I factor (WEQ). See Soil erodibility index.
I/You - The person to whom these regulations directly apply. - DOI-BIA Glossary
IA - Illegal Alien
IA - In Absentia
IA - Industrial Areas
IA - Interdisciplinary Approach
IA - Internet Acronyms - For many users, acronyms are the bugbears and hobgoblins of computer life. They imply a hidden world of meaning that only the cognoscenti and those "in the know" are privy to. The Internet, in particular, is a maddeningly rich source of TLAs (three-letter acronyms) and other ciphers. To help you survive the inevitable onslaught of Internet acronymy, here's a list of the most commonly used initials in Net discourse: AAMOF As a matter of fact. AFAIK As far as I know. BTW By the way. CU See you (as in "see you later"). DIIK Damned if I know. F2F Face-to-face. FAQ Frequently Asked Questions. These are lists that appear in many Usenet newsgroups to provide answers to questions that newcomers ask over and over. FAWOMPT Frequently argued waste of my precious time. FAWOMFT Frequently argued waste of my foolish time (bowdlerized version). FOAF Friend of a friend. Used to imply that information was obtained third-hand, or worse. FOTCL Falling off the chair laughing. FTF Face-to-face. FYA For your amusement. FYI For your information. HHOK Ha ha only kidding. HHOJ Ha ha only joking. HHOS Ha ha only serious (used with ironic jokes and satire that contain some truth). IANAL I am not a lawyer. IMCO In my considered opinion. IMHO In my humble opinion. (In practice, however, opinions prefaced by IMHO are rarely humble. See IMNSHO.) IMO In my opinion. IMNSHO In my not-so-humble opinion. (This more accurately reflects most of the opinions one sees on the Internet!) IOW In other words. IWBNI It would be nice if. IYFEG Insert your favorite ethnic group. Used in off-color and offensive jokes and stories to avoid insulting any particular ethnic group, race, religion, or sex. You'll sometimes see <ethnic> instead. KISS Keep it simple, stupid. LOL Laughing out loud. MEGO My eyes glaze over. MOTAS Member of the appropriate sex. MOTOS Member of the opposite sex. MOTSS Member of the same sex. MUD Multiple User Dimension (or Multiple User Dungeon). A text-based, role-playing fantasy adventure game. NRN No response necessary. OIC Oh, I see. OS Operating system. OTOH On the other hand. OTT Over the top. PD Public domain. PMJI Pardon my jumping in. PONA Person of no account. Used disparagingly to describe someone who isn't part of the Internet set (that is, someone who doesn't have an Internet account). ROTF Rolling on the floor. ROTFL Rolling on the floor laughing. ROTFLOL Rolling on the floor laughing out loud. RSN Real soon now (read: never). RTFF Read the fine FAQ. (See RTFM.) RTFM Read the fabulous manual. (Another bowdlerized version.) This is an admonition to users that they should try to answer a question themselves before asking for help. This might seem harsh, but self-reliance is a fundamental characteristic of Internet life. Most Net types have figured things out for themselves, and they expect everyone else to do the same. This means reading hardware and software manuals and, in Usenet, checking out the FAQ lists newsgroups. SO Significant other. TFS Thanks for sharing. TIA Thanks in advance. TIC Tongue in cheek. TPTB The powers that be. TTFN Ta-ta for now. TTYL Talk to you later. WOBTAM Waste of both time and money. WRT With respect to. YABA Yet another bloody acronym. YMMV Your mileage may vary. This acronym means the advice/info/instructions just given might not work for you exactly as described.
IA - Irrigation Association http://www.irrigation.org/ "Industry association for agricultural landscape, turf and golf irrigation."
IAA - International Advertising Association
IAAO - International Association of Assessing Officers (real estate appraisers) Established in 1934. http://www.iaao.org/
IAC - Image Analysis Center
IAC - In Any Case
IAC - Industries Assistance Commission
IAC - Industry Advisory Council
IAC - Information Analysis Center
IAC - Intelligence Analysis Cell
IAC - Intelligence Analysis Center
IAC - Intelligent Asynchronous Controller
IAC - Inter Agency Committee
IAC - Intergovernmental Advisory Committee
IAC - Interim Acceptance Criterion
IAC - International Access Code
IAC - International Agriculture Center
IAC - Interpret As Command
IAC - Interstate Assurance Company
IACC - International Association of Conference Centers
IACHR - Inter-American Commission on Human Rights
IACREOT - International Association of Clerks, Recorders, Election Officials, and Treasurers
IAD - International Aftermarket Division
IADB - Inter-American Development Bank (IUCN)
IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency
IAF - Industrial Areas Foundation
IAF - Inter American Foundation
IAFE - International Association of Financial Engineers
IAFWA - International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies
IAG - Inter Agency Group
IAGC - International Association of Geophysical Contractors
IAGLR - International Association for Great Lakes Research - "Your Source for Research on the Great Lakes and other Large Lakes of the World." (funded by the Joyce Foundation) http://www.iaglr.org/index.html
IAH - The International Association of Hydro geologists
IAI - Inter-American Institute
IALE - International Association of Landscape Ecology
IAM - Integrated Assessment Model
IAM - Intellectual Asset Management
IAM - International Arrangements and Mechanism (UN, forest reference) http://www.un.int/malaysia/CC/CC1Feb00.html
IAMRL - I & M (Iowa, Illinois, Minnesota, and Missouri) Rail Link (NAFTA Railway)
IANSA - International Action Network on Small Arms (largest coalition of NGOs) (UN)
IAOS - The International Association of Official Statistics, a section of the International Statistical Institute (ISI)
IAP - Incident Action Plan
IAP-WASAD - International Action Programme on Water and Sustainable Agricultural Development (FAO-UN)
IAPD - Implementation Advance Planning Document
IAS - Invasive Alien Species
IAS - The Institute of Advanced Studies (and the UN University)
IASA - Improving America's Schools Act
IASCP - International Association for the Study of Common Property (World Bank) http://www.iascp2004.org.mx
IAT - Issue Action Teams
IATP - The Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy http://www.agribusinesscenter.org/
IAWG - Infrastructure Analysis Working Group
IB - International Baccalaureate (Education program for super-bright kids)
IB - International Bankers
IBA - Important Bird Areas
IBDA - Independent Bearing Distributors Association
IBE - Investment-Backed Expectations
IBI - Index of Biotic Integrity (EPA)
IBLA - Interior Board of Land Appeals (BLM-DOI)
IBM - International Business Machines
IBN - Interest-Based Negotiation
IBO - Irish Business Organization of New York, Inc.
IBOY - International Biodiversity Observation Year http://www.diversitas-international.org/
IBR - Included By Reference
IBR - Incorporation By Reference
IBR - Incorporated by reference (this is a very dangerous phrase, as it includes the entire text of whatever documents are referenced, just by mentioning them)
IBR - International Biosphere Reserve
IBRCP - Innovative Bridge Research and Construction Program
IBRD - International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank)
IBRS - International Bank of Reconstruction and Settlement (now the World Bank)
IBT - International Brotherhood of Teamsters
IBWC - International Boundary and Water Commission
IC - Impervious Coverage
IC - Inclusive Communities
IC - Industrial Countries
IC - Institutional Controls
IC - Integrated Computing
IC - Interception Capabilities
IC - Intercultural Communication
IC - International Collaboration (as in, for one example out of many: http://www.nos.noaa.gov/topics/oceans/international/welcome.html NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS) participates in many programs, activities and partnerships that involve the greater international "coastal science and management community." Although collaboration with international colleagues occurs in several NOS programs, the NOS International Program Office (IPO) leads most of these efforts. IPO was established to serve as the focal point for NOS-wide international activities and to coordinate with national and foreign government agencies, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and others. In the international arena, NOS focuses on integrated coastal management; the management of marine protected areas (MPAs); mitigation of impacts from climate change; safe, efficient, and environmentally sound maritime navigation; the reduction of impacts from natural disasters; and capacity-building. NOS participates in numerous international conferences. This year, it will attend the U.S.-Korea Ocean Policy Forum (United States, May 2003), Coastal Zone 2003 (Baltimore, MD, July 2003), and the World Parks Congress (Durban, South Africa, September 2003). IPO advances NOS work on MPAs internationally through its significant partnerships with governments, NGOs, foundations, and MPA networks. In its role as Vice-Chair (Marine) of the World Conservation Union's (IUCN) World Commission on Protected Areas, IPO is leading the marine program development for the World Parks Congress, which focuses on the following three areas: A partnership with the United Nations Foundation, UNESCO-World Heritage Program, and IUCN to foster an international consensus on new tropical marine, coastal and small island ecosystem sites that merit nomination for protection under the World Heritage Convention. This initiative was undertaken following recognition that fewer than 10 of the 690 World Heritage sites are designated for their tropical coastal, marine and small-island values. The project partners convened a workshop in 2002 to develop a global list of potential candidates for protection, which will be presented to the World Heritage Convention in 2003. A partnership with IUCN and World Wildlife Fund International to improve the management of MPAs by better assessing the effectiveness of MPA sites. The long-term success of MPAs depends on establishing evidence that MPAs are a useful conservation tool and are being managed effectively. The Management Effectiveness Initiative is developing and testing a guidebook for managers, planners, and other decision makers to accomplish this. The guidebook, along with other products, will be disseminated at the World Parks Congress in September 2003. Invigorating regional networks of MPAs around the world. Through a Sustainable Fisheries Initiative, NOS/IPO is linking MPAs and fisheries programs in regional networks focused on no-take marine reserves. Two regional projects are underway in Southeast Asia and the Caribbean to develop regional action plans for MPAs. NOS is also engaged with foreign governments in bilateral work to foster better management of coastal resources through integrated coastal management. IPO has continued work with China, Korea, Vietnam, Japan, South Africa, and others in the exchange and development of ideas, information, skills, research, and techniques critical to successful coastal management. NOS also is contributing its coastal management expertise to Caribbean nations in support of an effort to mitigate the impacts of climate change. This project will address adaptation to climate change in national development planning and work to protect coastal resources that are coming under increased pressure from climate change as well as from tourism and other impacts. NOS's National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science collaborate with many international partners as well. A monitoring strategy developed by an NOS scientist in reaction to U.S. Pfiesteria outbreaks is being adapted to respond to Pfiesteria in Australia. Other NOS scientists joined scientists from the Shirshov Institute of Oceanography at Moscow University and the Utrish Center for Marine Biotechnology and Aquaculture to sample the entire Russian coastline of the Black Sea for a harmful algal bloom species known to cause diarrheic shellfish poisoning. Scientists from Petrobras, Brazil's largest energy company, are meeting with NOS scientists to learn more about the procedures and methodologies of NOS's Mussel Watch Project, part of the National Status and Trends (NS&T) Program for marine environmental quality. France's environmental agency, IFREMER (Institute Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer) continues a multiple-year partnership with NS&T to monitor and compare chemical concentrations in the two nations' coastal waters. NOS's Office of Response and Restoration leads the agency's efforts in the International Coral Reef Task Force and in NOAA's Coral Reef Information System (CoRIS), which provides a single point of access to NOAA coral reef information and data products. The office also responds selectively to spills of oil and hazardous materials worldwide. NOS participates in partnerships such as the International Coral Grants Program, which supports international reef research and management efforts, and leads efforts under the International Coral Reef Initiative. Finally, NOS's Office of Coast Survey is leading an International Hydrographic Commission initiative in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico to develop and increase the use of electronic nautical charts. The region experiences an extremely large volume of marine transportation. This initiative will not only increase the efficiency of transportation, but also will help protect valuable coastal and marine resources such as the Meso-American Barrier Reef System.)
IC - Interim Committee
IC - Invisible Consequences
IC - Iroquois Confederation
IC -Irrigation Canal
IC -Issue Centered
ICA - Independent Charities of America
ICA - International Co-operative Alliance
ICA - International Copper Association
ICAC - International Cotton Advisory Committee
ICAM - Integrated Coastal Area Management
ICANN - Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
ICAO - International Civil Aviation Organization
ICAOTI - International Civil Aviation Organization's Technical Instructions
ICBEMP - Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project
ICBVI - Idaho Commission for the Blind and Visually Impaired
ICC - Illinois Coal Council
ICC - Indiana Coal Council
ICC - International Chamber of Commerce
ICC - International Criminal Court (UN)
ICC - Interstate Commerce Commission
ICCO - International Cocoa Organization
ICCP - Interim Comprehensive Conservation Plan (USFWS)
ICCROM - International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (Rome Centre)
ICE - In-City Estates
ICE - Information Center for the Environment (UN)
ICE - Information Center for the Environment (University of California at Davis)
Ice-out - Date when a lake thaws. - Shoreland Mgmt. Glossary
ICECE - International Conference on Environmental Compliance and Enforcement (UN) http://www.johannesburgsummit.org/html/documents/summit_docs/background_papers/bckgrnd1inece.pdf
ICEE - (annual) Index of Corporate Environmental Engagement
ICERD - International Center for Economics and Related Disciplines
ICESCR - International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (UN)
ICG - International Crisis Group (UN)
ICI - Invertebrate Community Index (EPA)
ICID - International Commission for Irrigation and Drainage (FAO-UN)
ICIE - Idaho Council on Industry and the Environment
ICIMOD - International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (hosts The Secretariat of the Mountain Forum http://www.mtnforum.org ) (UN)
ICIPE - The International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology
ICL - Idaho Conservation League
ICLEI - International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI is the international environmental agency for local governments. ICLEI is designed to implement Agenda 21 -- Sustainable Development. ICLEI's mission is to build and serve a worldwide movement of local governments to achieve tangible improvements in global environmental and sustainable development conditions through cumulative local actions. Building a worldwide movement requires that ICLEI function as a democratic, international association of local governments. Serving a worldwide movement requires that ICLEI operate as an international environmental agency for local governments. More than 400 cities, towns, counties, and their associations from around the world are full Members of the Council, with hundreds of additional local governments participating in specific ICLEI campaigns and projects. As a movement, association, and agency, ICLEI continues to work towards its environmental and sustainable development goals.)
ICLEI - The International Council of Local Environmental Initiatives (United Nations) http://www.iclei.org/
ICM - Integrated Coastal Management http://www.dal.ca/aczisc/docs.htm
ICM - See ICZM
ICMA - International City/County Management Association (UN) http://www.icma.org/
ICO - Independent Campaigning Organization (Greenpeace and others)
ICO - International Coffee Organization
ICOA - International Co-operative Alliance
ICOET - The International Conference on Ecology and Transportation. Conducted every two years, ICOET is designed to address the broad range of ecological issues related to surface transportation development, providing the most current research information and best practices in the areas of wildlife, fisheries, wetlands, water quality, overall ecosystems management, and related policy issues. ICOET is a multi-disciplinary, inter-agency supported event, administered by the Center for Transportation and the Environment. http://itre.ncsu.edu/cte/icoet/ and http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/wldconf.htm
ICOMOS - International Council of Monuments and Sites (UN)
ICOMOS evaluation - The evaluation procedures used by ICOMOS for cultural property nominations are set out in the ICOMOS volume on "Evaluation of Cultural Properties" presented by ICOMOS to the World Heritage Bureau and Committee each year. See Evaluation and IUCN Evaluation - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
ICP - Identified Cleanup Projects
ICPD - The International Conference on Population and Development (UN)
ICPPR - International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
ICR - Information Collection Request
ICR - Informed Consent Required
ICRA - International Center for Development Oriented Research In Agriculture
ICRA - Investment Information and Credit Rating Agency Limited
ICRCCA - International Conference on Regional Climate Change and Agriculture
ICRMP - Integrated Cultural Resources Management Plan
ICRUCB - International Conference for Rational Use and Conservation of the Biosphere (UN) 1968
ICS - Industry Consensus Standards
ICS - Implementation Case Study
ICSC - The International Council of Shopping Centers, an organization that tracks commercial real estate trends.
ICSU - International Council for Science "Strengthening international science for the 'benefit of society.'" (United Nations) http://www.icsu.org/
ICSU - International Council of Scientific Unions
ICT - Information and Communication Technologies (United Nations)
ICTA - International Center for Technology Assessment
ICTY - International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (UN)
ICU - Interactive Citizens United
ICWE - International Conference on Water and the Environment, attended by participants from over 100 countries and over 80 international governmental organizations and NGOs, held in Dublin, Ireland, from January 26-31, 1992. It resulted in the Dublin Statement. (FAO-UN)
ICZM - Integrated coastal zone management
ID - Image Data (US company)
ID - Indian Depredations
IDA Deputies - Representatives of IDA donor countries to negotiations on 'replenishments' of IDA funds. Each of IDA's donor countries appoints a Deputy, who is usually a top-level civil servant from the country's Ministry of Finance, Foreign Affairs or Development Cooperation. The replenishment arrangements negotiated among the Deputies are presented to the Executive Directors of IDA who in turn submit a report to the Board of Governors for final decision. Donor governments then take appropriate action to provide the agreed contributions; such action includes securing legislative approval. The IDA Deputies meet as often as necessary to discuss IDA replenishment and related matters. - WB
ID - Industrial Development
ID - Information Dissemination
ID - Inherently Dangerous
ID - Interdisciplinary
ID - Isotopic Dating
IDA - Industrial Development Authority
IDA - International Development Agency (IUCN)
IDA - International Development Association
IDA - International Development Authority (IUCN)
IDAA - Industrial Diamond Association of America
IDC - Industrial Development Corridor
IDCP - Inherently Dangerous Consumer Product
IDD - Industrial Development Districts
IDEA - Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
Identification - The World Heritage Convention does not specifically define identification. Throughout the Convention reference is made to the "identification, protection, conservation, presentation and transmission to future generations of the cultural and natural heritage". Article 5 of the Convention makes reference to a number of "effective and active measures" that can be taken by States Parties in ensuring this "identification, protection, conservation, presentation and transmission" (UNESCO 1972). Within the Operational Guidelines the identification of properties for potential inclusion in the World Heritage List is referred to as the first step in the process of World Heritage conservation (UNESCO February 1996: 1, 17 and 32, Paragraphs 2, 54 and 94). An identification section is included as part of the nomination form (UNESCO February 1996: 20, Paragraph 64 (c) and UNESCO 1995). - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
Identification number - The identification number, abbreviated to ID No, is an accession number given to each property for which a completed nomination form is received in the World Heritage Centre. - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
IDFA - International Dairy Food Association
IDHW - Idaho Department of Health and Welfare
IDIA - Integrating Diversity, Inquiry and Action
IDIWC - Institutionalize Diversity and Improve Workforce Composition (under GPRA)
Idle Farmland - Cropland, orchard, improved pasture, and farm sites not tended within the past 2 years, and currently less than 10 percent stocked with live trees. - USDA/FS
IDLH - Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health
IDM - Informed Decision-Making
IDP - Interim Development Plan
IDRA - International Development Research Center (IUCN)
IDRE - Industrial Development Retention Expansion
IDT - Interdependent Transformations
IDT - Interdisciplinary Teams
IDVD - Initial Draft Vision Document (USFWS - Klamath Basin)
IDVR - Idaho Division of Vocational Rehabilitation
IDWG - Inter-departmental Working Group (UN)
IE - Independent Explorationist
IE - Indirect Effects
IE - Industrial Education
IE - Instant Expert (Author's note: just add money?)
IE - Insufficient Evidence
IE - Irrational Explanation
i.e. - That is
IEA - International Energy Agency (UN)
IEB - International Environmental Bureau
IEC - Improved Ecological Conditions
IEC - (public) Information, Education and Communications (IUCN)
IEE - International Environmental Establishment
IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IEG - Institute for Electronic Government (IBM Corporation)
IEI - International Ecology Institute
IEM - Interfaith Environmental Movement
IEM - the International Environmental Monitor (a twice-yearly survey of influential experts and stakeholders in OECD countries to track sustainable development trends)
IEMB - Industrial Energy Mineral Base
IEMR - Institute for Environmental Monitoring and Research http://www.iemr.org/
IENC - Information Exchange and Networking Center
IENR - UW Institute for Environment and Natural Resources
IER - Immediate Ecosystem Recovery
IER - Interdisciplinary Environmental Research
IES - Institute of Environmental Sciences
IESP - New York University's Institute for Education and Social Policy
IETF - Internet Engineering Task Force
IEU - Inland Exclusion Unit (DOI/NPS)
IEUBK - The Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children (IEUBK) attempts to predict blood-lead concentrations (PbBs) for children exposed to lead in their environment. Measured PbBs is not only an indication of exposure, but is a widely used index to anticipate future health problems. - EPA
IF - Immediate Foreground
IF - Impact Fees
IF - Independent Foundation
IF - Instream Flows (how much water does a river need?)
IF - Integrative Frameworks
IF - Interjurisdictional Fish
IF - Intermodal Facility (NAFTA Railway)
IFAD - The International Fund for Agricultural Development (UN)
IFAP - International Federation of Agricultural Producers
IFAS - The University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
IFAW - International Fund for Animal Welfare
IFC - International Finance Corporation
IFE - Increased Fuel Efficiency
IFESC - International Family of Economic and Social Classifications (UN)
IFF - Intergovernmental Forum on Forests (UN) http://www.un.int/malaysia/CC/CC1Feb00.html
IFG - International Forum on Globalization
IFIM - Instream Flow Incremental Methodology
IFNM - Ironwood Forest National Monument (Arizona)
IFOG - International Forum on Globalization
IFPA - Independent Forest Products Association
IFPRI - International Food Policy Research Institute
IFPW - International Federation of Pharmaceutical Wholesalers
IFR - The Institute for Fisheries Resources
IFS - Integrated Farming Systems (W.K. Kellogg Foundation)
IFS - Interagency Foreign Service
IFS - Intermountain Fire Sciences
IFS - Interpretive Forest Site
IFSI - Integrated Farming Systems Initiative (W.K. Kellogg Foundation)
IFWS - Inland Fresh Water Systems
IG - Implementing Guidelines
IG - Inducement Grants
IG - The Interlocking of Groups
IG - Invisible Government
IGAE - Inter-Governmental Agreement on the Environment (IUCN)
IGAP - International Gap Analysis Program. The U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program offers this site for international biodiversity programs and projects to make their information available to the global community. You may search for projects and collaborators or geographic places with the interactive global map: http://www.gap.uidaho.edu/International/Browse.asp?Method=Geographic+Location. We have striven to use the most recent map we could find, but with constant world change we are certain that some country names and boundaries will be in error. http://www.gap.uidaho.edu/International/default.asp
IGBC - The Interagency Grizzly Bear Committee (created in 1983 to lead the recovery of the grizzly bear in the lower 48 states. IGBC MEMBERS: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Pacific Region/Mountain_Prairie Region; USDA Forest Service/Northern Region/Rocky Mountain Region/Intermountain Region/Northwest Region; National Park Service/Intermountain Region; Bureau of Land Management/Montana; USGS Biological Resources Division
IGBP - International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme http://www.igbp.kva.se/cgi-bin/php/frameset.php
IGCG - The Institute for Global Commerce and Government http://www.tracy.k12.ca.us/igcg/default.htm
IGCP - International Geological Correlation Program
IGE - Institute of Global Education (Friday Harbor, WA)
IGES - The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (UN)
IGFA - International Group of Funding Agencies for global change research http://www.igfagcr.org/
IGI - Invest Green, Inc.
IGLC - International Great Lakes Coalition http://www.iglc.org/
IGM - Intelligence Gathering Mechanism
IGMR - Indian Gap Military Reservation
Igneous Rock - Rocks formed when high temperature, molten mineral matter cooled and solidified. 2. Formed by solidification, from a molten or partially molten state. Synonym: primary rock. Example: granite.
Igneous - Rock that was crystallized from a magma. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)
IGO - Intelligence Gathering Organization
IGO - Inter-Governmental Organizations (UN)
IGBP - International Geosphere Biosphere Program (UN)
IGS - Issues of Global Significance
IH - Inhalation Hazard
IH - Intermittent Harvest
IHC - Intelligent Home Controls
IHDP - The International Human Dimensions Program on Global Environmental Change (UN)
IHE - International Institute for Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering (FAO-UN)
IHEEP - International Highway Engineering Exchange Program
IHLA - Indiana Hardwood Lumber Association
IHOP2002 - The International H20 Project
IHRLG - International Human Rights Law Group
IHS - Institute for Humane Studies
IHS - Interstate Highway System
II - Incomplete Investigation
II - Industrial Investment
II - Infrastructure Improvements
II - Isolated Instance
II - Issue Identification
II - Issue Interpretation
IIAC - Interior and Insular Affairs Committee
IIAP - Illinois Association of Aggregate Producers
IIASA - International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
IID - Imperial Valley Irrigation District (California)
IIE - Institute of International Education
IIED - International Institute for Environment and Development (IUCN)
IIFET - International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade
IIP - Inventory Identification Project
IIRIRA - Illegal Immigration Reformand Immigrant Responsibility Act
IISD - International Institute for Sustainable Development (UN)
IIV - It Is Verboten
IJ - Institute for Justice - Sponsors a project called the Castle Coalition to fight eminent domain abuses. http://www.castlecoation.org
IJ - Investigative Journalist
IJC - International Joint Commission
IJCGL - International Joint Commission on the Great Lakes
IKC - In-Kind Contribution
IKD - In-Kind Donation
IL - Independent Living
IL - Irrigation Lateral
ILA - International Law Association (FAO-UN)
ILAT - Indy Legal And Tax
ILC - International Law Commission (FAO-UN)
ILEA - International Law Enforcement Academy
ILEC - Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier
ILF - Industrial Laundry Facility
ILIT - Irrevocable Life Insurance Trust
Illite - A hydrous alluminosilicate clay mineral with structurally mixed mica and smectite or vermiculite, similar to montmorillonite but containing potassium between the crystal layers. Also referred to as hydrous mica or mica.
Illiteracy - A person who is illiterate is not able to, with understanding, read or write a simple statement about their everyday life or do simple mathematical calculations. (UNESCO)
Illuvial Horizon - Soil layer or horizon in which material carried from an overlying layer has been precipitated from solution or deposited from suspension. The layer of accumulation. Contrast to eluviation.
Illuviation - The process of deposition of soil material removed from one horizon to another in the soil, usually from an upper to a lower horizon in the soil profile. See ELUVIATION. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Ilmenite - A mineral of the composition FeTiO3 (iron-titanium-oxide), the principal mineral of titanium ore. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary
ILMP - Integrated Land Management Plan (DOI)
Impact - Effect. The National Environmental Policy Act requires all federal agencies, including the National Park Service, to rigorously explore the effects, or impacts, of its proposals on natural and cultural resources and certain socioeconomic values. (DOI/NPS)
Implementation Plan - Any of a great variety of plans, such as resource management plans (RMPs), comprehensive interpretive plans, collection management plans, concession management plans, visitor experience and resource protection (VERP) plans, comprehensive interpretive plans, backcountry management plans, wilderness management plans, site development plans, river management plans, and historic structure reports) that specify how a project or activity should be implemented. (DOI/NPS)
Improved Property - Property that has 'improvements' (structures/buildings). - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/
ILO - In Lieu Of
ILO - International Labor Organization (UN - based in Switzerland)
ILP - in loco parentus
ILP - The Interior Low Plateaus (bio-geographical province)
ILPA - Iowa Limestone Producers Association
ILRT - Interagency Land Retirement Team (DOI)
ILS - In-Line Skates (passive recreation)
ILT - Interior Leadership Team (DOI)
ILUA - Integrated Land-Use Assessment
ILZRO - International Lead Zinc Research Organization
IM - Intensive Management
IM - The Interfaith Movement
IM - Implementation Monitoring
IM - Index Model
IM - International Markets
IMA - Idaho Mining Association
IMA - Illinois Manufacturers' Association
IMAA - Indiana Mineral Aggregates Association
IMARK Group - member-owned marketing group serving independent electrical distributors
IMBD - International Migratory Bird Day
IMC - Improved Mapping Capability
IMC - Independent Media Center
IMC - Information Management Commission
IMCO - Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (UN)
IMDGC - International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code
IMEX - International Import Export Business Exchange on the Internet
IMF - International Monetary Fund (IUCN)
IMI - Illinois Mining Institute
Immature Timber - Trees that have not attained full development, especially height.
IMMC - Inventory, Management, Monitoring, and Conservation
Immediate family - The spouse, brothers, sisters, lineal ancestors, lineal descendants, or members of the household of an individual Indian landowner. - DOI-BIA Glossary
Immediate Foreground - That part of the foreground which is extremely critical for visual detail, usually within 400 feet of the observer.
Immediate Foreground - The detailed feature landscape found within the first few hundred feet of the observer, generally, from the observer to 300 feet away. This distance zone is normally used in project level planning, not broad scale planning. - FS
Immobilization - The transfer of an element from the soluble inorganic into the organic form of microbial or plant tissues.
Immovable property - Immovable property is property that cannot easily be moved. The opposite of immovable property is movable property. As the Convention does not consider nominations of immovable property "which are likely to become movable" (UNESCO February 1996: 8, Paragraph 25). See Movable property - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
Immunization - A medical procedure that increases a person's resistance to contagious diseases such as measles, smallpox, whooping cough, diphtheria, and tetanus. (WB-UN)
IMO - International Maritime Organization (United Nations) Formerly IMCO
IMO - The United Nations' International Maritime Organization http://www.imo.org/
IMP - Individual Management Plan
IMP - Interim Management Policy
IMPACT - Illinois Microarchitecture Project utilizing Advanced Compiler Technology
IMPACT - Immediate Mobile Police Assisting Citizens Together
IMPACT - Implanted Advanced Technology (TI)
IMPACT - Implementation Planning and Control Technique
IMPACT - Improve Precision Airdrop Capability
IMPACT - Improved Management Procurement And Contracting Technique
IMPACT - Innovative Multicultural Programming and Activities for Campus Togetherness
IMPACT- Insensitive Munitions Packaging Technology
IMPACT - Insertion into MILSATCOM Products of Advanced Communications Technology
IMPACT - Instructional Material Production and Circulation Team
IMPACT - Integrated Management Platform for Advanced Communication Technologies (MCI) Impact - Synonymous with effects. Includes ecological, aesthetic, historic, cultural, economic, social, or health, whether direct, indirect, or cumulative. Impacts may also include those resulting from actions that may have both beneficial and detrimental (adverse) effects. Impacts may be considered as direct, indirect, or cumulative:
Impact - 1) The effect of one thing upon another. Impacts may be beneficial or adverse. 2) The new economic activity generated in a region as a refuge attracts non-residents to the area. It includes Cumulative Impact, Direct Impact and Indirect Impact. This figure represents economic activity that would be lost if the refuge were not there. (See Environmental Consequences) (USFWS-DOI)
Impact, Cumulative - Those which result from the incremental impact of the action when added to other past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future actions regardless of what agency or person undertakes such other actions. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary
Impact, Direct - Impacts caused by an action an occurring at the same time and place. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary
Impact Fees - Fees imposed on development to help finance the cost of improvements or services (e.g. water, sewer, roads, schools, parks, fire stations, libraries, and other such public facilities). Charges levied by local governments on new development to generate revenue for infrastructure necessitated by the new development, particularly roads, wastewater collection and treatment, water supply and storm water management.
Impact, Indirect - Impacts caused by the proposed action and occurring later in time or farther removed in distance, but are still reasonably foreseeable. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary
Imperialism - The drive toward the creation and expansion of a colonial empire and once established, its perpetuation.
Impermeable Layer - A layer that does not permit water to flow through it.
Impervious Area - A hard surface area (e.g., parking lot) that prevents or retards the entry of water into the soil, thus causing water to run off the surface in greater quantities and at an increased rate of flow. - Smart Growth Green Development Glossary
Impervious Coverage - The combined area occupied by all principal and accessory buildings, structures, and paved parking, sidewalks and driveway areas.
Imperviousness Overlay Zoning - One form of the overlay zoning process. Environmental aspects of future imperviousness are estimated based on the future zoning build-out conditions. Estimated impacts are compared with watershed protection goals to determine the limit for total impervious surfaces in the watershed. Imperviousness overlay zoning areas are then used to define subdivision layout options that conform to the total imperviousness limit. - Smart Growth Green Development Glossary
Impervious Surface - A surface that prevents water from seeping down into soil and subsurface layers.
IMPLAN - An economic modeling software package that applies input-output analysis techniques to regional economies.
Implementation - To put something into action. - UNEP Children's Glossary 2. Implementation refers to the act of putting the Convention into practice. - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
Implementation Decisions - Decisions that take action to implement land use plan decisions. They are generally appealable to IBLA under 43 CFR 4.40. - BLM
Implementation Phase -The third phase of the process for the Scenic Highways Program where, following designation, a Corridor Management Entity implements the actions and requirements developed in the Corridor Management Plan (CMP). - Scenic Byways Program Glossary
Implementation Plan - A site-specific plan written to implement decisions made in a land use plan. An implementation plans usually selects and applies best management practices to meet land use plan objectives. Implementation plans are synonymous with "activity" plans. Examples of implementation plans include interdisciplinary management plans, habitat management plans, and allotment management plans. - BLM
Implied Consent - Implied consent arises where consent may reasonably be inferred from the action or inaction of the individual.
Import - To land on, bring into, or introduce into, or attempt to land on, bring into, or introduce into, any place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, whether or not such landing, bringing, or introduction constitutes an importation within the meaning of the customs laws of the United States. - ESA
Import - To buy goods and services from another country. (WB-UN)
Import Duty - A customs duty is a charge assessed by a government on an imported item at its point of customs entry into the country, and paid for by the importer; the term is now used interchangeably with tariff. In terms of assessing duties there are two basic types: an ad valorem duty is assessed in proportion to the value of the imported item, whereas a 'specific' duty is assessed on the basis of a measure other than value, such as the quantity of the product imported. In addition, a 'compound' or 'mixed' duty, which is a combination of an ad valorem and specific duty, is occasionally used in the Harmonized Tariff Schedules of the United States (HTSUS). Special duties such as anti-dumping duties or countervailing duties may also be levied on imports to offset the unfair price advantage of an imported article that is sold below normal value or subsidized by an exporting country.
Import Quotas - A quantitative limit placed on the importation of specific commodities. The protection afforded by quotas is more certain than can be obtained by raising import duties as the effect of the latter will depend on the price elasticities of the imported commodities. Quotas, like tariffs, can also be used to favor preferred sources of foreign supply. Quotas may be specified as an absolute limit or changed from year to year in response to changes in domestic supply and demand.
Import Safeguards - A trade policy tool available to temporarily increase border protection for designated commodities and products. Its purpose is to allow a producing sector to adjust to changed market conditions before facing competition again without such protection. For agricultural products subject to tariffication, the Uruguay Round's Agreement on Agriculture (Part I, Article 5) establishes a special agricultural safeguard that allows countries to impose an additional duty when sudden import surges (volumes) exceed, or import prices fall below, a trigger level. The United States has announced quantity and price trigger levels for those products whose imports were previously restricted using Section 22 fees and quotas and for which tariff-rate quotas are now in place: beef, mutton, 18 dairy products, peanuts, peanut butter and paste, raw cane sugar, refined sugar and syrups, eight types of sugar-containing products, mixed condiments and seasonings, animal feed containing milk, and six cotton categories. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) includes a special agricultural safeguard to provide added protection against import surges of six seasonal vegetables and fruit from Mexico until tariffs are completely phased out by year-end 2003. Covered by this safeguard are U.S. imports from Mexico of fresh tomatoes, eggplant, chili peppers, squash, onion and shallots, and watermelon during specified time periods. Comparable safeguards exist on Mexican imports from the United States of 17 categories of goods that include live swine, certain pork products, certain potato products, fresh apples, and coffee extract. NAFTA provides that no such special safeguard may be maintained on a good if it is the subject of an emergency action. Both the Uruguay Round and NAFTA special safeguard provisions differ from broader import relief authority laid out in Section 201 of the Trade Act of 1974.
Import Substitution Industries - Industries that local entrepreneurs establish to serve populations of remote areas when transport costs from distant sources make goods too expensive to import.
Import tariffs - Taxes imposed on certain imported goods or services. May be levied as a percentage of the value of imports or as a fixed amount per unit. Used to increase government revenue and protect domestic industries from foreign competition. - World Bank Glossary
Improved Pasture - Land currently improved for grazing by cultivation, seeding, irrigation, or clearing of trees or brush. - USDA/FS
Improved Seed - Seed originated from a seed orchard or selected tree(s) whose genetic superiority in one or more characters important to forestry has been proven by tests conducted in specific environments. (BLM)
IMR - Internet Marketing Research
IMS - Irrigation Management Systems
IMT - Incident Management Team
IMTA - International Map Trade Association
IMU - Inertial Measurement Unit
IMW - Intermountain West
INA - Immigration and Nationality Act
INAH - Instituto Nacional de Anthropoligia e Historia. An Agency of the Nation of Mexico which is roughly equal to the National Park Service and Bureau of Land Management. - DOI/NPS/BLM
Inalienable - Refers to rights that belong to every person and cannot be taken from a person under any circumstances. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary
Inbreeding - A mating system involving the mating or breeding of closely related individuals, the most extreme form of which is self-fertilization. It is used to "fix" economically useful genetic traits in genetically improved populations; however, it also can result in fixation of deleterious recessive alleles. - UNDP/WRI
Inbreeding Depression - A reduction in fitness or vigor as a result of fixation of deleterious, recessive alleles from consistent inbreeding in a normally outbreeding population. - UNDP/WRI
Inbreeding depression - Loss of fitness due to the increase in homozygosity that results from inbreeding. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf
Inca - People who lived in Peru before the Spanish conquest. - UNEP Children's Glossary
Incentive Zoning - Provides for give and take compromise on zoning restrictions, allowing for more flexibility to provide environmental protection. Incentive zoning allows a developer to exceed a zoning ordinance's limitations if the developer agrees to fulfill conditions specified in the ordinance. The developer may be allowed to exceed height limits by a specified amount in exchange for providing open spaces or plazas adjacent to the building. - Smart Growth Green Development Glossary
Incidental catch or incidental species - Species caught while fishing with the primary purpose of catching a different species. An incidental catch is expressed as a percentage of the weight of the total fish on board. - MFCMA
Incidental Fallback - Incidental fallback is the redeposit of small volumes of dredged material that is incidental to excavation activity in waters of the United States when such material falls back to substantially the same place as the initial removal. Examples of incidental fallback include soil that is disturbed when dirt is shoveled and the back-spill that comes off a bucket when such small volume of soil or dirt falls into substantially the same place from which it was initially removed. - EPA
Incline - A nonvertical mining shaft, usually of the dip of a vein. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Included By Reference - A phrase, legal statute, report, et al that, by its mention, is included in its totality (as in: "...identified in one or more land and resource management plans.").
INCOG - Indian Nations Council Of Governments - A voluntary association of 47 local governments serving the Oklahoma counties of Creek, Osage, Tulsa and Wagoner. Many cities and counties in northeastern Oklahoma have been cooperating through this regional council of governments for over 30 years (information found in 2002). INCOG is one of the largest and most comprehensive regional providers for services to the public and private sectors in the nation.
Income - Money that the organization has received from contributions, grants, the performance of services, etc. This figure is from Line 12 of IRS Form 990 or from the GuideStar Financial Statement completed by the organization. These are net figures from which rental expenses, costs, sales expenses, direct expenses, and costs of goods sold (lines 6b, 8b, 9b, and 10b on Form 990) have been deducted. If neither is available, the figure is taken from the IRS Business Master File. Income listed on the Business Master File is a gross figure that includes the expenses listed above.
Income per capita - Another term for GNP per capita. - World Bank Glossary
Increaser - Plant species of the original vegetation that increase in relative amount, at least for a time, under overuse. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho
Increasing population trend, recommended rate of - Five percent increase in active clusters from one year to the next. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf
Incremental Level 4 - The difference between historic annual average water deliveries (Level 2) to refuges, and the refuge water supplies required to achieve optimum waterfowl habitat management (Level 4). - Bureau Of Reclamation -- BOR -- Water Acquisition Glossary
IND - Internal National Development
Indemnity - A promise or a contract to reimburse someone if they are held legally liable for something.
Independent Millsite - A millsite whose mill does not depend on specific mines for the minerals it processes. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Index - A listing, usually alphabetical, providing pointers to the location within classifications of the observations contained therein. This may be achieved by references to page numbers, paragraph numbers or classification codes. Indexes often contain terminology not expressly used within classifications (synonyms) and may contain cross-references to related observations. (UN)
INDKNOW - Indigenous Knowledge
Indian agricultural land - Indian land, including farmland and rangeland, excluding Indian forest land, that is used for production of agricultural products, and Indian lands occupied by industries that support the agricultural community, regardless of whether a formal inspection and land classification has been conducted. - DOI-BIA Glossary
Indian land - Any tract in which any interest in the surface estate is owned by a tribe or individual Indian in trust or restricted status. - DOI-BIA Glossary
The Indian Lands Leasing Act of 1891 - Authorized mineral leases on Indian land.
Indian landowner - A tribe or individual Indian who owns an interest in Indian land in trust or restricted status. - DOI-BIA Glossary
The Indian Removal Act of 1830 - Removed the five "civilized" tribes from their lands east of the Mississippi River to Indian Territory (Oklahoma), opening the American South to settlement by colonists.
Indian tribe (or tribe) - Any Indian group in the conterminous United States that the Secretary of the Interior recognizes as possessing tribal status (listed periodically in the Federal Register). - BLM 2. An entity listed on the most recent list of federally recognized tribes published in the Federal Register by the Secretary of the Interior pursuant to the Federally Recognized Indian Tribe List Act, 25 U.S.C. 479a, or successor legislation. - FEMA Sec. 295.50
Indicative list - The term indicative list is sometimes used to refer to the inventory of property mentioned in Article 11(1) of the Convention. In the French language version of the Operational Guidelines, the "Orientations devant guider las mise en oeuvre de al Convention du patrimoine mondial", "une liste indicative" is used to refer to this inventory of property. Despite this the English language version of the Operational Guidelines refers to tentative list and not to indicative list. See Inventory of property, Tentative list - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
Indicator - An attribute of a resource whose measurement reflects or indicates the condition or use of that resource. Data associated with some goal or policy that is looked at over some period of time to see if it suggests a trend. 2. A numerical measure of quality of life in a country. Indicators are used to illustrate progress of a country in meeting a range of economic, social, and environmental goals. Since indicators represent data that have been collected by a variety of agencies using different collection methods, there may be inconsistencies among them. (WB-UN)
Indicator - A measure (measurement) of an aspect of a criterion. A quantitative or qualitative variable which can be measured or described and which when observed periodically demonstrates trends.
Indicator Species - A plant or animal species related to a particular kind of environment. Its presence indicates that specific habitat conditions are also present.
Indicator Species - A plant or animal species related to a particular kind of environment. Its presence indicates that specific habitat conditions are also present. The spotted owl is an indicator species of certain ecosystems (old growth forests). If the Owl dies out - so does innumerable other species. http://www.umpqua-watersheds.org/glossary/gloss_i.html VERY IMPORTANT: See Taxon-based biodiversity surrogates.
Indigenous (species) - Any species of wildlife native to a given land or water area by natural occurrence.
Indigenous Knowledge - Indigenous knowledge is the local knowledge that is unique to a culture or society. Other names for it include 'local knowledge', 'folk knowledge', 'people's knowledge', 'traditional wisdom' or 'traditional science'. This knowledge is passed from generation to generation, usually by word of mouth and cultural rituals, and has been the basis for agriculture, food preparation, health care, education, conservation and the wide range of other activities that sustain societies in many parts of the world. (UNESCO)
Indigenous - People who are the original inhabitants of an area. - UNEP Children's Glossary
Indigenous Peoples - People who are original or natural inhabitants of a country. Native Americans, for example, are the indigenous peoples of the United States. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary
Indigenous Peoples - Indigenous peoples (also called 'First Nation', 'traditional', 'native' or 'tribal' people) are found on every continent and in most countries. All indigenous peoples have ancient ties to the land, water and wildlife of their ancestral domain. Traditionally, their sustainable lifestyles cast them as guardians and stewards of their natural environment. Most indigenous peoples now live under conditions where their human rights are abused and under the constant threat of extinction. By means of force or indoctrination, indigenous people are being absorbed into the cultural mainstream everywhere. (UNESCO)
Indigenous Vegetation - Plants that are native to North America, including mutants, selected seedlings and hybrids of two native species or hybrids.
Indirect Effect - The economic effect that occurs when a producer purchases goods and services from another producer, who, in turn, also purchases goods and services. - USDA/FS
Indirect Effects - Secondary effects that occur in locations other than the initial action or significantly later in time.
Indirect Impacts - Effects which are caused by the action and are later in time or farther removed in distance, but are still reasonably foreseeable. These may include growth inducing effects and related changes in the pattern of land use, population density or growth rate.
Indirect Price or Quantity Comparison - A comparison made by dividing the price or quantity ratio into the expenditure ratio. That is, the indirect quantity comparison between country j and country k for commodity i, qij/qik, is obtained from (pijqij/Pikqik)/ (Pij/Pik) = qij/qik, where the ps are the commodity prices. (UN)
Individual On-Site Wastewater Systems or Individual Sewage System - An individual subsurface sewage disposal system for the disposal of sewage into the ground. It is designed to retain most of the solids in a septic tank, and to discharge the liquid portion to a disposal bed for treatment by natural processes and eventual release to ground water.
Individual Tree Selection - An unevenaged silvicultural harvest system that removes selected trees of all size classes on an individual basis. The removal of individual trees from certain size and age classes over an entire tree stand. Regeneration is mainly natural, and an uneven aged stand is maintained.
Individually-owned Indian land - Any tract, or interest therein, in which the surface estate is owned by an individual Indian in trust or restricted status. - DOI-BIA Glossary
Individual Ownership - All lands owned by individuals, including farm operators. - USDA/FS
Individual permit - A DA (Dept. of the Army) authorization that is issued following a case-by-case evaluation of a specific project involving the proposed discharge(s) in accordance with the procedures of 33 CFR Parts 323 and 325 and a determination that the proposed discharge is in the public interest pursuant to 33 CFR Part 320. 33 CFR § 323.2(g).
Indivisible - Refers to the equal importance of each human rights law. A person cannot be denied a right because someone decides it is "less important" or "nonessential." - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary
Induced Effect - The economic effect that occurs through the payment of wages to employees of directly or indirectly affected industries. - USDA/FS
Industrial Agriculture - See Conventional Agriculture.
Industrial - Areas intended for industrial and business service development; such as, manufacturing, processing, packaging, assembly, storage, warehousing and/or distribution of products and which are generally free of unwanted side effects, such as: unsightliness, noise, odor, glare, vibrations, etc. Ancillary commercial and retail activities associated with these uses are permitted.
Industrial/Commercial/Governmental User Sector (or Market) - Involves pesticides applied by professional applicators (by owner/operators/employees and custom/commercial applicators) to industrial, commercial and governmental facilities, buildings, sites, and land; plus custom/commercial applications to homes and gardens, including lawns. May also be referred to as "professional market" for pesticides. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary
Industrial Country - A country in which historically the greatest part of output has been accounted for by industry. However, the term is widely used to signify high-income economies. (WB-UN)
Industrial Crops - Crops that primarily have industrial applications in contrast to food or livestock feed uses. Industrial uses account for a relatively small but a growing and potentially much larger share of the market for farm commodities. The USDA devotes a significant research effort to identifying and developing new industrial uses for crops; this effort is encouraged by the Alternative Agricultural Research and Commercialization Corporation (AARC). Some of the industrial and experimental crops include: castor beans (lubricants, nylon, cosmetics); chia (cosmetics); crotalaria (fibers); cuphea (soap, surfactants); guar (food stiffeners, drilling muds, paper manufacturing); guayule (natural rubber and hypoallergenic latex products); hesperaloe (specialty pulp paper); kenaf (twine, fiberboard, carpet padding, newsprint); lesquerella (lubricants, cosmetics); meadowfoam (cosmetics, lubricants, water repellents); milkweed (insulated clothing, filler for comforters, nonwoven textiles) and plantago ovato (high fiber additive to laxatives). While corn is the primary feedstock for ethanol, it is not considered an industrial crop because nearly 95% of production goes to feed uses.
Industrial Landscape - Characterized by industrial, functional style buildings and sheds, often with smokestacks and high-tension power lines dominating the skyline.
Industrial Minerals - Rock and minerals that are not produced as sources of metals and are not mineral fuels. Examples include salt, gravels, building materials, talc, and sands. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
The Industrial Revolution - The Industrial Revolution commenced from a change from handicraft to mass production of products with the invention of steam engine. Coal was used to smelt iron rather than wood or charcoal. Britain benefited the most as the Industrial Revolution occurred when British influence extended worldwide and the most significant advances occurred in Britain. The British possessed skills necessary to make the machines that manufactured the products, controlled the flow of raw materials, and held a monopoly over products in demand. Manufacturing regions occur adjacent to large coalfields in the British midlands. An east -west belt of manufacturing extended from northern France into Poland with heavy manufacturing centered on the Ruhr in western Germany. Other aspects of the Industrial Revolution included agglomerative (concentrating) forces and deglomerative (dispersal) forces. These were a nodule region marked by a set of points where industrial activities occurred rather than regions. Other general factors included: raw material transport costs, cost of finished product and transport and special factors, perishability of goods, and differentiated between regional and local factors.
Industrial Waste - Material, for example, certain chemicals or even very hot water, left over from a manufacturing process. It can be harmful sometimes and may pollute the water and the environment if not treated and/or disposed of properly. (WB-UN)
Industrial Wood - All roundwood products except fuelwood. - USDA/FS
Industrialization - The phase of a country's economic development in which industry grows faster than agriculture and gradually comes to play the leading role in the economy. - World Bank Glossary
Industry - The sector of an economy that includes mining, construction, manufacturing, electricity, gas, and water. - World Bank Glossary
Infant Mortality Rate - The number of infants, out of every 1,000 babies born in a given year, who die before reaching age 1. The lower the rate, the fewer the infant deaths, and generally the greater the level of health care available in a country. (WB-UN)
Infectious Diseases - An illness that can be passed from one person to another. (WB-IN)
Inferior (in plants) - Located beneath or lower than another structure, as in the ovary of a flower located beneath the sepals and petals. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)
In-Fill - The development of bypassed vacant or agricultural land within an established urban area.
Infiltration - The downward entry of water into the immediate surface of soil or other material, as contrasted with percolation, which is movement of water through soil layers or material. - USDA
Infiltration - The downward entry of water into the Earth's surface. Infiltration usually refers to water movement into a soil, rock surface or other geologic material while the terms hydraulic conductivity, percolation, and permeability usually relate to water movement within a soil or rock layer. A high rate of infiltration means that soil moisture for crops will be higher. Many conservation practices, such as conservation tillage, reduce rates of runoff and increase infiltration rates.
Inflation - A steady rise in prices which results in a steady fall in the value of money. Inflation can occur when demand for goods exceeds supply (demand-pull inflation); or when costs of production increase independent of the state of demand (cost-push); or when governments expand the money supply by printing more money (monetary inflation). Deflation is the opposite process and causes a reduction in both output and employment. Unchecked inflation is a threat to the entire monetary system. Remedies vary but can include wage and price controls, reduced government spending and a tightly controlled money supply. (UNESCO)
Infiltration capacity - The maximum rate at which water can infiltrate into a soil under a given set of conditions. - USDA
Information Engineering - An approach to planning, analyzing, designing, and developing an information system with an enterprisewide perspective and an emphasis on data and architectures. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm
Information Technology Investment Review Process - An analytical framework for linking information technology investment decisions to strategic objectives and business plans in organizations. The investment process consists of three phases: selection, control, and evaluation. This process requires discipline, executive management involvement, accountability, and focus on risks and returns using quantifiable measures. Guidance on the investment review process can be found in the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs' guide, entitled Evaluating Information Technology Investments: A Practical Guide, Version 1.0 and GAO's guide, entitled Assessing Risks and Returns: A Guide for Evaluating Federal Agencies' IT Investment Decision-making, Version 1, (GAO/AIMD-10.1.3, February 1997). - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm
Informal Economy - The exchange of goods and services operating outside the officially-recognized sector of a nation's economy and not accurately recorded in government figures and accounting. The informal economy commonly includes goods and services including day care, tutoring, or black market exchanges. (UNESCO)(WB-UN)
Infiltration index - An average rate of infiltration, in inches per hour, equal to the average rate of rainfall such that the volume of rain fall at greater rates equals the total direct runoff. (Langbein and others, 1947, p. 11.) - USGS
Infiltration rate - The rate at which water penetrates the surface of the soil at any given instant, usually expressed in inches per hour. The rate can be limited by the infiltration capacity of the soil or the rate at which water is applied at the surface. - USDA
Influent - Waste water going into the sewage treatment plant. - Bioenergy Glossary
Informal Consultations and Meetings - These are meetings in formats not envisaged in the Provisional Rules of UN Security Council Meetings, but are used by the Council to facilitate its work.
Information Glossary - A glossary of data entities, definitions, and related attributes in use within a COI (Community Of Interest). - GWOB
Information Repository - A collection of documents about a specific Superfund site and the general Superfund process. EPA usually sets up the information repository in a public building that is conveniently located, accessible to the handicapped, and contains a photocopying machine. - EPA Community Relations Plan Glossary
Information sources - The Nara Document on Authenticity defines information sources as: Information sources: all material, written, oral and figurative sources which make it possible to know the nature, specifications, meaning and history of the cultural heritage (Larson 1995: xxv). - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
Infoshare - USDA established this program in 1993 to merge and coordinate the business management and information technology (computer) activities of its agencies, particularly in the field, in order to support consolidation of field offices into one-stop field service centers for farmers and other USDA clients. However, the program, which initially had been budgeted at nearly $3 billion, was terminated by early 1996 in the wake of critical reviews by USDA's Office of Inspector General, the General Accounting Office, and others, which found, among other things, that despite Infoshare, individual USDA agencies were continuing to buy their own computers, were not sharing information technology with each other, and were still not operating in a common computing environment. Infoshare has been replaced by another computer modernization initiative now being designed and coordinated by the Farm Service Agency.
INFOTERRA - Infoterra is an international environmental referral and research network made up of 177 countries coordinated by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The services offered by UNEP-Infoterra/USA include responding to requests from the international community for environmental information through document delivery, database searching, bibliographic products, purchasing information, and referrals to experts. In addition, UNEP-Infoterra/USA assists U.S. residents in identifying sources of international environmental information. - EPA Superfund glossary
Infrastructure - A term referring to the physical systems (facilities and services) supporting a community, like sewers, roads, highways, and utilities, communications and public facilities, fire stations, parks and schools, and all other land use activities. The foundations of a society: urban centers, transport networks, communications, energy distribution systems, farms, factories, mines, and such facilities as schools, hospitals, postal services, and police and armed forces." A modern state's infrastructure includes railroads, airports, energy distribution systems, telecommunications networks and the like.
Infrastructure - The structural skeleton beneath the outer skin of a building; also, the comprehensive system underlying a cohesive group of buildings and structures. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Ingress - the act of entering; the power or liberty of entrance or access
Ingrowth - The net volume (or number) of trees that grow large enough during a specified year to qualify as saplings, poletimber, or sawtimber. - USDA/FS
Inhabited historic towns - Paragraph 29 of the Operational Guidelines provides some definition of inhabited historic towns as:(i) Towns which are typical of a specific period or culture, which have been almost wholly preserved and which have remained largely unaffected by subsequent developments. Here the property to be listed is the entire town together with its surroundings, which must also be protected; (ii) Towns that have evolved along characteristic lines and have preserved, sometimes in the midst of exceptional natural surroundings, spatial arrangements and structures that are typical of the successive stages in their history. Here the clearly defined historic part takes precedence over the contemporary environment; (iii) "Historic centres" that cover exactly the same area as ancient towns and are now enclosed within modern cities. Here it is necessary to determine the precise limits of the property in its widest historical dimensions and to make appropriate provision for its immediate surroundings; (iv) Sectors, areas or isolated units which, even in the residual state in which they have survived, provide coherent evidence of the character of a historic town which has disappeared. In such cases surviving areas and buildings should bear sufficient testimony to the former whole (UNESCO February 1996: 9). See Groups of urban buildings - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
Inholding - A non-Federal parcel of land that is completely surrounded by Federal land. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary
Initial Point - The starting point of a traverse. - Cadastral Data glossary
INMARSAT - The International Mobile Satellite Organization (UN)
In-migration Rate - The rate at which people move into a community or region over a given time period. - USDA/FS
Inner, Middle and Fringe Suburbs - A description of suburban development based on concentric rings of growth moving outward from a center city.
Inorganic arsenical - A waterborne wood preservative, such as CCA, ACA, and ACZA. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary
INPIRG - The Indiana Public Interest Research Group
Input - The financial and nonfinancial resources the organization obtained or received to produce its outputs. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm 2. Something, like money or manpower, needed to produce a product or conduct an activity. The Government Performance and Results Act makes a distinction between outcomes (results), outputs (efforts/products/activities), and inputs (money, manpower, and other things needed to produce an output). (DOI/NPS)
INR - Integrated Natural Resources DOI/USFWS
INR - Inventory of Natural Resources, also known as a Planning Level Survey (PLS). An inventory of natural resources that must be identified to prevent the impairment of a military mission or to meet regulatory requirements. (USGS, Environmental Management and Compliance Requirements Handbook, SM 445-1-H)
INRMP - Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan DOI/USFWS
INS - Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization Service
InSAR - Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar - USGS
Inscription - Inscription refers to the act of including or inscribing a property in the World Heritage List. - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
Insecticide - A pesticide used to kill, deter, or control insects.
In situ - In the original place and context as related to archeological resources. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/
In situ Conservation - A conservation method that attempts to preserve the genetic integrity of gene resources by conserving them within the evolutionary dynamic ecosystems of the original habitat or natural environment. - UNDP/WRI
In Situ Mining - A method of extracting valuable minerals from ore by remobilizing or leaching them from where they occur in the ground. Under this process the ore deposit is drilled with holes in a grid pattern, and a dissolving or leaching solution is injected through the holes into the deposit, where the chemicals extract the desired minerals. The pregnant liquid is then recovered at a different well or series of wells and is piped to a recovery plant. There the minerals are recovered. The barren solution is then returned to the injection wells, and the cycle begins again. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Instant Study Area (ISA) - A designation of all primitive or natural areas formally identified prior to November 1, 1975, that were to be studied for wilderness suitability and recommended to the President by July 1, 1980 as mandated under Section 603 of FLPMA. - BLM
INSTET - Internetwork for Sustainability (UN) http://www.insnet.org
Institution - A society, organisation or establishment which carries out governmental, scientific or educational work. - UNEP Children's Glossary
Institutions - Organizational arrangements and the legal and regulatory framework - the 'enabling environment' - in which organizations operate. More broadly, institutions include entities, processes and linkages between individual entities. - FAO
Instituto Nacional de Anthropoligia e Historia (INAH) - An Agency of the Nation of Mexico which is roughly equal to the National Park Service and Bureau of Land Management. - DOI/NPS/BLM
INSTRAW - International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (UN)
Instream Flow - The quantity of water necessary to meet seasonal stream flow requirements to accomplish the purposes of the National Forests, including, but not limited to fisheries, visual quality, and recreational opportunities.
Instream flow requirements - Amount of water flowing through a stream course needed to sustain instream values. - Bureau Of Reclamation -- BOR -- Water Acquisition Glossary
In-stream Flow Requirements - The amount of water flowing through a stream course needed to sustain in-stream values. - Everglades Plan glossary
Instream Use - Water use taking place within the stream channel. Examples are hydroelectric power generation, navigation, fish propagation and use, and recreational activities. Often used in discussions concerning water allocation and/or water rights.
Instrument of Conveyance - A written legal document by which property is transferred. A deed, contract, etc. Instruments of conveyance must have a grantor, a grantee, a thing conveyed, consideration stated, words of grant, signatures, acknowledgement, delivery and acceptance. - Cadastral Data glossary
INT - Intermittent
Intake rate - The average rate of water entering the soil under irrigation. Most soils have a fast initial rate; the rate decreases with application time. Therefore, intake rate for design purposes is not a constant but is a variable depending on the net irrigation application. - USDA
INTAN - National Institute of Public Administration (yes, this is correct) (UN)
Integrated coastal zone management - A continuous and dynamic process by which decisions are taken for the sustainable use, development, and protection of coastal and marine areas and resources. ICZM acknowledges the interrelationships that exist among coastal and ocean uses and the environments they potentially affect, and is designed to overcome the fragmentation inherent in the sectoral management approach. ICZM is multi-purpose oriented and analyzes and addresses implications of development, conflicting uses, and interrelationships between physical processes and human activities, and it promotes linkages and harmonization among sectoral coastal and ocean activities." - NOAA
Integrated Definition for Function Modeling (IDEF) - Modeling techniques designed to capture the processes and structure of information in an organization. IDEF0 is a process modeling technique; IDEF1X is a rule or data modeling technique. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm
Integrated Farm Management Program (IFMP) - A program authorized by the FACT Act of 1990 to assist producers in adopting resource-conserving crop rotations by protecting participants' base acreage, payment yields, and program payments. The program's goal was to enroll 3 to 5 million acres over 5 years. The FAIR Act of 1996 replaced the IFMP with production flexibility contracts and a pilot conservation farm option program.
Integrated resource planning - See Least cost planning. - Bioenergy Glossary
Integrated Pest Management - A program, begun in 1972, that aims to decrease pesticide applications by teaching farmers to use a variety of alternative control techniques to capitalize on natural pest mortality. These techniques include biological controls, genetic resistance, tillage, pruning, and others. Pesticide applications are used only when preventive practices fail to keep impending crop damage from exceeding the cost of controlling the pest with a chemical. Evaluates alternatives for managing forest pest populations, based on consideration of pest-host relationships.
Integrated Resource Management - A process that identifies and considers all resource values, along with social, economic, and environmental needs, with the goal of resource stewardship guided by the principle of sustainable use.
Integration - The combination (under the management of one firm) of two or more identical (horizontal) or successive (vertical) stages in the production or marketing process of a particular product. Generally the stages are capable of being operated as separate businesses. The firm that has management responsibility is called the integrator. The poultry industry, for example, is vertically integrated, from production through processing and distribution. Diversification, on the other hand, is the production of two or more products by one firm or farmer.
Integrity - Also known as Conditions of integrity. The concept of integrity is not referred to directly in the World Heritage Convention. Paragraph 44 of the Operational Guidelines requires that a natural property nominated for inclusion in the World Heritage List be considered for inclusion only if it meets one or more of the natural heritage criteria and fulfils the conditions of integrity (UNESCO February 1996: 12). This requirement is again referred to in Paragraph 45 of the Operational Guidelines (UNESCO February 1996: 15). The conditions of integrity may be summarised from Paragraph 44 (b) (i) to (iv) of the Operational Guidelines as follows: 44. ... (b) ... (i) The sites described in 44(a)(i) should contain all or most of the key interrelated and interdependent elements in their natural relationships ... (ii) The sites described in 44(a)(ii) should have sufficient size and contain the necessary elements to demonstrate the key aspects of processes that are essential for the long-term conservation of the ecosystems and the biological diversity they contain ... (iii) The sites described in 44(a)(iii) should be of outstanding aesthetic value and include areas that are essential for maintaining the beauty of the site ... (iv) The sites described in paragraph 44(a)(iv) should contain habitats for maintaining the most diverse fauna and flora characteristic of the biogeographic province and ecosystems under consideration ... (UNESCO February 1996: 13-14). Paragraphs 57 and 58 of the Operational Guidelines state that natural properties nominated for inclusion in the World Heritage List should satisfy the conditions of integrity and that the determination as to whether these conditions are met will be carried out by IUCN (UNESCO February 1996: 18). Furthermore, Paragraph 58 (d) of the Operational Guidelines also requests that IUCN in examining and evaluating nominations, "make comments and recommendations on the integrity and future management of each property recommended by the Bureau, during its presentation to the Committee" (UNESCO February 1996: 19). The Operational Guidelines refer to the threat to the integrity of natural properties as one of the criterion for the inclusion of natural properties in the List of World Heritage in Danger (UNESCO February 1996: 29, Paragraph 79 (i) (c)). Paragraph 80 of the Operational Guidelines makes comments concerning how threats to the integrity of natural properties may be "amenable to correction by human action" or by "administrative or legislative action, such as the cancelling of a major public works project or the improvement of legal status" (UNESCO February 1996: 29). On only one occasion the concept of integrity is referred to with reference to the conservation of cultural properties. In Paragraph 24 (b)(ii) of the Operational Guidelines reference is made to the need to "preserve the integrity of cultural sites" (UNESCO February 1996: 8). The possibility of applying conditions of integrity to both natural heritage and cultural heritage, "and thus of applying one common approach for the identification and evaluation of World Heritage" was the subject of discussion at the March 1996 "Expert Meeting on Evaluation of general principles and criteria for nominations of natural World Heritage sites" (UNESCO 15 April 1996). The World Heritage Bureau and Committee will consider the substance of the report of the Expert Meeting at their twentieth sessions in 1996. - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
Intellectual Property (patent-trademark-unfair competition-copyright-trade secret-moral rights) - Creative ideas and expressions of the human mind that have commercial value and receive the legal protection of a property right. The major legal mechanisms for protecting intellectual property rights are copyrights, patents, and trademarks. Intellectual property rights enable owners to select who may access and use their property and to protect it from unauthorized use.
Integrity - The authenticity of a property or structure's historic identity, evinced by the survival of physical characteristics that existed during the historic or prehistoric period. The seven qualities of integrity as defined by the National Register Program are location, setting, feeling, association, design, workmanship, and materials. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/
Intellectual Property Right - A right enabling an inventor to exclude imitators from the market for a limited time. - UNDP/WRI
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) means transportation systems which include computer-based interactive management elements that provide information to motorists and/or are responsive to changing demands, maximizing the efficiency of the existing roadway system, including automatic toll collecting systems.
Intensity - A measure of land development with non-residential uses. Intensity is often operationalized by the use of Floor Area Ratio (FAR) or coverage criteria.
Intensive Forest Management Practices - The growth enhancing practices of release, pre-commercial thinning, commercial thinning, and fertilization, designed to obtain a high level of timber volume or quality. (BLM)
Intensive Management - A high investment level of timber management that includes pre-commercial and commercial thinning, plantings with genetically improved stock, control of competing vegetation, and other practices which increase tree growth.
Intensive management - Planned, active treatment to improve the quality and quantity of timber within a stand. A general term that distinguishes active forest management from passive forest management. - Bioenergy Glossary
Intensive modern farming - Growing in the smallest area and producing maximum yields using modern farming methods. - UNEP Children's Glossary
Intensive Timber Production Base - All commercial forestland allocated to timber production and intensively managed to obtain a high level of timber volume or quality. (BLM)
Intensively Managed Timber Stands - Forest stands managed to obtain a high level of timber volume or quality through investment in growth enhancing practices, such as pre-commercial thinning, commercial thinning, and fertilization. Not to be confused with the allocations of "lands available for intensive management of forest products." (BLM)
Intentional introduction - An introduction made deliberately by humans, involving the purposeful movement of a species outside of its natural range and dispersal potential. (Such introductions may be authorised or unauthorised.) - IUCN
Interagency Wildland Fire Policy - The Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review was chartered by the secretaries of the Interior and Agriculture to ensure that federal policies are uniform and programs are cooperative and cohesive. For the first time, one set of federal fire policies will enhance effective and efficient operations across administrative boundaries to improve the capability to meet challenges posed by current wildland fire conditions. The policy review team reexamined the role of fire in ecological processes and the costs associated with fighting fire. An interagency product has resulted in changes in terminology, funding, agency policy, and analysis of ecological processes. - www.fireplan.gov glossary
Interagency Wildland Fire Policy - The Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review was chartered by the secretaries of the Interior and Agriculture to ensure that federal policies are uniform and programs are cooperative and cohesive. For the first time, one set of federal fire policies will enhance effective and efficient operations across administrative boundaries to improve the capability to meet challenges posed by current wildland fire conditions. The policy review team reexamined the role of fire in ecological processes and the costs associated with fighting fire. An interagency product has resulted in changes in terminology, funding, agency policy, and analysis of ecological processes. - USDA Forest Service
Interbed - A bed, typically thin, of one kind of rock material occurring between or alternating with beds of another kind.
Interception - The process and the amount of rain or snow stored on leaves and branches and eventually evaporated back to the air. Interception equals the precipitation on the vegetation minus stem flow and throughfall (after Hoover, 1953, p.1.) - USGS
Interdependent - Refers to the complementary framework of human rights law. For example, your ability to participate in your government is directly affected by your right to express yourself, to get an education, and even to obtain the necessities of life. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary
Interest - When used with respect to Indian land, an ownership right to the surface estate of Indian land that is unlimited or uncertain in duration, including a life estate. - DOI-BIA Glossary 2. Any share, part or right in the nature of the property; generally, a right in property less than title. - Cadastral Data glossary
Interest Community (community of interest) - Group of individuals belonging to an organization that has an identifiable set of interests. - USDA/FS
Interest in Land - The legal concern of a person in a thing or property, or in the right to some of the benefits or uses from which the property is inseparable. - Cadastral Data glossary
Interdisciplinary Approach - Utilization of one or more individuals representing areas of knowledge and skills focusing on the same task, problem, or subject. Team member interaction provides needed insight to all stages of the process.
Interdisciplinary Team (IDT) - A team of professional specialists with skills and expertise from different disciplines and in different resources that focuses on and collaborates to develop and evaluate management alternatives to the same task or project.
Interflow - The lateral movement of a significant amount of water through the soil above the regional water table.
Interfluve - The area between two adjacent streams flowing in the same general direction or any elevated area between two drainageways. - USDA
Intergenerational Equity - The issue of sustainable development referring, within the environmental context, to fairness in the intertemporal distribution of the endowment with natural assets or of the rights to their exploitation. (UN)
Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage - See World Heritage Committee - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
Intergovernmental Panel on Forests (IPF) - A two-year panel set up by the CSD to examine forest management.
Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs) - Organizations sponsored by several governments that seek to coordinate their efforts; some are regional (e.g., the Council of Europe, the Organization of African Unity), some are alliances (e.g., the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO); and some are dedicated to a specific purpose (e.g., the UN Centre for Human Rights, and The United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO). - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary
Intergovernmental Working Group on Global Forests (IWGGF) - Set up by Canada and Malaysia as a discussion forum on forest policy before the establishment of the IPF.
Interior Board of Land Appeals (IBLA) - The Department of the Interior, Office of Hearings and Appeals board that acts for the Secretary of the Interior in responding to appeals of decisions on the use and disposition of public lands and resources. Because IBLA acts for and on behalf of the Secretary of the Interior, its decisions usually represent the Department's final decision but are subject to the courts. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs. 2. The final administrative appeals body for any proposed actions on public lands. - Bioenergy Glossary
Interjurisdictional Agreement - A contractual or other formal agreement between two or more political jurisdictions that results in a cooperative action or activity.
Intermediate Cut - The removal of trees from a stand sometime between the beginning or formation of the stand and the regeneration cut. Types of intermediate cuts include thinning, release, and improvement cuttings.
Intermediate Goods and Services - Goods and services that are purchased for further reprocessing and resale, as opposed to final goods and services, which are sold to ultimate users. For example, wool would be an intermediate good, whereas a wool shirt would be a final good. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Intermediate Harvest - Any removal of trees from a stand between the time of its formation and the regeneration cut. Most commonly applied intermediate cuttings are release, thinning, sanitation and salvage.
Intermediate Species - These are also species common to the pristine plant community, but which are not as adversely affected by grazing use as are the 'Desirables.' The may be less palatable to grazing animals or be more resistant to grazing use. As a result, they either hold their own in the stand or they may increase in proportion to other species or even replace the most desirable species that are lost or reduced as a result of selective grazing use. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho
Interim Committee - The Interim Committee, known formally as the "Interim Committee of the Boards of Governors on the International Monetary system," was established in October 1974 to advise the Board of Governors of the IMF on supervising - the management and adaptation of the international monetary system as well as dealing with disturbances that might threaten the system. The Committee, whose members are Governors of the fund, Ministers, or others of comparable rank, reflects the composition of the Fund's Executive Board: each member country that appoints, and each group that elects and Executive Director, appoints a member of the Committee, which has 24 members. - WB
Interim Management Policy (IMP) - An interim measure governing lands under wilderness review. This policy protects Wilderness Study Areas from impairment of their suitability as wilderness. - BLM
Intermittent - Operates at intervals, not continuous.
Intermittent Service - A road developed and operated for periodic service and closed for more than one year between periods of use. - FS
Intermittent Stream - A stream that flows only at certain times of the year when it receives water from streams or from surface sources, such as melting snow, and does not run water during the dry season of most years.
Intermittent Stream - Seasonal stream. A stream that flows only at certain times of the year when it receives water from springs or from some surface source, such as melting snow in mountainous areas. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary
Intermodal planning group (IPG) - A regional organization of Federal agencies set up to oversee transportation planning activities in the states of that region. It may include representatives of the Federal Highway Administration, Coast Guard, Federal Aviation Administration, Federal Railroad Administration, Federal Transit Administration, Department of Housing and Urban Development, Environmental Protection Agency, and other Federal agencies. AASHTO.
Intermountain Region - The portion of the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, also referred to as Region Four, which includes National Forest in Utah, Nevada, southern Idaho, and southwestern Wyoming.
Internal erosion - Formation of voids inside a soil or soft rock embankment caused by mechanical or chemical removal of material by seepage. - Bureau Of Reclamation -- BOR -- Water Acquisition Glossary
Internal Revenue Code 170(h) (Federal Tax Laws - Conservation Easements) Qualified conservation contribution. (1) In general. - For purposes of subsection (f)(3)(B)(iii), the term "qualified conservation contribution" means a contribution - (A) of a qualified real property interest, (B) to a qualified organization, (C) exclusively for conservation purposes. (2) Qualified real property interest. - For purposes of this subsection, the term "qualified real property interest" means any of the following interests in real property: (A) the entire interest of the donor other than a qualified mineral interest, (B) a remainder interest, and (C) a restriction (granted in perpetuity) on the use which may be made of the real property. (3) Qualified organization.-- For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "qualified organization" means an organization which-- (A) is described in clause (v) or (vi) of subsection (b)(1)(A), or (B) is described in section 501(c)(3) and-- (i) meets the requirements of section 509(a)(2), or (ii) meets the requirements of section 509(a)(3) and is controlled by an organization described in subparagraph (A) or in clause (i) of this subparagraph. (4) Conservation purpose defined.-- (A) In general.-- For purposes of this subsection, the term "conservation purpose" means-- (i) the preservation of land areas for outdoor recreation by, or the education of, the general public, (ii) the protection of a relatively natural habitat of fish, wildlife, or plants, or similar ecosystem, (iii) the preservation of open space (including farmland and forest land) where such preservation is-- (I) for the scenic enjoyment of the general public, or (II) pursuant to a clearly delineated Federal, State, or local governmental conservation policy, and will yield a significant public benefit, or (iv) the preservation of an historically important land area or a certified historic structure. (B) Certified historic structure.-- For purposes of subparagraph (A)(iv), the term "certified historic structure" means any building, structure, or land area which-- (i) is listed in the National Register, or (ii) is located in a registered historic district (as defined in section 47(c)(3)(B)) and is certified by the Secretary of the Interior to the Secretary as being of historic significance to the district. A building, structure, or land area satisfies the preceding sentence if it satisfies such sentence either at the time of the transfer or on the due date (including extensions) for filing the transferor's return under this chapter for the taxable year in which the transfer is made. (5) Exclusively for conservation purposes.-- For purposes of this subsection-- (A) Conservation purpose must be protected.-- A contribution shall not be treated as exclusively for conservation purposes unless the conservation purpose is protected in perpetuity. (B) No surface mining permitted.-- (i) In general.-- Except as provided in clause (ii), in the case of a contribution of any interest where there is a retention of a qualified mineral interest, subparagraph (A) shall not be treated as met if at any time there may be extraction or removal of minerals by any surface mining method. (ii) Special rule.-- With respect to any contribution of property in which the ownership of the surface estate and mineral interests has been and remains separated, subparagraph (A) shall be treated as met if the probability of surface mining occurring on such property is so remote as to be negligible. (6) Qualified mineral interest. - For purposes of this subsection, the term "qualified mineral interest" means -- (A) subsurface oil, gas, or other minerals, and (B) the right to access to such minerals.
International assistance - The granting of collective assistance, such as international assistance, through the participation of the international community is one of the fundamental conservation tools established by the Convention and is referred to in the Preamble to the Convention UNESCO 1972). The Convention includes significant detail concerning the provision of international assistance - See for example Article 13, and Section V "Conditions and Arrangements for International Assistance, Articles 19-26 (UNESCO 1972). The Convention states that international assistance may be used to identify, "secure the protection, conservation, presentation or rehabilitation" of a cultural or natural property (UNESCO 1972: Article 13 (1) and (2)). Section IV of the Operational Guidelines entitled "International Assistance" describes the various forms of assistance available under the World Heritage Fund (Preparatory assistance, Emergency assistance, Training, Technical co-operation and assistance for promotional activities), establishes the deadlines for the presentation of requests for international assistance for consideration by the World Heritage Committee and its Bureau, establishes an order of priorities for the granting of international assistance, details of the agreement to be concluded with States Parties receiving international assistance, and the implementation of projects and conditions for the granting of international assistance (UNESCO February 1996: 31-39, Paragraphs 90 to 117). See Emergency assistance, Preparatory assistance, Promotional activities, Technical assistance, Technical co-operation, Training, World Heritage Fund - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
International Association for Great Lakes Research (IAGLR) - This association of scientists publishes the quarterly Journal of Great Lakes Research and hosts an annual conference on Great Lakes research. (Conference sites alternate between the United States and Canada.) Conference sessions and journal publications cover a wide range of research aimed at understanding the world's large lakes and the human communities around them. 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI 48105, 734-665-5303 - Great Lakes glossary
The "International Bank for Reconstruction and Development" (IBRD) was conceived at the same time as the IMF at the 1944 Bretton Woods Conference. The IBRD and IDA (see below) are commonly referred to as the World Bank. The IBRD began operations in 1946. Its central purpose is to serve as a channel of resources from developed nations to the developing countries to promote economic and social progress. Along with the resources, it provides technical assistance and policy advice. Its funds are derived from members' subscriptions, borrowings in world capital markets, loan repayments, and net earnings. - WB
International Bill of Human Rights - The combination of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and its optional Protocol, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR). - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary
International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM)(Rome Centre) - ICCROM was created by UNESCO in 1956. ICCROM was formerly known as the Rome Centre. In 1977 the name was changed to ICCROM (the initials of the International Centre for Conservation, and given that the Centre is located in Rome, ROM, ICC+ROM=ICCROM). Article 8 (3) of the Convention requires that a representative of the Rome Centre (ICCROM) attend meetings of the Committee in an advisory capacity (UNESCO 1972). ICCROM is an intergovernmental body that provides expert advice on how to conserve properties inscribed in the World Heritage List, as well as training in conservation techniques. ICCROM is an active partner in the World Heritage Information Network (WHIN). See World Heritage Information Network (WHIN) - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
International Commodity Agreement - An undertaking by a group of countries to stabilize trade, supplies, and prices of a commodity for the benefit of participating countries. An agreement usually involves a consensus on quantities traded, prices, and stock management. As of mid-1997, the United States is a party to the International Tropical Timber Agreement, the International Natural Rubber Agreement, and the International Grains Agreement.
International conservation and management measures - Measures taken to conserve or manage one or more species of living marine resources that are adopted and applied in accordance with the relevant rules of international law, as reflected in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, and that are recognized by the United States. - MFCMA
International Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) - Article 8 (3) of the Convention requires that a representative of ICOMOS attend meetings of the Committee in an advisory capacity (UNESCO 1972). ICOMOS provides evaluations on cultural properties nominated for inscription in the World Heritage List. ICOMOS is an international, non- governmental organization, founded in 1965, with an international secretariat in Paris, France. ICOMOS is one of the main participants in the World Heritage Information Network (WHIN). See World Heritage Information Network (WHIN) - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) - Adopted in 1966, and entered into force in 1976. The ICCPR declares that all people have a broad range of civil and political rights. One of the components of the International Bill of Human Rights. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary
International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) - Adopted 1966, and entered into force 1976. The ICESCR declares that all people have a broad range of economic, social, and cultural rights. One of the components of the International Bill of Human Rights. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary
The International Development Association (IDA) created in 1960, is an affiliate of the IBRD. It finances development projects and programs on concessional terms in the poorest countries, mostly in those with annual per capita incomes below $865 (in 1994 dollars). IDA funds are obtained mainly through periodic replenishments. Contributions to the most recent replenishment have come from around 30 countries; most of them are IDA's richer members, but the list includes a number of developing countries too. Part of IDA's resources are transfers from the IBRD. - WB
The International Finance Corporation (IFC) is an affiliate of the World Bank. Its purpose is to promote the development of the private sector in the economies of the developing countries through equity investments and loans. IFC funds are composed of shares purchased by member governments; IFC's own borrowings, particularly from the IBRD; and retained earnings. - WB
International Grains Agreement (IGA) - Replaced the International Wheat Agreement in 1995. The IGA comprises a Grains Trade Convention (GTC) and a Food Aid Convention (FAC). The IGA is administered by the International Grains Council (IGC), an intergovernmental forum for cooperation on wheat and coarse grain matters. The IGA remains in force until June 30, 1998. The GTC provides for information sharing, analysis and consultations on grain market and policy developments. Under the FAC, 11 donor countries pledge to provide annually specified amounts of food aid to developing countries in the form of grain suitable for human consumption, or cash to buy suitable grains in recipient countries.
International Grains Council (IGC) - An intergovernmental forum responsible for administering the International Grains Agreement (IGA).
International Institute for Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering Institutions (IHE). Organizational arrangements and the legal and regulatory framework -- the 'enabling environment' -- in which organizations operate. More broadly, institutions include entities, processes and linkages between individual entities. - WB
International Joint Commission (IJC) - The United States and Canada established the International Joint Commission in the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909 . The commission makes binding decisions regarding water uses that affect Great Lakes levels or flows on either side of the U.S.-Canadian border. The IJC also investigates Great Lakes issues at the request of the two federal governments; provides advice on issues of water quality and quantity, and encourages cooperation among different government jurisdictions. The IJC's Great Lakes Water Quality Board and Science Advisory Board report on progress toward goals outlined in the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, and its Regional Office provides administrative, technical and public information services. (USA) 1250 23rd St., NW, Suite 100, Washington, DC 20440, 202-736-9000 (CANADA) 100 Metcalfe Street, 18th Floor, Ottawa, ON K1P 5M1, 613-995-2984 (Regional Office) 100 Ouellette Ave., 8th Floor, Windsor, ON N9A 6T3, 313-226-2170 or 519-256-7821 - Great Lakes glossary
International Labor Organization (ILO) - Established in 1919 as part of the Versailles Peace Treaty to improve working conditions and promote social justice; the ILO became a Specialized Agency of the UN in 1946. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary
International Law - Body of rules that govern relations between nations and international organizations.
International Mining Risks - 1. Political 2. Market 3. Transportation 4. Currency 5. Legal 6. Labor 7. Business 8. Geologic 9. Force Majeure 10. Environmental 11. Health and Safety 12. Infrastructure 13. Operational 14. Cultural
International Monetary Fund (IMF) - An international institution founded in 1944- together with the World Bank- to promote international monetary cooperation and facilitate balanced growth of trade by encouraging the removal of foreign exchange restrictions, promoting exchange rate stability, and expediting payments among member countries. - World Bank Glossary
The International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) - The International Plant Protection Convention, revised in 1997, provides guidelines for common and effective action to prevent the spread and introduction of pests of plants and plant products. The IPPC covers pests of commercial cropping and the natural environment and deals with both plant protection within a country and the spread of pests between countries. The `Agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures' (the SPS Agreement) of the World Trade Organization has identified the IPPC as the treaty under which phytosanitary standards should be provided. The principles inherent within the IPPC and the SPS Agreement provide the basis of standard setting for phytosanitary measures concerned with trade issues. The main implications of these principles are that: countries may take action when necessary to protect plant health by prevention of introduction, eradication or containment; action should be based on the appropriate level of protection for that country; pest risk analysis is used in the development of measures; countries should follow standards when available; and emergency action is permissible when situations require urgent action or there is insufficient information on which to base action. The major elements of a national phytosanitary system include: import regulations to prevent the entry of potential pests; compliance systems to ensure import requirements are being met; the use of pest risk analysis for the development of import regulations; the maintenance of surveillance systems to determine the presence or absence of pests; the use of eradication or control programs to remove or restrict the spread of pests; and the use of export certification systems so that exports meet the requirements of trade partners. National agencies are required to make every effort to employ the internationally accepted phytosanitary vocabulary to facilitate communication. Phytosanitary legislation may include an act with clear objectives, associated authorities and powers to set measures to deal with pests outside the country and manage those already within the country. A law or statute should have the power to set secondary level regulations and, if necessary, tertiary level ministerial orders or directives. Such legislation needs to take account of any treaties that the country is signatory to which affect phytosanitary issues. The critical component in the construction of phytosanitary measures is the pest risk analysis (PRA). This is supported by an examination of recent WTO dispute settlement cases. To date, little emphasis has been laid on the environmental aspects in PRAs for measures to protect a nation's plant health status. Specific guidelines for this aspect of PRAs are needed, along with recourse to more information on environmental pests, to solve this problem. In the long term, it is suggested that protection for the maintenance of plant health status will be better achieved, not with the application of the precautionary principle, but with the use of PRAs to obtain technical justification for action and the use of the principle of emergency action. It is suggested that the operation and status of a phytosanitary agency, to prevent introduction, for surveillance, eradication and containment of organisms, will be able to deal with many of the requirements for the protection of the natural environment from harmful non-native organisms. This must be associated with efforts to increase the availability of appropriate technical data and to undertake basic research.
International poverty line - An income level established by the World Bank to determine which people in the world are poor- set at $1 a day per person in 1985 international purchasing power parity (PPP) prices. A person is considered poor if he or she lives in a household whose daily income or consumption is less than $1 per person. Although this poverty line is useful for international comparisons, it is impossible to create an indicator of poverty that is strictly comparable across countries. The level of $1 a day per person is close to national poverty lines in low-income countries but considerably lower than those in high-income countries. - World Bank Glossary
International Price (ni) - The international price of basic heading i, is defined as a quantity-weighted average of the purchasing-power-adjusted parities at the basic heading level across the n countries. (UN)
International protection - Article 7 of the Convention provides some definition of the concept of international protection when it states that: For the purpose of this Convention, international protection of the world cultural and natural heritage shall be understood to mean the establishment of a system of international co-operation and assistance designed to support States Parties to the Convention in their efforts to conserve and identify that heritage (UNESCO 1972). See National protection - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) (CCITT) - A branch of the United Nations that coordinates and standardizes telecommunications technologies) An international organization, chartered by the United Nations, that sets standards for radio and telephone communications worldwide. Telephone standards are set by ITU-T (Telecommunications), which was once known as CCITT.
International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (also known as The World Conservation Union) (UN) - the world's oldest and largest global conservation body. The World Conservation Union was founded in 1948 and brings together 78 states, 112 government agencies, 735 NGOs, 35 affiliates, and some 10,000 scientists and experts from 181 countries in a unique worldwide partnership. Its mission is to influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve the integrity and diversity of nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable. Within the framework of global conventions IUCN has helped over 75 countries to prepare and implement national conservation and biodiversity strategies. IUCN has approximately 1000 staff, most of who are located in its 42 regional and country offices while 100 work at its Headquarters in Gland, Switzerland.
International Wheat Agreement - Replaced in 1995 by the International Grains Agreement.
Internet - Global computer information network. - UNEP Children's Glossary
Interoperability Resource - A tool, not necessarily technical, used within a COI (Community Of Interest) to facilitate integration of systems across jurisdictions allowing for seamless transactions and interactions with government. - GWOB
Interpretation - The translation of scientific and academic information about park resources into forms that are meaningful to the public, helping them understand and appreciate their natural and cultural heritage. (DOI/NPS)
Interpretive plan - A document that describes the themes and objectives of a park's public education program, and the means for reaching those objectives. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
int-res - Inter-Research Climate Research
Intrinsic Resources - The cultural, historical, archeological, recreational, natural or scenic qualities or values along a roadway that are necessary for designation as a Scenic Highway/Byway. Intrinsic resources are features considered significant, exceptional and distinctive by a community and are recognized and expressed by that community in its comprehensive plan to be of local, regional, statewide or national significance and worthy of preservation and management. NPS - DOI
Introduced Species - A species occurring in an area outside of its historically known natural range as a result of intentional or accidental dispersal by human activities. Also known as alien species. - UNDP/WRI
Introduction - The entry of a pest resulting in its establishment. - UN/FAO International Plant Protection Convention Glossary 2. The movement, by human agency, of a species, subspecies, or lower taxon (including any part, gametes or propagule that might survive and subsequently reproduce) outside its natural range (past or present). This movement can be either within a country or between countries. - IUCN
Inuit - A people who originally lived in the Arctic. - UNEP Children's Glossary
Inuit - Indigenous people who live in the far north of Canada, Alaska and Greenland. Traditionally, Inuit fished and hunted seals, whales, walruses and caribou. Clothing was made from animal skins and the main social units were small family bands. Native people to the south called them 'Eskimos', a Cree word meaning 'eaters of raw meat'. In 1975, Inuit in Canada called for the creation of an autonomous state which was granted them in 1992, when the Government announced the creation of the territory of 'Nunavut', meaning 'Our Land' in the Inuit language. (UNESCO)
Invaders - Plant species that were absent or present in very small amounts in undisturbed portions of the original vegetation of a specific range site and will invade following disturbance of continued overuse. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho
Invasive - A species, not previously present in a plant community, that aggressively increases in abundance due to ecosystem disturbance or because it is an exotic species alienated from its competitors and herbivores. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary
Invasive Species - An alien species whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm, or harm to human health. An alien species includes, with respect to a particular ecosystem and species, its seeds, eggs, spores, or other biological material capable of propagating that species that is not native to that ecosystem (Executive Order #13112). http://www2.srs.fs.fed.us/strategicplan/view_and_submit_comment.asp?ID=52
Inventory Elasticity - A measure of the responsiveness of harvest to changes in standing timber inventory. - USDA/FS
Inventory of property - Article 11(1) of the Convention establishes the requirement for States Parties to prepare an inventory of property for submission to the World Heritage Committee. Article 11, 1. Every State Party to this Convention shall, in so far as possible, submit to the World Heritage Committee an inventory of property forming part of the cultural and natural heritage, situated in its territory and suitable for inclusion in the list provided for in paragraph 2 of this Article [the World Heritage List]. This inventory, which shall not be considered exhaustive, shall include documentation about the location of the property in question and its significance (UNESCO 1972). This inventory is referred to in the Operational Guidelines as a tentative list. See Indicative list, Tentative list - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
Inventories for Sale or Use - Estimated value of materials, goods, and supplies purchased or manufactured by an organization and held for sale or use at some time in the future.
Inverse Condemnation - The word "inverse" in the phrase "inverse condemnation" is used because the owner sues to ask for the court to declare that a taking (as by zoning or regulation) requiring condemnation (eminent domain) has been effectuated and that compensation is due from the government. The 1992 Lucas Supreme Court ruling remanded the proceeding back to the State Court for "proceedings not inconsistent with this opinion." In a subsequent settlement, $1.6 million was awarded to David Lucas. The prominent earlier (1981) case of San Diego Gas & Electric v. City of San Diego (101 S. Ct. 1287) contains debate on the validity and application of inverse condemnation as a remedy for the property owner or whether invalidation is the only remedy. - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary Invertebrates - Animals having no backbone such as earthworms, insects and lesser animals.
Inversion - The state of the atmosphere in which a layer of cool air is trapped near the earth's surface by an overlying layer of warm air so that the lower layer cannot rise. Serious air pollution problems may result from air pollutants being emitted into the limited mixing depth below the inversion. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Invertebrate Species - Any animal without a backbone or spinal column. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary
Investment - Money spent now in order to make the economy grow and have more money, or goods and services, later. (WB-UN)
In vitro - Storage of plant or animal germplasm in tissue-culture form in glass containers. - UNDP/WRI
IO - Indicator Organisms
IO - International Order
IOA - Indirect Observation and Analysis
IOC - The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO http://ioc.unesco.org/iocweb/
IOE - The International Organization of Employers
IOL - Interactive Online Learning
IOM - International Organization for Migration
IOS - International Organization for Standardizations
IOSC - Idaho Office of Species Conservation
IOSC - International Organization of Security Commissions ("the United Nations of Security Commissions")
IP - Implementation Process
IP - Incentive Package
IP - Incremental Process
IP - Indigenous People
IP - Inhalable Particulates
IP - Initial Prototyping
IP - In Progress
IP - Intergenerational Programming
IP - Integrated Project
IPAL - Integrated Project of Arid Lands (UN)
IPAM - Integrated Protected Areas Management
IPC - International Policy Council
IPC - International Programs Center
IPCAFT - International Policy Council on Agriculture, Food and Trade
IPCC - International Panel for Climate Change (UN)
IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (UN)
IPDC - UNESCO's International Programme for the Development of Communication http://www.unesco.org/webworld/com/strength/strength01.shtml
IPDG - International Professional Development Group (UN)
IPF - The Intergovernmental Panel on Forests (UN)
IPK - International PeaceKeepers
IPLAN - A term developed by the New Jersey Office of State Planning to describe their strategy to support compact development and redevelopment, and locate the most efficient use of infrastructure and other systems. IPLAN encourages development in population centers, such as urban centers, towns, regional centers, villages, and hamlets. - Smart Growth Green Development Glossary
IPM - Industrial Preparedness Measure(s)
IPM - Innovation Process Management
IPM - Input Process Module
IPM - Inspection Procedures Manual (Federal Aviation Administration)
IPM - Institute of People Management
IPM - Institute of Productivity and Management
IPM - Institute of Project Management
IPM - Integrated Pest Management
IPM - Integrated Process Management
IPM - Integrated Product Management
IPM - Interference Prediction Model
IPM - Internal Polarization Modulation
IPM - Internetworking Performance Monitor (Cisco)
IPM - Interpersonal Message (ITU-T)
IPM - Inverse Perspective Mapping
IPMI - International Precious Metals Institute
IPMP - Institute for Participatory Management and Planning
IPO - International Program Office. See IC
IPPD - Integrated Product and Process Design
IPPDP - Integrated Product and Process Design Program
IPR - Institute for Philosophical Research
IPR - Institute of Pacific Relations
IPR - Intellectual Property Rights
IPRT - Intercity Passenger Rail Transportation
IPS - Indexing and Processing System
IPS - The Integrated Project Society
IPT - Interstate Public Transportation
IPTRID - International Program on Technology and Research in Irrigation and Drainage (FAO-UN)
IPV - Intentional Program Violation
IQ - Intelligence Quotient
IR - Identified Resources
IR - Import Restrictions
IR - Indicated Resources
IR - Individual Rights
IR - Industrial Revolution
IR - Inferred Resources
IR - The Iron Rule (never do for people what they can do for themselves - Alinsky)
IR - Intermountain Region
IRB - Inferred Reserve Base
IRC - Idaho Rural Council http://www.worc.org - member, Western Organization of Resource Councils (WORC) (RED FLAG)
IRC - Interhemispheric Resource Center, home of the Americas Program ("a foreign policy think-tank")
IRC - International Relations Council (UN)
IRC - Industry Research Center
IRD - Informational Resources Directory
IRDP - Integrated Resource Development Project (IUCN)
IRF - Individual Rights Foundation
IRF - Island Resources Foundation
IRFP - Intergovernmental Review of Federal Programs
IRI - International Research Institute for Climate Prediction
IRI - Integrated Resources Inventory (USDA/Forest Service)
IRICC - Interorganizational Resource Information Coordinating Council, originally established as a subcommittee for the Intergovernmental Advisory Committee (IAC)
IRIS - Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology
IRIS - Center for Institutional Reform and the Informal Sector. IRIS assisted United Nations Development Program (UNDP) in Nepal to design "Microfinance Expansion to Women in the Hill Areas (MEWHA)," a five year pilot program to build the capacity of local organizations and to initiate or expand existing microfinance activities. USAID program. http://www.iris.umd.edu/
IRM - Information and Resource Management
IRN - International Rivers Network
IRP - Integrated Resource Planning
IRPT - Inland Rivers, Ports and Terminals
IRR - Indian Reservation Roads
IRRA - Inventory of Resource Rich Areas
Irradiation - The process of exposing food or other items to radiation of wavelengths shorter than those of visible light (gamma, x-ray, or ultraviolet) in order to destroy contamination from microorganisms or other undesirable organisms. It is approved and now used for some food products.
Irredentism - A policy of cultural extension and potential political expansion aimed at a national group living in a neighboring country. For example, when India mistreated the Muslims living in state of Jammu and Kashmir, the Muslim government of neighboring Pakistan threatened, and ultimately wet to war. Irredentism is often a cause of cultural conflicts as countries protect members of their cultural group living in neighboring countries.
Irrigated area - The gross farm area upon which water is artificially applied for the production of crops, with no reduction for access roads, canals, or farm buildings. (Simons, 1953, p. 8.) - USGS
Irrigated land - Land that shows evidence of being irrigated during the year of the inventory or of having been irrigated during 2 or more of the last 4 years. Water is supplied to crops by ditches, pipes, or other conduits. For the purposes of the NRI, water spreading is not considered irrigation. - National Resources Inventory
Irrigation - Application of water to soils to assist in production of crops. Methods of irrigation are: Border-Water is applied at the upper end of a strip in which the lateral flow of water is controlled by small earth ridges called border dikes, or borders. Basin-Water is applied rapidly to nearly level plains surrounded by levees or dikes. Controlled flooding-Water is released at intervals from closely spaced field ditches and distributed uniformly over the field. Corrugation-Water is applied to small, closely spaced furrows or ditches in fields of close-growing crops or in orchards so that it flows in only one direction. Drip (or trickle)-Water is applied slowly and under low pressure to the surface of the soil or into the soil through such applicators as emitters, porous tubing, or perforated pipe. Furrow-Water is applied in small ditches made by cultivation implements. Furrows are used for tree and row crops. Sprinkler-Water is sprayed over the surface through pipes or nozzles from a pressure system. Subirrigation-Water is applied in open ditches or tile lines until the water table is raised enough to wet the soil. Wild flooding-Water, released at high points, is allowed to flow onto an area without controlled distribution. - USDA
Irrigation Efficiency - The percentage of water applied that can be accounted for in soil-moisture increase. (Pillsbury, Compton, and Picker, 1944, p. 7.) - USGS
Irrigation requirement - The quantity of water, exclusive of precipitation, that is required for crop production. It includes surface evaporation and other economically unavoidable wastes. (Blaney, 1951a, p. 4.) - USGS
Irrigation Water - Water made available from the project which is used primarily in the production of agricultural crops or livestock, including domestic use incidental thereto, and the watering of livestock; this also includes water used for domestic uses, such as the watering of landscaping or pasture for animals which are kept for personal enjoyment. - Everglades Plan glossary
Irretrievable - One of the categories of impacts mentioned in the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, to be included in statements of environmental impacts. Applies to losses of production, harvest, or a commitment of renewable natural resources. An irretrievable effect applies to losses of production or commitment of renewable resources. For example, while an area is used as a ski area, some or all of the timber production there is irretrievably lost. If the ski area closes, timber production could resume; the loss of timber production during the time that the area was devoted to winter sports is irreversible, because it is possible for timber production to resume if the area is no longer used as a ski area.
Irreversible - Applies primarily to the use of nonrenewable resources, such as minerals, or cultural resources, or to those factors that are renewable only over long-time spans, such as soil productivity. Irreversible also includes loss of future options.
Irrigation - Applying water (or wastewater) to land areas to supply the water (and sometimes nutrient) needs of plants. Techniques for irrigating include furrow irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, trickle (or drip) irrigation, and flooding. About 51 million acres of land are irrigated in the United States. More acres of corn are irrigated than any other crop, but only about 15% of the harvested acres. In contrast, irrigation is used for 100% of rice, 81% of orchards, 64% of vegetables, and 36% of cotton. About 40% of freshwater withdrawals in the nation are for irrigation, making agriculture the single largest user of water. Nearly half of all irrigation water withdrawals are in the western states, where in some areas competition for available supplies among uses, including base stream flow, has become controversial. Consumptive use as a percent of withdrawals is about 56% for irrigation.
Irrigation Return Flow - Part of artificially applied water that is not consumed by plants or evaporation, and that eventually 'returns' to an aquifer or surface water body, such as a lake or stream. Commonly used when discussing water conservation techniques and measurement.
Irrigation Water Management - Limiting irrigation applications based on the water-holding capacity of the soil and the need of the crop. The water is applied at a rate and in such a manner that the crop can use it efficiently and resource losses are minimized. Irrigation efficiency is the ratio of the amount of water stored in the crop root zone compared to the amount of water applied. Water conservation has become more important as costs have risen and demands have grown for wildlife and urban uses.
IRRRB - Iron Range Resources and Rehabilitation Board
IRS - Intermountain Research Station
IRS - Internal Revenue Service
IRU - Idaho Rivers United
IRWA - International Right of Way Association
IS - Impervious Surface
IS - Implementation Strategies
IS - Indicator Species
IS - The Industry Standard
IS - Information Superhighway (the Internet)
IS - Intermittent Stream
IS - International Source
IS - Intestate Statute
IS - Invasive Species
IS - Inventive Spelling
ISA - Improved Student Achievement
ISA - International Sugar Agreement
ISA - Initial Site Assessment
ISA - International Studies Association
ISC - Interagency Scientific Committee to Address the Conservation of the Northern Spotted Owl (commonly called the "Thomas Committee" -- Jack Ward Thomas -- or "ISC")
ISD - Imperial Sand Dunes (California)
ISCDD - Idaho State Council on Developmental Disabilities
ISCPEB - Industry Structure and Competitiveness, Profitability and Economic Viability
ISD - Immune System Destruction
ISD - Individual Self-Determination (Log Cabin Club)
ISDA - International Swaps and Derivatives Association
Ishikawa Diagramming - See Fishbone Diagram - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm
ISDN - Institute for the Study of Developing Nations
ISDRA - Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area (California)
ISDT - Institute of Shaft Drilling Technology
ISEA - Industrial Safety Equipment Association
ISEE - International Society of Explosives Engineers
ISFM - Integrated Soil Fertility Management
ISG - Industry Support Groups
ISIL - International Society for Individual Liberty
ISIN - International Sustainability Indicators Network
ISJWP - International Stockholm Junior Water Prize
Island biogeography - A theory developed in the United States in the late 1960s through in situ studies of small islands and population models.
ISMA - International Snowmobile Manufacturers Organization
ISMS - Interagency Species Management System
ISO - Independent System Operator
ISO - In Support Of
ISO - International Standard of Operations
Isohyetal line (isohyet) - A line drawn on a map or chart joining points that receive the same amount of precipitation. - USGS
Isolated waters - Those non-tidal waters of the U.S. that are: (1) not part of a surface tributary system to interstate or navigable waters of the U.S.; and (2) not adjacent to such tributary waterbodies. 33 CFR § 330.2(e).
Isoseismal Line - A line connecting points on the Earth's surface at which earthquake intensity is the same. It is usually a closed curve around the epicenter. - USGS Earthquake glossary
Isomorphous Substitution - Replacement of one atom by another of similar size in a crystal lattice during crystal growth without changing the crystal structure.
ISP - Internet Service Provider
ISR - Interdisciplinary Sustainability Research
ISS - Immune System Suppression
ISS - Indian Sacred Sites
ISSA - Idaho State Snowmobile Association
ISSG - Invasive Species Specialist Group (UN)
Issue - Any unsettled matter that requires a management decision. For example, a resource management problem, concern, a threat to natural resources, a conflict in uses, or in the presence of an undesirable resource condition. A subject or question of public discussion or interest to be addressed or discussed in the planning process.
Issues - Unresolved conflicts regarding alternative uses of available resources. Subjects of public interest. - Bioenergy Glossary ISTEA - Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (1991) Isthmus - A land bridge; a comparatively narrow link between larger bodies of land. Central America forms such a link between North and South America. IT - Immature Timber IT - Implementation Team
IT - Independent Trustee
IT - Information Technology
IT - Intercultural Training
IT - Interdependent Transformations
IT - In Transition
IT - Intellectual Technology
IT - Investment Trust
ITA - Incidental Take Authority
ITA - International Trade Administration
ITA - International Trade Association
ITARC - International Trade Association of the Republic of China
ITAV - It Takes A Village
ITAVTRAC - It Takes A Village To Raise A Child
ITB - India Trade Board
ITC - Income Tax Credits
ITC - International Trade Commission
ITC - Investment Tax Credit
ITD - Induced Trip Demand
ITDC - Interim National Drought Council
ITE - Institute of Transportation Engineers
Item - Refers to an article or a unit included in enumeration. In classifications, the term item generally applies to a classification category. (UN)
ITF - Internet Task Force
ITG - Indian Tribal Governments
ITG - International Trails and Greenways
ITJ - Industry Trade Journal
Itineraries - See Heritage route - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
ITMA - International Trademark Association
ITN - International Training Network (UNDP)
ITP - Incidental Take Permit (DOI/USFWS)
ITP - Indigenous and Tribal Peoples
ITR - Indian Trust Resources
ITRC - Identity Theft Resource Center (CA)
ITRC - The Institute for The Regional Community
ITRE - The Institute for Transportation Research and Education at (administered by) North Carolina State University, a university-based institute committed to leadership in the study of surface transportation issues through fostering analytical thinking, integrating technology in education and research, serving as a catalyst for problem solving, and cultivating professionals and students dedicated to excellence in transportation. http://www.itre.ncsu.edu/
ITS - Individual Tree Selection
ITS - The Bureau of Information Technology Services
ITS - Integrated Transmission System (may be high-power lines)
ITS - Intelligent Transportation System
ITSC - Information Technology Support Committee
ITTA - The International Tropical Timber Agreement (UN)
ITTO - International Timber Trade Organization
ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization
ITU - International Telecommunications Union (once known as CCITT) (UN)
ITU - International Telecommunication Union (United Nations) http://www.itu.int/
IUCN - World Conservation Union (UN)
IUCN - International Union for (the) Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (UN)
IUCN evaluation - The evaluation procedures used by IUCN for natural property nominations are set out in the IUCN volume on "Documentation on World Heritage Properties (Natural)" presented by IUCN to the World Heritage Committee each year (See for example IUCN 1995). The evaluation or "Technical Review" of natural properties for inclusion in the World Heritage List is conducted by the Natural Heritage Programme (NHP) of IUCN in association with the IUCN's Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas (CNPPA). The IUCN uses a standard format in presenting its documentation on natural property nominations. The documentation provided by IUCN is in three parts - a summary of the original nomination including supplementary information, an evaluation and recommendation and data sheets (IUCN 1995: 3). See Evaluation, ICOMOS evaluation - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
IUGS - International Union of Geological Sciences
IVHS - Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems
IVU - International Vegetarian Union
IW - Information Warfare
IW - Interior Wetlands
IWAC - The Invasive Weeds Awareness Coalition (NWRA - Nat'l Wildlife Refuge Ass'n.)
Iwb - Index of Well Being (EPA)
IWC - In-Stream Waste Concentration
IWC - Irrigation Water Conveyance
IWD - Initial Working Definition
IWDCB - Idaho Wolf Depredation Compensation Board
IWGGF - Intergovernmental Working Group on Global Forests
IWHC - The International Women's Health Coalition is a Major Civil Society Partner(s) (UNFPA)
IWIN - Interactive Weather Information Network
IWIT - Idaho Women in Timber
IWL - Including Without Limitation
IWL - Izaak Walton League
IWLA - Izaak Walton League of America
IWM - Interactive Watershed Modeling
IWM - Irrigation Water Management
IWMA - Interim Wildlife Mitigation Agreement
IWRA - International Water Resources Association (FAO-UN)
IWP - Idaho Watersheds Project
IYM - International Year of Mountains - 2002 (FAO-UN)
IZ - Inclusionary Zoning