K factor (USLE). See Soil erodibility factor (USLE).
K factor (WEQ). See Ridge roughness factor (WEQ).
KAB - Keep America Beautiful
KABA - Kenosha Area Business Alliance
Kaolinite - Hydrous aluminosilicate clay mineral of the 1:1 crystal structure group, that is, consisting of one silicon tetrahedral sheet and one aluminum oxide-hydroxide octahedral sheet.
Karnal Bunt - A fungus disease of wheat that reduces yields and causes an unpalatable but harmless flavor in flour milled from infected kernels. Appearance of the disease in the United States in early 1996 resulted in the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service implementing an emergency quarantine, inspection, and certification program for wheat moving out of the infested areas, along with regulations on sanitizing machinery and storage facilities. Many foreign countries have a zero tolerance for karnal bunt in import shipments.
Karst - A limestone-rich landscape characterized by chemical erosion producing various sinkholes, fissures, underground streams, and caverns. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary 2. A type of topography that results from dissolution and collapse of limestone, dolomite, or gypsum beds and is characterized by closed depressions or sinkholes, caves, and underground drainage. - BLM
KB - Klamath Basin (Oregon and California)
KBB - Klamath Bucket Brigade
KBDI - Keech Byram Drought Index
KBERO - Klamath Basin Ecosystem Restoration Office (DOI/USFWS)(Oregon/California)
KBRT - The Klamath Basin Rangeland Trust (Oregon)
KCA - Kentucky Coal Association
kcal - kilocalorie
KCI - Kinship Conservation Institute
KCMEC - Kentucky Coal Marketing and Export Council
KC135 - Air Force jets (spraying missions)
KCS - Kansas City Southern railway (NAFTA Railway)
KCSA - Kentucky Crushed Stone Association
KCW - Kimball County Women
KEDO - Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization
Kearney's Code - Nevada became a state on October 30, 1864. Prior to that time the area in question was part of the territory of Nevada. The territory of Nevada had been created out of the western portion of the territory of Utah. Utah Territory had been a portion of the Mexican cession resulting from the Mexican War of 1845-46. U.S. Brigadier General of the Army of the West, Stephen Watts Kearney, instituted an interim rule, commonly referred to as "Kearney's Code,'' over the ceded area pending formal treaty arrangement between the U.S. and Mexico. The Mexican cession was formalized two years later with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, February 2, 1848. Mexico recognized title of the peaceful/Pueblo (or "civilized") Indians (either tribally or as individuals) to the lands actually occupied or possessed by them, unless abandoned or extinguished by legal process (i.e. treaty agreements). The Mexican policy of inducing Indians to give up their wandering "nomadic, uncivilized'' life in favor of a settled "pastoral, civilized'' life, was continued by Congress after the 1846 session and was the very basis of the government's Indian allotment and reservation policy. Mexico and Spain retained the mineral estate under both private grants and public lands as a sovereign asset obtainable only by express language in the grant or under the provisions of the Mining Ordinance. 2. The acquisition by the U.S. When the area was ceded to the U.S., the U.S. acquired all ownership rights in the lands, which had been previously held by the Mexican government. This included the mineral estate and the then unappropriated surface rights. Indian title, where it existed, remained with the respective Indian tribes. All other private property existing at the time of the cession, was also recognized and protected. Kearney's Code also recognized all existing Mexican property law and continued, in force, the laws, "concerning water courses, stock marks and brands, horses, enclosures, commons and arbitrations'', except where such laws would be repugnant to the Constitution of the United States. The Supreme Court of the United States has upheld the validity of Kearney's Code, stating that Congress alone could have repealed it, and this it has never done. In 1846, the areas where the Jarbidge South Canyon Road presently exists was acquired by the United States. The United States, like Mexico, retained the mineral estate, while the surface estate was open to settlement. Settlement of the surface estate continued under United States jurisdiction in much the same way it had proceeded under Mexican jurisdiction. Towns, cities and communities grew up around agricultural and mining areas. 3. The characteristics of the land and custom of settlement [was?] under Mexican law. The Mexican cession, which is today the southwestern portion of the United States, consisted primarily of arid lands, interspersed with rugged mountain ranges. These mountain ranges were the primary source of water supply for the arid region. The water courses were part of the surface estate. Control or development of the land by settlers for either agricultural uses or mining depended on control of the water courses. The most expansive (and most common) method of settlement under the Mexican "colonization'' law was for the individual settler to establish a cattle and horse (ganado de mejor) or sheep and goat (ganado de menor) farm, known as a "rancho'' or ranch. These ranches were large, eleven square leagues or "sitios'' (approximately one-hundred square miles). The individual settler (under local authorization) would acquire a portion of irrigable crop land and an additional allotment of nearby seasonal/arid (temporal or agostadero) land and mountainous land containing water sources (canadas or abrevaderos) as a "cattle range'' or "range for pasturage.'' Four years of actual possession gave the ranchero a vested property right that could be sold (even before final federal confirmation or approval of the survey map (diseno). Control of livestock ranges depended on lawful control of the various springs, seeps and other water sources for livestock pasturage and watering purposes. Arbitration of disputes over water rights and range boundaries (rodeo or "round-up'' boundaries) were adjudicated by local authorities (jueces del campo or "judges of the plains''). 4. Mexican customs of settlement were maintained under U.S. rule. This same settlement pattern of appropriating servitudes or rights (servidumbres) for pasturage adjacent to water courses, continued after the area was ceded to the United States in 1846. One of the first acts of the California legislature after the Mexican cession was to re-enact, as state law, the previous Mexican "jueces del campo'' or "rodeo'' laws governing the acquisition and adjudication of range (or pasturage) rights on the lands within the state. The new settlers on lands in the Mexican cession after1846, were not trespassers on the lands of the U.S., since Kearney's Code had continued in effect all the previous laws pertaining to water courses, livestock, enclosures and commons (stock ranges). Under Mexican law, water rights, possessory pasturage rights, and right-of-ways were easement rights. Mexican land law was based on a split-estate system (surface/mineral titles and easements) which the United States Courts were unfamiliar with and for which no federal equivalent law existed. Problems in sorting agricultural (rancho) titles/rights from mining titles/rights quickly became apparent when the courts began the adjudication of Spanish and Mexican land claims. Congress (like Spain and Mexico) had previously followed a policy of retaining mineral lands and valuable mines as a national asset. 5. Congress further defines and codifies settlement customs through the Act of 1866 with the establishment of mineral and surface estate rights. There was no law passed by Congress to define the settlement process for the western mineral lands until Congress addressed this problem by a series of acts beginning in the 1860's. Key among the split-estate mining/settlement laws was the Act of July 26, 1866. Congress established a lawful procedure whereby the mineral estate of the United States could pass into the possession of private miners. Private mining operations could then turn the dormant resource wealth of these lands into active resource wealth for the benefit of a growing nation. The 1866 Act also dealt with the surface estate of mineral lands. The act clearly recognized local law and custom and decisions of the court, which had been operating relative to these lands and extended these existing laws and customs into the future. The 1866 Act created a general right-of-way for settlers to cross these lands at will. It also allowed for the establishment of easements. At this point, it is important to note the definitions of these key terms: A right-of-way is defined as the right to cross the lands of another. An easement is defined as the rights to use the lands of another. Section 8 and 9 of the 1866 Act are the seminal U.S. law defining the rights of ownership in the Jarbidge South Canyon Road. Section 8, which was later codified as Revised Statute 2477, deals with the establishment of "highways'' across the land. The term highways as used in the 1866 Act refers to any road or trail used for travel. The right-of-way portion of this act was an absolute grant for the establishment of general crossing routes over these lands at any point and by whatever means was recognized under local rules and customs. Section 9 of the Act of July 1866, "acknowledged and confirmed'' the right-of-way for the construction of ditches, canals, pipelines, reservoirs and other water conveyance/ storage easements. Section 9 also guaranteed that water rights and associated rights of "possession'' for the purpose of mining and agriculture (farming or stock grazing) would be maintained and protected. B. The Law After Nevada Statehood. 1. The states adopt Mexican settlement customs, as affirmed by Kearney's Code and 1866 Act. Once settlers in an area had exercised the general right- of-way provisions of the 1866 Act to establish permanent roads or trails, those roads or trails then, by operation of law, became easement (which is the right to use the lands of another). The general right-of-way provisions of the 1866 Act gave Congressional sanction and approval to the authorization of Kearney's Code respecting water courses, livestock enclosures and commons, and local arbitrations respecting possessory rights. All of the states and territories, west of the 98th meridian ultimately adopted water right-of-way related range/trail property laws similar to the former Mexican laws in California, New Mexico, and Arizona. These range rights were "property'' recognized by the Supreme Court.
KEF - Katuah Earth First! (environmental extremist group)
KEF - Knowledge Equals Freedom
KEN - Knowledge Exchange Network (National Mental Health Services)
Key Area - A portion of range, which, because of its location, grazing, or browsing value, and or use serves as an indicative sample of range conditions, trend, or degree of use seasonally. (A key area guides the general management of the entire area of which it is a part.) - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho
Key Forage Species - Forage species whose use serves an indicator of the degree of use of associated species. - BLM
Key Process - See Core or Key Process - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm
Key Species - Forage species whose use serves as an indicator to the degree of use of associated species. Or. Those species, which must, because of their importance, be considered in the management program. USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho
Key Species - (1) Species that, because of their importance, must be considered in a management program; or (2) forage species whose activities show the degree of activities of other associated species.
Keystone Species - A species whose loss from an ecosystem would cause a greater than average change in other species populations or ecosystem processes. - UNDP/WRI
Key Summer Range - The portion of a wildlife species' summer range that is essential for the animal's pre, post, and reproduction cycles. Deer require "fawning areas" where does give birth and hide their fawns for an essential period of time in the spring.
Key Terms - Key terms employed in the United Nations Treaty Collection to refer to international instruments binding at international law: treaties, agreements, conventions, charters, protocols, declarations, memoranda of understanding, modus vivendi and exchange of notes. The purpose is to facilitate a general understanding of their scope and function. Over the past centuries, state practice has developed a variety of terms to refer to international instruments by which states establish rights and obligations among themselves. Term such as "statutes", "covenants", "accords" and others are used. In spite of this diversity of terminology, no precise nomenclature exists. In fact, the meaning of the terms used is variable, changing from State to State, from region to region and instrument to instrument. Some of the terms can easily be interchanged. For example, an instrument that is designated "agreement" might also be called "treaty" or "convention". The title assigned to such international instruments thus has normally no overriding legal effects. The title may follow habitual uses or may relate to the particular character or importance sought to be attributed to the instrument by its parties. The degree of formality chosen will depend upon the gravity of the problems dealt with and upon the political implications and intent of the parties. Although these instruments differ from each other by title, they all have common features and international law has applied basically the same rules to all of these instruments. These rules are the result of long practice among the States, which have accepted them as binding norms in their mutual relations. Therefore, they are regarded as International Customary Law. Since there was a general desire to codify these customary rules, two international conventions were negotiated. The 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties ("1969 Vienna Convention"), which entered into force on 27 January 1980, contains rules for treaties concluded between States. The 1986 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties between States and International Organizations or between International Organizations ("1986 Vienna Convention"), which has still not entered into force, added rules for treaties with international organizations as parties. Both the 1969 Vienna Convention and the 1986 Vienna Convention do not distinguish between the different designations of these instruments. Instead, their rules apply to all of those instruments as long as they meet certain common requirements. Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations provides that "every treaty and every international agreement entered into by any Member State of the United Nations after the present Charter comes into force shall as soon as possible be registered with the Secretariat and published by it". All treaties and international agreements registered or filed and recorded with the Secretariat since 1946 are published in the UNTS. By the terms "treaty" and "international agreement", referred to in Article 102 of the Charter, the broadest range of instruments is covered. Although the General Assembly of the UN has never laid down a precise definition for both terms and never clarified their mutual relationship, Art.1 of the General Assembly Regulations to Give Effect to Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations provides that the obligation to register applies to every treaty or international agreement "whatever its form and descriptive name". In the practice of the Secretariat under Article 102 of the UN Charter, the expressions "treaty" and "international agreement" embrace a wide variety of instruments, including unilateral commitments, such as declarations by new Member States of the UN accepting the obligations of the UN Charter, declarations of acceptance of the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice under Art.36 (2) of its Statute and certain unilateral declarations that create binding obligations between the declaring nation and other nations. The particular designation of an international instrument is thus not decisive for the obligation incumbent on the Member States to register it. It must however not be concluded that the labeling of treaties is haphazard or capricious. The very name may be suggestive of the objective aimed at, or of the accepted limitations of action of the parties to the arrangement. Although the actual intent of the parties can often be derived from the clauses of the treaty itself or from its preamble, the designated term might give a general indication of such intent. A particular treaty term might indicate that the desired objective of the treaty is a higher degree of cooperation than ordinarily aimed for in such instruments. Other terms might indicate that the parties sought to regulate only technical matters. Finally, treaty terminology might be indicative of the relationship of the treaty with a previously or subsequently concluded agreement. (UN)
Key Winter Range - That portion of big game's range where the animals find food and cover during severe winter weather.
Keyword - Is part of the controlled vocabulary often used to assist in identification or retrieve information about a classification (e.g. keywords used within a software search facility). The term `Keywords' reflects this function of the words. (UN)
KF - Kelp Forest
KF - Kinney Foundation
KFA - The Klamath Forest Alliance (Felice Pace)
KFCR - Kootenai Forest Congress Roundtable
KFL - Knowledge, Folklore and Languages (PAI)
KFM - Kelp Forest Monitoring
KFRA - Klamath Falls Resource Area (DOI/BLM)
KFRMP - Klamath Falls (Resource Area) Resource Management Plan (DOI/BLM)
KH - Key Habitat
Khymer Rouge - The Khymer Rouge is the clandestine Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK) in Cambodia which has opposed the Cambodian government. They have been among the worst offenders of land mines in the world.
Kind or Class of Livestock - Kind: The species of domestic livestock-cattle and sheep. Class: The age class (i.e., yearling or cows) of a species of livestock. - BLM
KITA -Korean International Trade Association
KLA - Key Linkage Area (wildlife)
Kleptoparasitism - Theft by one species of resources procured by another species, resulting in positive effects for the parasite and negative effects for the species being parasitized. Generally this term is applied to theft of food, but has recently been expanded to include theft of spatial resources. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf
KLT - Kennebec Land Trust (Maine)
KM - Key Messages
KM - Kitchen Meeting
KM - Knowledge Management
KMI - Kentucky Mining Institute
KMLC - Kentucky Mineral Law Center
KMRA - Known Mineral Resource Areas
KNF - Key Natural Features
Know-How (trade secret) - Information that enables a person to accomplish a particular task or to operate a particular device or process.
Knowledge-centric re-engineering (KCR) - The application of BPR and change enablement methodologies in support of enterprisewide KM, thereby effecting major cultural and process change that are fundamental to the management of the enterprise's competitive position.
Knowledge Management - The systematic process of finding, selecting, organizing, distilling and presenting information in a way that improves comprehension in a specific area of interest.
Known Geologic Structures - Technically, the known geologic structure of a producing oil or gas field is construed by the Geological Survey to be the trap, whether structural or stratigraphic, in which an accumulation of oil or gas has taken place, and the limits of said trap, irrespective of the degree to which it may be occupied by oil or gas. Known geologic structures are frequently much more extensive than the pools of oil or gas they may contain, and the extent and place of any oil or gas accumulation therein, though influenced by structure, is finally determined by such factors as stratigraphy, hydrocarbon supply, sand conditions, and hydrostatic pressure. The Geological Survey seeks to evaluate the net effect of these several factors in terms of reasonably presumptive productive acreage and, as far as practicable, to conform the results, modified to include a fair safety margin, to the subsurface contours of the dominant structural feature involved. - BLM
Known To or Reasonably Ascertainable (TSCA/40 CFR 763.63) - All information in a person's possession or control, plus all information that a reasonable person might be expected to possess, control, or know, or could obtain without unreasonable burden or cost. - EPA
Kol Nidre (All Vows) (prayer) - The implications, inferences and innuendoes of the "Kol Nidre" (All Vows) prayer are referred to in the Talmud in the Book of Nedarim, 23a-23b as follows: "And he who desires that none of his vows made during the year shall be valid, let him stand at the beginning of the year and declare, every vow which I make in the future shall be null (1). (HIS VOWS ARE THEN INVALID) providing that he remembers this at the time of the vow." (Emphasis in original) A footnote (1) relates: "(1)...The Law of Revocation in advance was not made public." (Emphasis in original text) Theodore Reik, a pupil of Dr. Sigmund Freud, made a study of the "Kol Nidre" (All Vows) prayer. The analysis of the historic, religious and psychological background of the "Kol Nidre" (All Vows) prayer by Professor Reik presents the Talmud in his perspective. The study is contained in "The Ritual, Psychoanalytical Studies." In the chapter on the Talmud, page 163, he states: "The text was to the effect that all oaths which believers take between one Day of Atonement and the next Day of Atonement are declared invalid." The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia confirms that the "Kol Nidre" (All Vows) prayer has no spiritual value as might be believed because it is recited in synagogues on the Day of Atonement as the prologue of the religious ceremonies which follow it. The secular significance of the "Kol Nidre" (All Vows) prayer is forcefully indicated by the analysis in Vol. VI, page 441: "The Kol Nidre has nothing whatever to do with the actual idea of the Day of Atonement...it attained to extraordinary solemnity and popularity by reason of the fact that it was The first Prayer recited on this holiest of days." This definition is important because of the 'solemn' oath of office taken by elected officials. The oath or affirmation, to support the Constitution is as follows: "I (Whatever the persons names is) solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of ( ), and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States."
KP - Kids Planet
KP - The Klamath Project (Oregon and California)
KP - Kyoto Protocol
KP - Key Provisions
KPAC - Klamath Provincial Advisory Committee
KPD - Key purchasing decisions
KPMG International - A Swiss association. KPMG International's member firms have more than 100,000 professionals, including 7,000 partners, in 155 countries. KPMG is the accounting, tax and financial advisory firm that understands the needs of business in the global economy. In 1994, Peat Marwick Thorne and Peat Marwick Stevenson & Kellogg -- the Canadian branch -- joined forces to become KPMG Canada. In 1996, the firm standardized its name internationally as KPMG.)
KRA - Knowlton R. Atterbeary http://www.kra.com (KRA Corporation "One of America's fastest growing private companies")
KRCG - Kettle Range Conservation Group
Krill - Tiny shrimplike creatures eaten by whales. - UNEP Children's Glossary
KRIS - Klamath Resource Information System http://www.krisweb.com/
KRNCA - King Range National Conservation Area (CA)
KRP - Klamath Reclamation Project (Oregon and California)
KSG - Kennedy School of Government (Harvard University)
KSI - Key species indicator - USDA Forest Service
KSWC - Klamath Siskiyou Wildlands Center
KTE - know thine enemy
KTE - Known Threshold Effect
The Kuchel Act - In the early 1960s, Congress debated the best manner of using the land in the Tule Lake and Lower Klamath NWRs. Congress was faced with the question of whether to dedicate the land to homesteading or to waterfowl production. It needed to recognize the existing agricultural uses and the Klamath Project, to overcome the threats to waterfowl management, to recognize international treaty responsibilities for the conservation of migratory waterfowl, and obligations to the Klamath Drainage District and Tulelake Irrigation District. In addition, lawmakers wanted to offset some the costs of services to the refuges provided by affected counties. Debate was heard from all sides and was settled with the passage of the Kuchel Act (Public Law 88-567) in 1964 (from statement of Stewart L. Udall, Secretary of the Interior, on S.1988 [Kuchel Act] to the Subcommittee on Irrigation and Reclamation, Interior and Insular Affairs, U.S. Senate, February 23, 1962). The administration and management of the agriculture program on the Tule Lake and Lower Klamath NWRs is more complicated than other national wildlife refuges due to the Kuchel Act . The Act, which targeted only four national wildlife refuges, states: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, all lands owned by the United States lying within the Executive Order boundaries of the Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge, the Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge, the Upper Klamath National Wildlife Refuge, and the Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuge, are hereby dedicated to wildlife conservation. Such lands shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior for the major purpose of waterfowl management, but with full consideration to optimum agricultural use that is consistent therewith..." Section 4 states in part that: "The Secretary shall, consistent with proper waterfowl management, continue present patterns of leasing.... Leases for these lands shall be at a price or prices designed to obtain the maximum leasing revenues. The leases shall provide for the growing of grain, forage and soil building crops, except that not more than 25 per centum of the total leased lands may be planted to row crops." Section 3 states in part: "...that the priority of use of the total net revenues collected from the leasing of the lands described in this section shall be (1) to credit or pay from such revenues to the Tulelake Irrigation District that amounts already committed to such payment or credit; (2) to pay from such revenues to the Klamath Drainage District the sum of $197,315; and (3)to pay from such revenues to the counties the amounts prescribed by this section." The Kuchel Act requires that these national wildlife refuges be managed for two different purposes: for waterfowl management and agriculture production. The ambiguity of this law has proven difficult for land managers because it leaves priorities open to interpretation by various interest groups. http://library.fws.gov/Pubs1/IPM/Guide.html
The Kuchel Act of 1964 - (pronounced keekle) Legislation that dedicated refuge lands in the Klamath Basin of northern California and south-central Oregon to wildlife conservation and provided that they be managed for the "major purpose of waterfowl management, but with full consideration to optimum agricultural use" of certain refuge lands (so-called "lease lands") consistent with that purpose.
KWA - Keep the Wild Alive
KWD - Kangaroo Wilderness Defense
KWIC - Key Word In Context
KWUA - Klamath Water Users Association
KYC - Know Your Customer
Kyoto Protocol - The first step by the world's nations to set specific emission reduction commitments for the greenhouse gases believed to be causing global warming. The Kyoto Protocol is the latest step in the ongoing United Nations' effort to address global warming. The effort began with the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (Convention) signed during the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. (The Convention entered into force in 1994 upon the ratification by 50 nations, including the United States.) Despite the continuing scientific debate on the likely occurrence of global warming, the nations took action under the "precautionary principle" of international law. Although many developing countries will likely become the largest producers of greenhouse gases early next century, the Protocol's commitments apply only to the world's "developed" countries. This omission, as well as the lack of detail for achieving its goals, means that the participating nations still have much work to do before the Protocol is likely to achieve its goals.