public grants obtained under RS-2477. With the passage of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) developed procedures, policy, and criteria for recognition, in cooperation with local governments, of the existence of such public highways and notation to the BLM's land records. This has allowed the BLM to develop land use plans and to make appropriate management decisions that consider the existence of these highway rights. Issues have recently been raised by the State of Alaska and others, which question not only the BLM policy but also the management actions, by other bureaus within the Department. The BLM has reviewed and reported on the various issues and concerns and consulted with the State of Alaska, the BLM, the Fish and Wildlife Service, and the National Park Service. It is believed that the land management objectives of the Department will be improved with adoption of a Departmental policy and is recommended that the attached policy be adopted for Department-wide use. - Donald Paul Hodel, December 7, 1988. Revoked on January 22, 1997 by Interior Secretary Babbitt.
Hog/Corn Ratio (corn-hog ratio) - Number of bushels of corn equal in value to 100 pounds of live hogs (feed ratio). Put another way, the price of hogs, per hundredweight, divided by the price of corn per bushel. Since corn is a major input cost to hog producers, the higher the price of hogs relative to corn, the more profit there is in feeding hogs.
Hog fuel (hogged fuel) - Wood residues processed through a chipper or mill to produce coarse chips normally used for fuel. Bark, sawdust, planer shavings, wood chunks, dirt, and fines may be included. - Bioenergy Glossary
Hold a Covenant - To possess the interest in land referred to as a conservation covenant.
Holder - A civil or juridical person who makes major decisions regarding resource use and exercises management control over the agricultural operation. The holder has technical and economic responsibility for the holding and may undertake all responsibilities directly or delegate responsibilities related to day-to-day work management to a hired manager. -FAO UN Glossary
Holism - The idea that a whole is greater than the sum of its parts in an ordered grouping. When applied to environmental thinking it means that all factors - biophysical, social, political, geological, and spiritual - should be considered when making a decision. (UNESCO)
Hollow Continent (South America) - South America is sometimes called the "hollow continent" because of the peripheral location of its population centers. The center of the continent is "hollow" - it is sparely located.
HOME - Housing Opportunities Made Equal (Richmond, VA)
HOME - Home Investment Partnership Program (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development - HUD)
HOME - Housing Opportunities Made Equal (Richmond, VA)
Home Building & Loan Assn. v. Blaisdell, 290 U.S. 398, 429-30 (1934) - The relevant sections of the decision have been extracted to provide a summary. The bottom line is: Declarations of emergency have tremendous power and as long as they are confined to addressing the temporal and physical scope of the threat they will withstand Constitutional challenge. "The state court upheld the statute as an emergency measure. Although conceding that the obligations of the mortgage contract were impaired, the court decided that what it thus described as an impairment was, notwithstanding the contract cause of the Federal Constitution, within the police power of the state as that power was called into exercise by the public economic emergency which the Legislature had found to exist. Attention is thus directed to the preamble and first section of the [290 U.S. 398, 421] statute that described the existing emergency in terms that were deemed to justify the temporary relief that the statute affords. 3 The state court, declaring that it [290 U.S. 398, 422] could not say that this legislative finding was without basis, supplemented that finding by its own statement of conditions of which it took judicial notice." "While emergency does not create power, emergency may furnish the occasion for the exercise of power. 'Although an emergency may not call into life a power which has never lived, nevertheless emergency may afford a reason for the exertion of a living power already enjoyed.' Wilson v. New, 243 U.S. 332, 348 , 37 S. Ct. 298, 302, L.R.A. 1917E, 938, Ann. Cas. 1918A, 1024. The constitutional question presented in the light of an emergency is whether the power possessed embraces the particular exercise of it in response to particular conditions. Thus, the war power of the federal government is not created by the emergency of war, but it is a power given to meet that emergency. It is a power to wage war successfully, and thus it permits the harnessing of the entire energies of the people in a supreme co-operative effort to preserve the nation. But even the war power does not remove constitutional limitations safeguarding essential liberties. 5 When the provisions of the Constitution, in grant or restriction, are specific, so particularized as not to admit of construction, no question is presented. Thus, emergency would not permit a state to have more than two Senators in the Congress, or permit the election of President by a general popular vote without regard to the number of electors to which the States are respectively entitled, or permit the States to 'coin money' or to 'make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts.' But, where constitutional grants and limitations of power are set forth in general clauses, which afford a broad outline, the process of construction is essential to fill in the details. That is true of the contract clause. The necessity of construction is not obviated by [290 U.S. 398, 427] the fact that the contract clause is associated in the same section with other and more specific prohibitions. Even the grouping of subjects in the same clause may not require the same application to each of the subjects, regardless of differences in their nature. See Groves v. Slaughter, 15 Pet. 449, 505; Atlantic Cleaners & Dyers v. United States, 286 U.S. 427, 434, 52 S. Ct. 607" "And, if state power exists to give temporary relief from the enforcement of contracts in the presence of disasters due to physical causes such as fire, flood, or earthquake, that [290 U.S. 398, 440] power cannot be said to be nonexistent when the urgent public need demanding such relief is produced by other and economic causes." "Applying the criteria established by our decisions, we conclude: 1. An emergency existed in Minnesota that furnished a proper occasion for the exercise of the reserved power of the state to protect the vital interests of the community. The declarations of the existence of this emergency by the Legislature and by the Supreme Court of Minnesota cannot be regarded as a subterfuge or as lacking in adequate basis."
Home and Garden User Sector - Involves pesticides applied by homeowners to homes and gardens, including lawns; single and multiple unit housing. Does not include pesticides for home/garden applications by professional applicators. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary
Home Investment Partnership Program (HOME)(U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development - HUD) HOME is the largest Federal block grant to State and local governments designed exclusively to create affordable housing for low-income households. This program was created as Title II of the Cranston-Gonzales National Affordable Housing Act. Program regulations are at 24 CFR Part 92. HOME is administered by the Office of Affordable Housing Programs, Office of Community Planning and Development. Each year it allocates more than $1 billion among the States and hundreds of localities nationwide.
Home range - The area supporting the daily activities of an animal, generally throughout the year. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf
Home Range - The area that an animal traverses in the scope of normal activities; not to be confused with territory that is the area an animal defends. (BLM)
Home Range - The area in which an animal travels in the scope of natural activities. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Homeland Defense - The prevention, preemption, and deterrence of, and defense against, direct attacks aimed at U.S. territory, population, and infrastructure. (A Homeland Defense Program Term)
Homeland Security - The prevention, deterrence, and preemption of, and defense against, aggression targeted at United States territory, sovereignty, population, and infrastructure as well as the management of the consequences of such aggression and other domestic emergencies. (A Homeland Defense Program Term)
Homeless - There are two common definitions of the homeless: a person who has no shelter and is forced to sleep outdoors; or those people whose shelter is inadequate, lacking in water, power and sanitary facilities. The right to shelter has been enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Yet more than a billion people are without adequate shelter or housing. Of these, 100 million have no shelter whatsoever. This problem is global, but most acute in the developing world. (UNESCO)
Homeostasis - The maintenance of conditions within the range that the organism can tolerate. - from Limnology glossary
The Homestead Act of 1862 - The Homestead Act of 1862 provided for the allocation of 160 acres to a settler if he remained on the land for 5 years. Perhaps this was one of our earliest attempts at social engineering, encouraging citizens to change their residence and life style.
The Homestead Act of 1862 - Allowed anyone to file for a quarter section (65 hectares) of free land subject to certain performance restrictions.
The Homestead Act of 1862 - Allowed anyone to file for a quarter section (65 hectares) of free land subject to certain performance restrictions.
Hometown Indiana - State matching assistance program for local historic preservation, community forestry, and local parks. (NPS)
Homocline - A group of geological strata which have fairly regular dip in the same general direction. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary
Homogeneity (homogeneous) - One of the characteristics of a good classification is reasonably high homogeneity for its categories. Homogeneity is the measure of the degree to which categories consist of components with similar characteristics and is achieved by systematic grouping and stratifying members of the population being classified. Homogeneity ratios are defined on a mathematical basis to minimize the variance within a classification. (UN)
Homogeneous - Refers to anything that displays a uniform or consistent composition. Opp: heterogeneous - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary
Hookworm - An intestinal parasite found in tropical and subtropical regions. It passes through the skin, especially bare feet, and is spread by unsanitary conditions. (WB-UN)
Horizon - Layer of soil or soil material approximately parallel to the land surface and differing from adjacent genetically related layers in physical, chemical, and biological properties or characteristics, such as color, structure, texture, consistency, amount of organic matter, and degree of acidity or alkalinity.
Horizontal Datum (plane surveying) - The grid systems of reference used for the horizontal control of geographical area. It is defined by the easting and northing of one station in the area, and the azimuth from this station is to an adjacent station. - Cadastral Data glossary
Horizontal Diversity - The distribution and abundance of different plant and animal communities or different stages of plant succession across an area of land; the greater the numbers of communities in a given area, the higher the degree of horizontal diversity.
Horticultural cropland - A subcategory of Cropland used for growing fruit, nut, berry, vineyard, and other bush fruit and similar crops. Nurseries and other ornamental plantings are included. - National Resources Inventory
Horticultural Specialty Crops - The Census of Agriculture includes as 'horticultural specialties' bedding plants, florists' greens, flower and vegetable seeds, flowers, foliage, fruit stocks, nursery and ornamental plants, shrubbery, sod, mushrooms, and vegetables grown under cover (e.g., in greenhouses).
HOS - Head Of State
Host Rock - A body of rock with younger rocks or mineral deposits introduced into it or formed within or next to it. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
HOT - Higher Order Thinking
Hot Spots - Zones where contaminants are present at much higher concentrations than surrounding areas. Areas of radioactive contamination of higher than average concentration. - EPA
HOTS - Higher Order Thinking Skills
Household - A concept is based on the arrangements made by persons, individually or in groups, for providing themselves with food or other essentials for living. A household may be either (a) a one-person household, i.e., a person who makes provision for his or her own food or other essentials for living without combining with any other person to form part of a multi-person household, or (b) a multi-person household, i.e., a group of two or more persons living together who make common provision for food or other essentials for living. The persons in the group may pool their incomes and have a common budget to a greater or lesser extent; they may be related or unrelated persons or a combination of both. Households usually occupy the whole, part of, or more than one housing unit but they may also be found living in camps, boarding houses or hotels or as administrative personnel in institutions, or they may be homeless. Households consisting of extended families that make common provision for food or of potentially separate households with a common head, resulting from polygamous unions, or households with vacation or other second homes may occupy more than one housing unit. -FAO UN Glossary
Household Including Tribal Members - A Household that existed on May 4, 2000, which included one or more Tribal Members as continuous residents. - FEMA Sec. 295.50
Housing Act of 1949 - Title V of P.L. 81-171 (October 25, 1949) authorized USDA to make loans to farmers to construct, improve, repair, or replace dwellings and other farm buildings to provide decent, safe, and sanitary living conditions for themselves, their tenants, lessees, sharecroppers, and laborers. The USDA was authorized to make grants or combinations of loans and grants to farmers who could not qualify to repay the full amount of a loan, but who needed the funds to make the dwellings sanitary or to remove health hazards to the occupants or the community. Over time, the Act has been amended to authorize housing loans and grants to rural residents in general and the Rural Housing Service (RHS) administers these. The rural housing programs are generally referred to by the section number under which they are authorized in the Housing Act of 1949, as amended.
Housing and Community Development Act of 1980, Pub. L. No. 96-399, 94 Stat. 1614, 1669. - With the 1980 amendments, the statute stated in relevant part: (a) ... any Federal surplus real property ... may, in the discretion of the Administrator of General Services, be transferred to the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development or the Secretary of Agriculture at the request of either such Secretary for sale or lease by either Secretary at its fair value for use in the provision of housing to be occupied predominantly by families or individuals of low- or moderate-income, assisted under a Federal housing assistance program administered by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development or the Secretary of Agriculture or under a State or local program found by the appropriate Secretary to have the same general purpose, and for related public commercial or industrial facilities approved by the appropriate Secretary ... (b) As a condition of any disposition by the Secretary of Federal surplus real property under this section to an entity other than a public body, the Secretary shall obtain such undertakings as the Secretary may consider appropriate to assure that the property will be used, to the maximum practicable extent, in the provision of housing and related facilities to be occupied by families or individuals of low and moderate income for a period of not less than thirty years. If during such period the property is used for any purpose other than the purpose for which it was disposed of it shall revert to the United States (or, in the case of leased property, the lease shall terminate) unless the Secretary and the Administrator, after the expiration of the first twenty years of such period, have approved the use of the property for such other purposes. Note: Although section 414 was repealed in 1983, Congress provided that the terms of section 414 continue with regard to requests for transfer of surplus property that were made prior to enactment of the repealing statute. Supplemental Appropriations Act of 1984, Pub. L. No. 98-181, 97 Stat. 1153, 1175 (1983). Congress also provided that "section 414(b) ... shall continue to apply, where applicable, to all property transferred by either Secretary pursuant to section 414."
Housing Unit or Units - The place of permanent or customary and usual abode of a person, including a single-family dwelling, a single unit in a two-family dwelling, multi-family or multi-purpose dwelling, a unit of a condominium or cooperative housing project, a non-housekeeping unit, a mobile home, or any other residential unit which either is considered to be real property under State law or cannot be moved without substantial damage or unreasonable cost. - Cornell Preservation Glossary
Human Environment - The natural and physical environment and the relationship of people with that environment. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/
HOV - High Occupancy Vehicle
HP - Hamlet Program
HP - Healthy People (UN)
HP - Hedgerow Planting
HP - Heritage Properties (DOI)
HPC - Health Planning Centers
HPET - Habitat and Population Evaluation Team
HPGSA - High Plains Grass Seed Association
HPHC - High Plains Herbal Company
HPMDN - high priority maintenance dredging needs
HPO - Heritage Park Organization
HPP - Habitat Preservation Plan
HPS - Health Physics Society
HPS - Historic Preservation Sites
HPV - High Priority Violator
HQ-CWF - High Quality Cold Water Fishery
HQ-WWF - High Quality Warm Water Fishery
HQF - High Quality Forage
HR - Habitat Reserves (through acquisition) (DOI & USDA Forest Service)
HR - Habitat Restoration
HR - Heritage Region
HR - High Risk
HR - Historic Range
HR - Historic Resource
HR - Historic Revision
HR - Human Resources
HR - Human Rights
HR - Hypothetical Resources
HRA -Human Rights Act
HRBWA - Humboldt River Basin Water Authority (Nevada)
HRC - Human Rights Campaign
HRC - Human Rights Commission
HRD - Human-related disturbance - BLM
HRD - Human resources development, i.e., the enhancement of knowledge and skills, plus the creation of optimum development conditions to use these. - WB
HRDP - Human Resources Development Plan
HRE - Hazard Reduction Efforts (DOI)
HRE - Human Rights Education - UN
HRE Advocacy Networks - The Human Rights Resource Center builds partnerships with advocacy groups around the world to promote their human rights education resources and training opportunities. One such effort is the creation of the Global Human Rights Education List Serve, a joint initiative of the Human Rights Education Associates and the Human Rights Resource Center. More than 1,500 members from approximately 100 countries share ideas, resources, and strategies for human rights education. - UN
HRI - Human Rights Issues
HRL - Hydropower Related Losses (fish)
HRM - Human Resources Management
HRM - Human Rights Movement
HRNM - Hanford Reach National Monument
HRP - Historic Re-Planning
HRP - Historic Resource Protection
HRS - The Hazard Ranking System (HRS) is the principal tool EPA uses to place waste sites on the National Priorities List (NPL). It is a numerically based screening system that uses information from initial, limited investigations -- the preliminary assessment and the site inspection -- to assess the relative potential of sites posing a threat to human health or the environment.
HRS - Historic Resource Study
HRSG - Heat Recovery Steam Generator
HRT - Human Rights Treaties
HRTC - Headquarters Relocation Tax Credit
HRV - Historic Range of Variability
HRW - Human Rights Watch
HS - Habitat Suitability
HS - Head Start
HS - Healthy Start (UN)
HS - Historic Structures
HS - Human Settlement
HS - Hurting the Soil
HSA - Human Services Agency
HSB - Human Sense Bombardment
HSE - Healthy, Sustainable Economy
HSI - Habitat Suitability Index
HSIM - Habitat Suitability Index Model
HSLDA - Home School Legal Defense Association
HSP - Housing Subsidy Program
HSR - Health and Scientific Research
HSRC - The Hazardous Substance Research Centers (HSRC) oversees basic and applied research, technology transfer, and training involving problems relating to hazardous substance management. These activities are conducted regionally by five multi-university centers, which focus on different aspects of hazardous substance management. - EPA
HSUS - Humane Society of the United States
HSUSWLT - The Humane Society of the United States Wildlife Land Trust
HSW - Historically significant wetlands (USFWS)
HT - Habitat Type
HT - Haulage/Trackage (NAFTA Railway)
HT - Highwall Treatment
HTD - Highway and Transportation District
H2H - Horizon To Horizon
HTF - Highway Trust Fund
HTF - The Highway Trust Fund
HTP - High Tax Point
HTS - Hydrologic Time Series (USGS - reference was to Maine)
HU - Habitat Unit
HU - Habitual Unit (used in reference to wildlife habitats)
HUAAC - House Un-American Activities Committee
HUAP - Heavy Use Area Protection
HUCE - Harvard University Center for the Environment
HUD - Department of Housing and Urban Development
HUD-1 Settlement Statement - A standard form that shows the actual amount of money you'll need to bring to closing, that must be signed by both buyer and seller. RESPA allows the borrower to request to see the HUD-1 Settlement Statement one day before the actual settlement.
HUDZ - Housing and Urban Development Zone
Hue - one of the three variables of color, the rainbow color of light reflected from each soil.
Hue - The relation to the spectral colors (red, yellow, green, blue, purple, or a mixture of these colors). - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary
Human - The question of what exactly constitutes a human has become far more difficult over the centuries. The primary complicating factor has been technology. Such things as personality recording, complete body transplants and other general cybernetics have meant that it is possible to have a human body completely devoid of a human personality, or a human personality devoid of a body, or two personalities within the same body, or a host of other complicated situations. The exact legal definition of human varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, but it is generally stated that a human must have a personality which is still basically natural (meaning that the personality has not been modified or degraded through recording to a point where it no longer resembles its natural self). Many jurisdictions do not place limits upon body types, though many do state simply that a mind without a physical presence has no status as a viable entity or human. More conservative jurisdictions may require that every personality have a biological body possessed of various organs and functions. The most conservative governments have used the increasing presence of grey areas to make black-and-white statements, excluding (for example) those with fewer limbs than normal from the main template of humanity. Though this has of course made many parties angry, they have been rather ill-put to give strong and clear counter-arguments.
Human Access - Locations where humans are permitted.
Human Activities - Fossil fuel consumption is one of many examples of human activities.
Human Capital - People and their ability to be economically productive. Education, training, and health care can help increase human capital. (UNESCO)
Human capital - The knowledge, skills, and experience of people that make them economically productive. Human capital can be increased by investing in education, health care, and job training. - World Bank Glossary
Human Development Index (HDI) - The human development index, composed of three indicators: life expectancy, education (adult literacy and combined secondary and tertiary school enrollment) and real Gross Domestic Product/Gross National Product (GDP/GNP) per capita. GNP per capita is the most used indicator of development yet there are some significant problems with it. Therefore, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) computes a Human Development Index for each country each year. The human development index (HDI), is composed of three indicators: life expectancy, education (adult literacy and combined secondary and tertiary school enrollment) and real GDP per capita. (UN)
Human Dimension - An integral component of Ecosystem Management that recognizes people are part of ecosystems, that people's pursuits of past, present and future desires, needs and values (including perceptions, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors) have and will continue to influence ecosystems and that ecosystem management must include consideration of the physical, emotional, mental, spiritual, social, cultural and economic well-being of people and communities. - FS
Human Disturbance - Typical sources of human disturbance include industrial and recreational developments, agriculture and forestry, military activity, aircraft and boat activity, eco-tourism, recreation, research, fishing, and direct exploitation. An example is a gap made in a forest by logging, clearing, fire, or treefall.
Human environment - Human environment shall be interpreted comprehensively to include the natural and physical environment and the relationship of people with that environment. This means that economic or social effects are not intended by themselves to require preparation of an environmental impact statement. When an environmental impact statement is prepared and economic or social and natural or physical environmental effects are interrelated, then the environmental impact statement will discuss all of these effects on the human environment. 40 CFR § 1508.14.
Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV)(HIV/AIDS) - Essentially a sexually transmitted infection but can be passed in other ways: through contaminated blood or blood products, contaminated hypodermic needles, and from mother to baby during childbirth. Acquired Immuno-deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) results from infection by the HIV. It is an incurable disease. (UNESCO)
Human resources - The total quantity and quality of human effort available to produce goods and services. The muscle power and brain power of human beings. Human resources can be viewed as consisting of raw labor- determined mostly by the number of people in a country's labor force- combined with human capital. - World Bank Glossary
Human resources development (HRD) - The enhancement of knowledge and skills, plus the creation of optimum development conditions to use these. (FAO-UN)
Human Rights - The rights people are entitled to simply because they are human beings, irrespective of their citizenship, nationality, race, ethnicity, language, gender, sexuality, or abilities; human rights become enforceable when they are Codified as Conventions, Covenants, or Treaties, or as they become recognized as Customary International Law. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary
Human Rights - Privileges claimed or enjoyed by every human being by virtue of being human. The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted in 1948. It stated that people have the right to life, liberty and education; to freedom of movement, religion, association and information; to a nationality and to equality before the law. (UNESCO)
Human Rights Community - A community based on human rights, where respect for the fundamental dignity of each individual is recognized as essential to the functioning and advancement of society. A community that works to uphold each article of the UDHR. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary
Human Scale - The relationship between the dimensions of a building, structure, street, open space or streetscape element and the average dimensions of the human body.
Humanist Manifesto - Proportional representation rather than majority rule.
Hummock - Small mound. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)
Humus - Fraction of the soil organic matter remaining, usually amorphous and dark colored, after the major portion of added residues have decomposed.
HUMVEE - High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicle
Hundredweight - One hundred pounds (abbreviated as cwt.). A standard unit of measure for milk, rice, and some meat livestock.
HV - Habitat Variables (USFWS - DOI)
HVFAP - High-Value Food and Agricultural Products
HVMD - Holcomb Valley Mining District
HW - The Habitable World
HWB - Herbaceous Wind Barriers
HXZ - Human Exclusion Zone (UN/Agenda 21)
Hyaline - Transparent or translucent. (NPS)
Hybridization - Crossing of individuals from genetically different strains, populations, or species. - UNDP/WRI
HYCOS - Hydrological Cycle Observing Systems
Hydraulic - Operated, moved, or effected by means of water. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary
Hydraulic Conductivity - A measure of the rate at which water will move through a permeable soil or rock layer. For a particular soil or rock layer, the hydraulic conductivity may not be the same in the horizontal direction as in the vertical direction.
Hydraulic Gradient - The slope of the free surface of water in a stream flowing in an open channel. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Hydric (Hydrophilic) - Characterized as requiring ample water or moisture. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary
Hydric soil - Soils that are saturated, flooded, or ponded long enough during the growing season to develop anaerobic conditions. 2. A soil with periods of wetness that exhibits evidence of that wetness (mottles, gleying, redox conditions at times).
Hydrocarbon - An organic compound containing only hydrogen and carbon, such as petroleum or crude oil. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary
Hydrogeology - The general definition of ground water hydrology applies here except that hydrogeology places a greater emphasis on geology.
Hydrograph - A graph showing stage, flow, velocity, or other property of water with respect to time. - USGS
Hydrologic - Hydrology is the science dealing with the waters of the earth, their distribution on the surface and underground, and the cycle involving evaporation, precipitation, flow to the seas, etc. - Smart Growth Green Development Glossary
Hydrologic Balance - An accounting of water inflow to, outflow from, and storage in a hydrologic unit such as a drainage basin, aquifer, lake, or reservoir; the relationship between evaporation, precipitation, runoff, and change in water storage. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Hydrologic budget - An accounting of the inflow to, outflow from, and storage in, a hydrologic unit, such as a drainage basin, aquifer, soil zone, lake, reservoir, or irrigation project. - USGS
Hydrologic Condition - The state of an area pertaining to the amount and form of water present. - Everglades Plan glossary
Hydrologic Cycle - Also called the water cycle, this is the process of water evaporating, condensing, falling to the ground as precipitation, and returning to the ocean as runoff. The constant process of water movement from the Earth to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration, and from the atmosphere to the Earth in various forms of precipitation. This term includes movement of water on and beneath the Earth's surface.
Hydrologic equation - The equation balancing the hydrologic budget. - USGS
Hydrologic Response - An observed increase or decrease of water in a particular area. - Everglades Plan glossary
Hydrologic Unit - A geographic area representing part or all of a surface drainage basin or distinct hydrologic feature as delineated by the Office of Water Data Coordination on State hydrologic unit maps; each hydrologic unit is identified by an eight-digit number; in this assessment, hydrologic units are also referred to as watersheds. - USDA/FS
Hydrologic unit - A national standard system of watersheds that are classified into four types of units: regions, sub-regions, accounting units, and cataloging units. The hydrologic units are arranged within each other, from the smallest (cataloging units or sub-basin) to the largest (regions). Each hydrologic unit is identified by a unique hydrologic unit code (HUC) consisting of two to eight digits based on the four levels of classification in the hydrologic unit system. A standardized fifth level of classification or 10-digit hydrologic unit (watershed) has recently been developed. Locally, a non-standard sixth level sub-watershed also may have been developed. http://cleanwater.gov/ufp/glossary.html
Hydrologic Unit - A hydrologic unit is a watershed-area designation that identifies the hydrologic and geographic boundaries of a stream or river basin. A watershed is simply all land in a specific area that drains to one water outlet. The US Geological Survey (USGS), US Water Resources Council, and USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS; formerly the Soil Conservation Service, SCS) worked together to delineate the United States into 21 major water resource regions that contain river basins, sub-basins and stream segments. This organization helps water scientists, resource managers, regulatory personnel, and policy makers to better coordinate activities within and across watershed boundaries. In Ohio, there are 93 watersheds, usually containing portions of one or more major streams and their tributaries, and averaging 300,000 acres in size. For the purposes of the Ohio Non-point Source Assessment, the Ohio Non-point Source Management Plan and the Ohio Water Resource Inventory, Ohio EPA has identified each of these 93 watersheds (also called sub-basins) as a hydrologic group. Each group relates specifically to one of the 93 SCS watersheds in the state. Within these 93 groups, there are over 4,000 stream segments for which the EPA and cooperating organizations are in the process of conducting water quality assessments.
Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) - An eight-digit code used to catalog watersheds. - USDA/FS
Hydrology - The science dealing with the study of water on the surface of the land, in the soil and underlying rocks, and in the atmosphere, dealing with the waters of the Earth, their distribution and movement on the surface and underground, and the cycle involving evaporation and precipitation (Hydrologic Cycle).
Hydropattern - A depiction of water levels through annual cycles; this includes water depth and duration, along with quantity, timing and distribution of surface water to a specific area. - Everglades Plan glossary
Hydroperiod - The seasonal variability of inflow, outflow and storage of water in a wetland.
Hydrophytic Environment - Plants that are often, if not always, associated with wet soils. One of the defining characteristics of a wetland area. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/
Hydrophytic Shrub - A low-growing plant associated with moist, well-drained sites within riparian areas.
Hydroponics - The growing of plants without soil by using an inert medium such as sand, peat, or vermiculite and adding a nutrient solution containing all the essential elements needed by the plant for its normal growth and development. Water culture, when plant roots are suspended in a liquid medium containing the nutrient solution while their crowns are supported in a thin layer of inert medium, is true hydroponics. Often called soilless culture, it also includes aeroponics where plant roots are suspended in a dark chamber and sprayed with the nutrient solution.
Hydrosphere - The aqueous part of the earth, including all bodies of water and water vapor in the atmosphere. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary
Hydrostatic Pressure - The pressure exerted by the water in any given point in a water body at rest. The hydrostatic pressure of ground water is generally due to the weight of water at higher levels in the zone of saturation. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Hyetograph - Graphical representation of rainfall intensity against time. - USGS
Hygiene - Practices, such as frequent hand washing, that helps ensure cleanliness and good health. (WB-UN)
Hypertension - High blood pressure which stresses the heart and may lead to heart attack and/or other medical complications. (UNESCO)
HyperText Transfer Protocol - HTTP was created in 1990, at CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, as a means for sharing scientific data internationally, instantly, and inexpensively. With hypertext a word or phrase can contain a link to other text. To achieve this, the CERN scientists developed a programming language called HTML that allows easy linking to other pages or network services on the Web.
Hypocenter - The calculated location of the focus of an earthquake. - USGS Earthquake glossary
Hypolimnion - See Thermal stratification. - USGS
Hyporheic Zone - The area where water in a stream channel has moved back into the subsurface sediments. The hyporheic zone may occur under or next to the streambed. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Hypoxie Zone - An area in the Gulf of Mexico off the mouth of the Mississippi River covering about 6,000 square miles where there is not enough oxygen to support fish and shellfish populations. The oxygen depletion is caused by an excessive amount of nutrients that are brought together from throughout the Mississippi River watershed. Many of these nutrients are believed to originate from agricultural activities, and the largest portion, over 30%, has been traced to the upper Mississippi drainage, according to research prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey.
HZ - Habitat Zones
Hz - Hertz