OA - Organic Act of 1907

OA - Organizing Approaches

OA - Ottawa Agreement

OA - Outcomes Assessment

OAC - Ontario Agricultural Conference (Canada)

OAC - Overseas Automotive Council

O & C Lands - Public lands granted to the Oregon and California Railroad Company and subsequently re-vested to the United States. (BLM)

O & C - Oregon and California Lands Act

O & D - Occurrences and Deposits

O & D - Origin and Destination (survey of traffic movement)

O&E - Outreach & Education

OALC - Oregonians in Action Legal Center

OALF - The Oregon Agricultural Legal Foundation

OALS - Office of Arid Lands Studies

OAP - Office of Acquisition Policy (GSA)

OAR - The Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) develops national programs, technical policies, and regulations for controlling air pollution and radiation exposure. - EPA Superfund glossary

OAS - Organization of American States

OAS - Orleans Audubon Sanctuary

OAT - Open-Air Testing

Oath of Office - "I (Whatever the persons names is) solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of..., and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States." See also Kol Nidre

OAU - Scientific, Technical and Research Commission of the Organization of African Unity (UN)

O&C - Oregon and California Revested Lands

O&M - Operation and maintenance (O&M) activities protect the integrity of a Superfund site's cleanup plan. O&M measures are initiated by a state after cleanup objectives have been reached, and the site is determined to be operational and functional (O&F) based on state and federal agreement. - EPA Superfund glossary

OB - Ore-Body

OB - Overthrust Belt (Wyoming)

OBE - Our Brains are Empty

OBE - Outcome Based Education

Objection - Any signatory or contracting state has the option of objecting to a reservation, inter alia, if, in its opinion, the reservation is incompatible with the object and purpose of the treaty. The objecting state may further declare that its objection has the effect of precluding the entry into force of the treaty as between objecting and reserving states. [Art.20-23, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969] (UN)

Objective - A description of a desired condition for a resource. Objectives can be quantified and measured, and, where possible, have established time frames for achievement. - DOI/BLM

Objectives - Expressions of what are the desired end results of management efforts.

OBL - Obligate Wetland

OBL - Options for Better Living

Obligate - Refers to the inability to change metabolic pathways, mode of feeding, or ecological relationships; restricted to specific environmental conditions. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary 2. Essential, necessary, unable to exist in any other state, mode, or relationship. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Obligate Species - A plant or animal that occurs only in a narrowly defined habitat such as tree cavity, rock cave, or wet meadow. (BLM)

Obligation - The number of Head Months outlined on Term Grazing Permits. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

Obliterated Corners - Corners where no trace remains of the original surveyor's work. It differs from a lost corner in that it can be located by competent evidence (such as a witness tree), whereas, a lost corner cannot be replaced by reference to any existing data or source of information. - Cadastral Data glossary

Obliteration of an Existing Road - This would involve removal of all culverts, establishing permanent drainages and re-contouring of the road surface.

OBR - Outcome-Based Regulation (of Logging in Natural Forest Concessions and Community Forests)

OBRA - Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act

Observer - An individual placed aboard a fishing vessel under the IATTC observer program or any other international observer program in which the United States may participate. - MFCMA

Observer Position - A specific geographic position in the landscape where the viewer is located. Also known as a viewer platform. - FS

OC - Office Commercial (land use)

OC - Open Channel

OC - Open Circuit

OCA - Oregon Cattleman's Association

OCA - Outlying Commercial Accommodation

OCAMA - The Office of Coastal and Aquatic Managed Areas

OCC - Oregon Conservation Council

OCC - Our Children's Children

OCCC - Okanogan County Citizens Coalition

OCCDD - Observe, Communicate, Collaborate, Document, Decide

Occupational Health Hazards - Hazards of exposure to pollution, noise and vibrations in the working environment. Exposure limits are promoted by the International Labor Organization (ILO). (UN)

Occupational Safety and Health Act - 29 U.S.C. 651 et seq. (1970) - Congress passed the Occupational and Safety Health Act to ensure worker and workplace safety. Their Goal was to make sure employers provide their workers a place of employment free from recognized hazards to safety and health, such as exposure to toxic chemicals, excessive noise levels, mechanical dangers, heat or cold stress, or unsanitary conditions. In order to establish standards for workplace health and safety, the Act also created the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as the research institution for the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). OSHA is a division of the U.S. Department of Labor that oversees the administration of the Act and enforces standards in all 50 states.

Occurrence - Existence or how a mineral is deposited.

OCD - Our Creative Diversity

OCEAN - Oregon Coastal Environment Awareness Network

Ocean Crust - The relatively thin, solid portion of the Earth's surface underlying the oceans.

Ocean Dumping - Deliberate disposal of hazardous wastes at sea from vessels, aircraft, platforms or other human-made structures. It includes ocean incineration and disposal into the seabed and sub-seabed. (UN)

Ocean Freight Differential (under P.L. 480) - The difference between the cost of P.L. 480 shipments that are required to be carried on U.S. flag vessels compared to the cost that would have been incurred had they been carried on lower cost foreign bottoms. The U.S. government pays this difference either by paying the total freight, if the sale is made under Title II of P.L. 480, or by reimbursing the recipient country or private grain company (whichever pays the shipping) if the sale is made under Title I of P.L. 480.

Ocean Ranching - A type of aquaculture, used mainly by the salmon industry, which cultures juvenile fish, releases them to mature in the open ocean, and catches them when they return as adults to spawn.

Ochric Horizon - A diagnostic epipedon of light color, low humus, or shallow depth.

OCF - Our Common Future (UN) Published by the Brundtland Commission (UN)

OCM - Organization for Competitive Markets

OCP - Our Cities Program (ACIR)

OCRM - Ocean Coastal Resource Management

OCS - Office of Constituent Services (NOAA - Recreational Fisheries)

OCS - Organized civil society

OCS - Outer Continental Shelf

OCW - Offensive Computer Warfare

OD - Obligation Document

OD - Offshore Drilling

OD - Operation Dragnet (weather modification HAARP)

OD - Organizational Director

O & D - Origin and Destination (Survey Origin and Destination Survey of Traffic Movement)

OD - Ozone Depletion

ODA - Official Development Assistance

ODA - Overseas Development Administration

ODBC - Open Database Connectivity

ODC - Overseas Development Council

ODD - Office Development Districts

Odd Lot - A block of shares that is less than a board lot.

ODFW - Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

ODI - Ocean Defense International

ODP - Open Door Policy

OE - Order of Events

OEC - Oregon Environmental Council http://www.orcouncil.org 

OECA - The Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance (OECA), works in partnership with EPA regional offices, and state, tribal, and other federal agencies to ensure compliance with the nation's environmental laws. By employing an integrated approach of compliance assistance, compliance incentives, and innovative civil and criminal enforcement, OECA and its partners seek to maximize compliance and reduce threats to public health and the environment.

OECD - Office of Economic and Community Development

OECD - Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

OECD - Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation

OECD - Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development

OEE - EPA's Office of Environmental Education

OEE - The Office of Environmental Education: Office of Environmental Education's Strategic Framework - Mission: To advance and support education efforts that develop an environmentally conscious and responsible public. Goal: To ensure that environmental education (EE) is a recognized and appropriately utilized tool for protecting human health and the environment. Cross-Cutting Assumptions: To target underserved populations, such as people of color and low-income communities, and seek multi-sector partnerships. Strategic Objectives: To increase the quality and quantity of EE in grades K-12 by linking EE and education reform. To ensure long-term effectiveness and sustainability of EE programs by supporting state capacity building (i.e., the development of leaders and organizations that coordinate EE across a state). To catalyze EE research that assesses effectiveness in environmental protection and educational improvement. To effectively communicate and demonstrate what EE is and why it's relevant to our lives. To improve the quality, access, and coordination of EE information, resources, and programs." (EPA) http://www.epa.gov/enviroed/ 

OEFFA - Ohio Ecological Food & Farm Association

OEM - Original Equipment Manufacturer

OERR - The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (OERR) manages the Superfund program, which was created to protect citizens from the dangers posed by abandoned or uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. Congress established Superfund through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). - EPA Superfund glossary

OERR-GIS - The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response Geographic Information System (OERRGIS) Work Group coordinates and shares information on GIS projects related to the Superfund and Oil Programs within the OERR and works with EPA Regional offices on GIS-related issues. - EPA Superfund glossary

OES - The Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs

OESI (The OES Initiative) - The Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs. "Through negotiation, the U.S. has an opportunity to shape this emerging international framework in a way that serves our national interests. OESI funding can help advance our negotiating positions by supporting projects that explain to key countries and foreign audiences the technical aspects and environmental/economic implications of those positions. OESI funding also can be used to support regional cooperative efforts to address shared environmental challenges. This is particularly important for developing countries that are unable on their own to solve complicated and inter-related transboundary environmental problems. Our ability to work with these countries as they try to deal with national and regional environmental and health threats is important to securing their support for our environmental agenda. OESI funding can also contribute to ensuring U.S. leadership on emerging environmental and health issues, such as the global HIV/AIDS pandemic, invasive species, environmental governance (rule of law, law enforcement, anti-corruption), or transboundary fresh water. In FY 2000 OES was able to help fund 26 OESI projects worth $4 million, including projects that addressed coral reef protection, sustainable forest management, invasive species, climate change, endangered species and counter-aids efforts. In a first tranche for FY01 worth $3.5 million, 23 additional projects were identified for funding. Questions concerning the OESI program may be addressed to the program coordinator, Mark Sigler 202-647-4658, email siglerma@state.gov, to the corresponding regional officer in OES/PCI, or to the OES/EX program analyst, Jennifer Siegel 202-647-1162, email siegeljr@state.gov." http://eapei.home.att.net/oesi.htm 

OF - Operating Foundation

O-Force - The Orlando Regional Partnership for Tomorrow's Workforce (see definition)

OF - Organic Farming

OFCM - Organization For Competitive Markets

OFE - Office of Fossil Energy (DOE)

Off-farm (non-farm) Income - That portion of farm household income obtained off the farm, including non-farm wages and salaries, pensions, and interest income earned by farm families. On average for all farms in the United States, off-farm income accounts for about 90% of farm operator household income.

Off-Highway Vehicle - Any vehicle that is not permitted on a highway, including dune buggies, four-wheelers and dirt bikes. These vehicles are often driven for recreational purposes. A motorized, street-legal vehicle, with limited off-road capabilities used off-pavement, and with a wheelbase greater than 40 inches.

Off Highway Vehicle Designations: Open Area - An area where all types of vehicle use is permitted at all times, anywhere in the area subject to the operating regulations and vehicle standards set forth in 43 CFR, subparts 8341 and 8342. Limited Area - An area restricted at certain times, in certain areas, and/or to certain vehicular use. Closed Area - An area where off-highway vehicle use is prohibited. Use may be allowed for certain reasons with the approval of the authorized officer. (BLM)

Off-Road Motorcycle - A motorcycle that is not street-legal, designed to be driven cross-country off of roads.

Off-Road Vehicle Management Designations (ORVMD) - Designations apply to all off-road vehicles regardless of the purposes for which they are being used. Emergency vehicles are excluded. The ORV designation definitions have been developed in cooperation with representatives of the USDA/Forest Service, U.S. Park Service, and BLM State and Field Office personnel. BLM recognizes the differences between off-road vehicles and oversnow vehicles in terms of use and impact. Therefore, travel by oversnow vehicles will be permitted off existing routes and in all open or limited areas (unless otherwise specifically limited or closed to oversnow vehicles) if they are operated in a responsible manner without damaging the vegetation or harming wildlife. Closed: Vehicle travel is prohibited in the area. Access by means other than motorized vehicle is permitted. Open: Vehicle travel is permitted in the area (both on and off roads) if the vehicle is operated responsibly in a manner not causing, or unlikely to cause significant, undue damage to or disturbance of the soil, wildlife, wildlife habitat, improvements, cultural, or vegetative resources or other authorized uses of the public lands. Limited: a. Vehicle travel is permitted only on existing roads and vehicle routes which were in existence prior to the date of designation in the Federal Register. Vehicle travel off of existing vehicle routes is permitted only to accomplish necessary tasks and only if such travel does not result in resource damage. Random travel from existing vehicle routes is not allowed. Creation of new routes or extensions and/or widening of existing is not allowed without prior written agency approval. b. Vehicle travel is permitted only on roads and vehicle routes designated by BLM. In areas where final designation has not been completed, vehicle travel is limited to existing roads and vehicle routes as described above. Designations are posted as follows: 1. Vehicle route is open to vehicular travel. 2. Vehicle route is closed to vehicular travel. c. Vehicle travel is limited by number or type of vehicle. Designations are posted as follows: 1. Vehicle route limited to four-wheel drive vehicle only. 2. Vehicle route limited to motorbikes only. 3. Area is closed to oversnow vehicles. d. Vehicle travel is limited to licensed or permitted use. d. Vehicle travel is limited to licensed or permitted use. e. Vehicle travel is limited to time or season of use. Posted: Seasonal closure to all motor vehicles (the approximate dates of closure are indicated). f. Where specialized restrictions are necessary to meet resource management objectives, other limitations may also be developed. Posted: Recreational ORV open play areas. BLM-DOI

Off-Road Vehicles (ORV) - Motorcycles, four-wheel drive vehicles and four-wheelers, capable of cross country travel, without benefit of a road or trail, on or immediately over land, water, snow, ice, marsh, swampland, or other terrain. Includes all terrain vehicles, off-road motorcycles, and off-highway vehicles.

Offal - The less valuable byproduct material from the preparation of a specific product; primarily refers to the byproducts of meat and poultry plants, e.g., blood, bone, feathers, fat.

Offered (sold) Volume or Offered (sold) Acres - Any timber sold during the year by auction or negotiated sales, including modifications to contracts. This is more of a "pulse" check on the district's success in meeting ASQ goals than it is a socioeconomic indicator, since the volume can get to market over a period of several years. It should be noted that for this APS we are considering "offered" the same as "sold". Occasionally sales do not sell. They may be reworked and sold later or dropped from the timber sale program. Those sold later will be picked up in the APS tracking process for the year sold. Those dropped will not be tracked in the APS process. - BLM

Office Commercial - A commercial category intended for the exclusive use of general professional and business offices and limited office-related activities which are generally compatible with existing and future adjacent and surrounding residential development.

Office International des Epizooties (OIE) (English translation: World Organization for Animal Health) - An intergovernmental organisation created by the International Agreement of 25 January 1924, signed by 28 countries. In May 2001, the OIE totalled 158 Member Countries. Mission: To guarantee the transparency of animal disease status world-wide. Each Member Country undertakes to report the animal diseases that it detects on its territory. The OIE then disseminates the information to other countries, which can take the necessary preventive action. This information also includes diseases transmissible to humans. Information is sent out immediately or periodically depending on the seriousness of the disease. Dissemination is via the OIE Web site, e-mail and the following periodicals: Disease Information, published weekly, the OIE Bulletin published every two months and the annual compilation World Animal Health. http://www.oie.int 

Office of the Chief Economist (OCE) - The Office of the Chief Economist advises the Secretary of Agriculture on the economic implications of policies and programs affecting the U.S. food and fiber system and rural areas. The Chief Economist coordinates, reviews, and approves the USDA's commodity and farm sector forecasts. In addition, the Chief Economist oversees the activities of the Coordinator of Agricultural Labor Affairs, the Director of Sustainable Development, the World Agricultural Outlook Board and the Office of Risk Assessment & Cost-Benefit Analysis.

Official Aid - Flows which meet the conditions of eligibility for inclusion in OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE, other than the fact that the recipients are on Part II of the DAC List of Aid Recipients (see Recipient Countries and Territories). References to Official Development Assistance can be taken, mutatis mutandis, to apply to OFFICIAL AID. - Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) Glossary

Official Development Assistance (ODA) - Grants or Loans to countries and territories on Part I of the DAC List of Aid Recipients (developing countries) which are: - undertaken by the official sector; - with promotion of economic development and welfare as the main objective; - at concessional financial terms [if a loan, having a Grant Element (q.v.). of at least 25 per cent]. In addition to financial flows, Technical Co-operation (q.v.) is included in aid. Grants, Loans and credits for military purposes are excluded. For the treatment of the forgiveness of Loans originally extended for military purposes, see Notes on Definitions and Measurement below. Transfer payments to private individuals (e.g. pensions, reparations or insurance payouts) are in general not counted. - Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) Glossary

Official Development Finance (ODF) - Used in measuring the inflow of resources to recipient countries: includes (a) bilateral ODA, (b) grants and concessional and non-concessional development lending by multilateral financial institutions, and (c) Other Official Flows for development purposes (including refinancing Loans) which have too low a Grant Element (q.v.) to qualify as ODA. - Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) Glossary

Official Streets and Highways Landscape Plan (OSHLP) - Provides guidelines for landscaping along primary transportation corridors for both aesthetics and slope stabilization. The Landscape Improvement Study furnishes additional guidance.

Officially Designated Scenic Highway - A state or county route whose scenic corridor protection program has been approved by the Department of Transportation.

Offset Line - A supplementary line close to, and usually parallel to, a main survey line to which it is referenced by measured offsets. When the line for which data are desired is in such a position that is difficult to survey it, the required data are obtained by running an offset line in a convenient location and measuring offsets from it to salient points on the other line. - Cadastral Data glossary

Offset Traverse - The traverse of an offset line. - Cadastral Data glossary

Offshore Banking Centres - Countries or territories whose financial institutions deal primarily with non-residents. - Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) Glossary

Offstream Fish Farming - Breeding, rearing and farming of fish, as well as cultivation of oysters for pearls or food, in offstream freshwater, brackish water or saline water. (UN)

Offstream Use of Water - Water withdrawn or diverted from a groundwater or surface-water source for public water supply, industry, irrigation, livestock, thermoelectric power generation or other uses. (UN)

OFHC - Oxygen Free, High Conductivity

OFIA - Ontario Forest Industries Association (Canada)

O-Force - The Orlando (Florida) Regional Partnership for Tomorrow's Workforce, is a business and education partnership, whose mission is to meet the needs of Central Florida employers and employees by fostering and facilitating development of a highly knowledgeable, skilled, productive, responsible and diverse workforce.

OFPA - Old Faithful Protection Act

OFS - One Fell Swoop

OFWN - Ontario Farm Women's Network

OG - Old Growth (USDA/Forest Service)

OG - Organic Growers

Ogallala - The aquifer beneath the Burning Grounds in northwestern Kansas.

OGC- Open GIS Consortium

OGF - Old-Growth Forest

OGG - Old-Growth Grass

OGN - Our Global Neighborhood

OGSPC - The Oregon Government Standards and Practices Commission http://www.sos.state.or.us/bbook/state/executive/Govt_Standards_Practices/govt_standards_home.htm 

OHA - Oregon Hunters' Association

OHA - The Office of Hearings and Appeals (DOI/BLM)

OHCHR - Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UN) http://www.unsystem.org/ngls/documents/publications.en/ngls.handbook/a10ohchr.htm 

OHSC - Ohio Chapter of the Sierra Club

OHV - Off Highway Vehicle

OHVEC - Ohio Valley Environmental Coalition

OI - Outreach Initiative

OIC - Options Industry Council

OIE - Office International des Epizooties (English translation: World Organization for Animal Health)

OIEC - Organization for International Economic Cooperation

Oil Dark - Odorous, colored, dense liquid that is a water pollutant and also an air pollutant when burnt. (UN)

Oil Fingerprinting - Method that identifies oil spills so that they can be traced back to their sources. (UN)

Oil Pollution Act of 1990 - 33 U.S.C. 2702 to 2761. The Oil Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990 streamlined and strengthened EPA's ability to prevent and respond to catastrophic oil spills. A trust fund financed by a tax on oil is available to clean up spills when the responsible party is incapable or unwilling to do so. The OPA requires oil storage facilities and vessels to submit to the Federal government plans detailing how they will respond to large discharges. EPA has published regulations for aboveground storage facilities; the Coast Guard () has done so for oil tankers. The OPA also requires the development of Area Contingency Plans to prepare and plan for oil spill response on a regional scale.

Oil Spill - An intentional or accidental dispersal of oil (often unprocessed or crude oil, but could be oil at any stage of processes) into a terrestrial or marine habitat. Oil spills create significant environmental problems often killing many birds, fish, marine mammals and other aquatic species and it can persist in natural environments for a long period of time. (UNESCO)

Oilseed Crops - Primarily soybeans, sunflower seed, canola, rapeseed, safflower, flaxseed, mustard seed, peanuts and cottonseed, used for the production of cooking oils, protein meals for livestock, and industrial uses. These specific oilseeds are eligible for non-recourse loans. Other oilseed crops include castor beans and sesame.

Oil Spill - Oil, discharged accidentally or intentionally, that floats on the surface of water bodies as a discrete mass and is carried by the wind, currents and tides. Oil spills can be partially controlled by chemical dispersion, combustion, mechanical containment and adsorption. They have destructive effects on coastal ecosystems. (UN)

OIM - Office of Investment Management

OIP - Open, Inclusive Process

OIRA - The President's Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs

OIT - Office of Information and Technology

OKF - Otto Kinne Foundation

OKI - Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana Regional Council of Governments http://www.oki.org 

OKIRCOG - Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana Regional Council of Governments

Oklahoma Uniform Deceptive Trade Practices Act (OUDTPA) - Title 78, Oklahoma Statutes, Section 51, et. seq. - The Oklahoma Deceptive Trade Practices Act is a trade regulation law not specifically directed to real estate but has some significance. Section 53. Acts constituting deceptive trade practices-Prima facie evidence of intent to injure competitors. (a) A person engaging in a deceptive trade practice when in the course of his business, vocation or occupation, he: (1) pass off goods or services as those of another; (2) knowingly makes a false representation as to the sources, sponsorship, approval, or certification of goods or services; (3) knowingly makes a false representation as to affiliation, connection, association with, or certification by another; (4) uses deceptive representations or designations of geographic origin in connection with goods or services; (5) knowingly makes a false representation as to the characteristics, ingredients, uses, benefits or quantities of goods or services or a false representation as to the sponsorship, approval, status, affiliation, or connection of a person therewith; (6) represents that goods are original or new if they are not; (7) represents that goods or services are a particular standard, quality, or grade, or that goods are a particular style or model, if they are another; (8) disparages the goods, services, or business of another by false or misleading representation of fact; (9) advertises goods or services that differ from those offered for sale in the advertisements; (10) advertises goods or services with intent not to supply reasonable expectable public demand, unless the advertisement discloses a limitation of quantity; (11) makes false or misleading statements of fact concerning the reasons for, existence of, or amounts of price reductions. (b) Evidence that a person has engaged in a deceptive trade practice shall be prima facie evidence of intent to injure competitors and to destroy or substantially lessen competition. (c) The deceptive trade practices listed in this section are in addition to and do not limit the types of unfair trade practices actionable at common law or under other statutes of this state. Section 54. Remedies (a) Any person damaged or likely to be damaged by a deceptive trade practice of another may maintain an action in any court of equitable jurisdiction to prevent, restrain or enjoin such deceptive trade practice. Proof of actual monetary damages, loss of profits or intent shall not be required; but, if in such action damages are alleged and proved, the plaintiff, in addition to injunctive relief, shall be entitled to recover from the defendant the actual damages sustained by him. (b) In any action instituted under the provisions of this act, the court may, in its discretion, award reasonable attorneys' fees to the prevailing party. If in any such action the court finds either (1) that the defendant has willfully engaged in a deceptive trade practice or (2) that the plaintiff has acted in bad faith in instituting the action, the court shall award reasonable attorneys' fees to the prevailing party. (c) The relief provided for in this section is in addition to and not in exclusion of remedies otherwise available against the same conduct pursuant to the common law or other statutes of this state. (d) Any duly-organized and existing trade association, whether incorporated or not, is hereby authorized to institute and prosecute a suit or suits for injunctive relief hereunder as the real party in interest, for or on behalf of one or more of its members, when a deceptive trade practice directly or indirectly affects or threatens to affect or injure such member or members.

OL - Obligation Limits

OL - Oxbow Lake

OLC - Oregon Logging Conference

OLC - Office of Legal Counsel

OLC - Ohio Livestock Coalition

OLC - Online Learning Center

OLC - Outdoor Lighting Code

Older Fields - Areas in which the majority of the ground is covered with woody growth [that is] greater than six feet in height, with a few emergent trees of six to 20 feet in height developing above the shrub layer. These fields are typically vegetated with shrubs and young trees of up to six inches in diameter at breast height - e.g., hawthorn (Crateagus spp.), red maple (Acer rubrum), wild cherry (Prumus serotina), oak (Quercus spp.), bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata) and white ash (Fraximus Americana). Same as 'early successional (young) forests' and 'early successional habitat.' - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/ 

Old-Growth - This stage constitutes the potential plant community capable of existing on a site given the frequency of natural disturbance events. For forest communities, this stage exists from approximately age 200 until the time when stand replacement occurs and secondary succession begins again. Depending on fire frequency and intensity, old-growth forests may have different structures, species composition, and age distributions. In forests with longer periods between natural disturbance, the forest structure will be more even-aged at late mature or early old growth stages. As mortality occurs, stands develop greater structural complexity. Replacement of trees lost to fire, windthrow, or insects results in the creation of a multi-layered canopy. There may be a shift toward more shade-tolerant species. Big game hiding cover, thermal cover, and forage is present. - BLM

Old Growth - Old forests often containing several canopy layers, variety in tree sizes and species, decadent old trees, and standing and dead woody material.

Old-Growth Conifer Stand - Older forests occurring on western hemlock, mixed conifer, or mixed evergreen sites which differ significantly from younger forests in structure, ecological function, and species composition. Old growth characteristics begin to appear in unmanaged forests at 175-250 years of age. These characteristics include (a) a patchy, multi-layered canopy with trees of several age classes; (b) the presence of large living trees; (c) the presence of larger standing dead trees (snags) and down woody debris, and (d) the presence of species and functional processes which are representative of the potential natural community. For purposes of inventory, old-growth stands on BLM-administered lands are only identified if they are at least ten percent stocked with trees of 200 years or older and are ten acres or more in size. For purposes of habitat or biological diversity, the BLM uses the appropriate minimum and average definitions provided by Pacific Northwest Experiment Station publications 447 and GTR-285. (BLM)

Old-Growth-Dependent Species - An animal species so adapted that it exists primarily in old growth forests or is dependent on certain attributes provided in older forests. (BLM)

Old Growth Habitat - Habitat for certain wildlife that is characterized by mature coniferous forest stands with large snags and decaying logs.

Old-growth management areas - Areas that contain or are managed to replace specific structural old-growth attributes, and that are mapped out and treated as special management areas. - Biodiversity Guidebook Glossary

Old seral - Old seral is a forest that contains live and dead trees of various sizes, species, composition, and age class structure Old seral forests, as part of a slowly changing but dynamic ecosystem, include climax forests but not sub-climax or mid-seral forests. The age and structure of old seral varies significantly by forest type and from one biogeoclimatic zone to another. - Biodiversity Guidebook Glossary

OLI - Open Lands Initiative

Oligohaline - A low salinity region of an estuary, of typically 0.5 to 5.0 parts per thousand. - Everglades Plan glossary

Oligotrophic - A lake or reservoir that is low in nutrients and organic productivity. Oligotrophic lakes are usually deep, with nutrient poor sediments, few macrophytes and large amount of dissolved oxygen.

Oligotrophic - Refers to a body of water, which is poor in dissolved nutrients and usually rich in dissolved oxygen. Opposite of eutrophic - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

OM - Organic Matter

OM - Organizational Meeting

OM - Override Methodology

OMA - Office of Management Authority

OMA - Office of Multicultural Affairs

OMAB - The Ozark Man And the Biosphere, also known as the Ozark Highlands Biosphere Reserve. Actual MAB documents stated that citizens "were not to be introduced to the MAB by name" and that "there should be no press conference or large public meetings because they encourage polarized views before the story can be told in an objective, non-threatening manner." (United Nations plan that was thwarted by concerned citizens!)

OMB - Office of Management and Budget

Ombudsman - A person designated to address selected categories of disputes by investigation the circumstances that gave rise to the matter; and based upon the investigative findings, recommending corrective action, as appropriate. - DOI - alternative dispute resolution glossary

OmCED - The International Ombudsman Centre for the Environment and Development (established by The Earth Council and the World Conservation Union, OmCED will encourage sustainable development practices and participatory decision-making processes through non-adversarial complaint investigation, facilitation and mediation. It will act where legitimate development ambitions and investments clash with equally legitimate social and environmental concerns.)

Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 - P.L. 100-418 (August 23, 1988) provided the President with negotiating authority for the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) Uruguay Round, U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement, and the North American Free Trade Agreement, and specified U.S. negotiating objectives regarding agriculture. The law revised statutory procedures for dealing with unfair trade practices and import damage to U.S. industries. It gave USDA discretionary authority to trigger marketing loans for wheat, feed grains, and soybeans, if it is determined that unfair trade practices exist.

The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-508) - A law covering a range of government budget issues that also amended the 1990 Farm Act in order to address budgetary concerns for 1991-95. It mandated a reduction in payment acreage equal to 15 percent of base acreage and established assessments on certain crop loans and incentive payments. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 (OBRA 1993) - Title XIII, Subchapter C, Part I of OBRA 1993. The portions of the statute which directly address the EZ/EC SSBG grants are codified in the United States Code at 42 USC 1397 et. seq. (which is the citation for the Social Services Block Grant program). OBRA 1993 authorized the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to grant funds to states for the Empowerment Zones (EZ) and Enterprise Communities (EC), and the U.S. Departments of Agriculture (USDA) and Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to designate the EZs and ECs. In addition, many other federal agencies are assisting the EZs and ECs in various ways. USDA and HUD published individual regulations for this program. The USDA regulation is contained within the Code of Federal Regulations at 7 CFR Part 25 (published in the Federal Register on Monday, February 6, 1995, starting on page 6945). The HUD version is at 25 CFR Part 597 (published in the Federal Register on Thursday, January 12, 1995, starting on page 3034). HHS has not promulgated a new regulation for the Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community program. Given that the HHS-managed Social Services Block Grant program is the vehicle for the EZ/EC SSBG grants, many portions of the existing HHS block grant regulations apply to this program. Those regulations are codified at 45 CFR Part 96. The terms and conditions of the grants for this program specify that the following sections of the HHS block grant regulations apply: 45 CFR parts 96.11; 96.12; 96.15; 96.30; 96.31; 96.32; 96.33; 96.50; 96.51; and 96.52. Congress appropriated $1 billion to the HHS Social Services Block Grant (SSBG) program for special funding for EZ and EC activities. EZ/EC SSBG funds are also referred to as "Title XX" funds. This is a reference to the fact that the authority for the Social Services Block Grant, the vehicle for the EZ/EC SSBG grants, is based in Title XX of the Social Security Act. OBRA 1993 specifies that each EZ and EC shall use the EZ/EC SSBG grant to provide services directed at achieving one or more of three broad goals. These goals are listed on page 30 of the EZ/EC Application Guide and in the answer to question B4 below. OBRA 1993 lists several "program options" which identify and suggest the types of activities which an EZ or EC should consider financing with EZ/EC SSBG funds in order to achieve one or more of the three broad statutory goals. The program options are listed on page 30 of the EZ/EC Application Guide and in the answer to question B5 below. A grantor is the entity, which awards a grant. In the EZ/EC program, HHS is the grantor of the EZ/EC SSBG funds. A grantee is the entity, which receives a grant from a grantor. In the EZ/EC program, the State agency, which received the award of EZ/EC SSBG funds from HHS, is the grantee. A draw down is the action by which the grantee (the state) accesses federal funds granted to it. In this program, the state will draw down the EZ/EC SSBG funds from the federal government in accordance with the EZ or EC strategic plan. The EZ or EC strategic plan is the document, which the local government and other organizations submitted to USDA or HUD in June 1994 in their quest to have census tracts in their areas designated an Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community. The Secretaries of HUD and USDA designated areas as an EZ or EC based on these strategic plan documents. The activities must be managed in accordance with the EZ or EC strategic plan submitted in June 1994, or modifications made to it since that time. Many strategic plans explicitly state that either the area's local government or a not-for-profit organization will manage the implementation activities. This local organization is referred to as the "lead entity". HUD and USDA are requesting that each EZ or EC use the information in its strategic plan to create a "benchmark" document including time lines and specific projects and services which the EZ or EC lead entities will undertake over the first two years of the implementation of the EZ/EC program. Where the strategic plans indicates generally what a locality has proposed to do, the benchmark documents will explain, with some detail, exactly how the locality intends to achieve the goals. An "obligation" is a legal agreement between the state (as the grantee) and a designated EZ or EC lead entity (as the subgrantee) that makes monies available to the EZ or EC to use in accordance with statutory and regulatory requirements. HUD and USDA are requesting [that] each lead entity to sign a memorialization of an agreement with HUD or USDA and their state government that outlines the roles and responsibilities of the EZ or EC, HUD or USDA, and the state government. This is referred to as the Memorandum of Agreement or "MOA." The MOA does not affect the fiscal rules of the grants awarded by HHS to the state. These rules and responsibilities are explained in the terms and conditions of the grants awarded by HHS to the state in December 1994. OBRA 1993 authorized the Secretary of HHS to award EZ/EC SSBG funds to states for local EZs and ECs. That statute stipulates that the Secretary of HHS shall make these grants to fund activities outlined in "qualified" EZ or EC strategic plans, and it defined a "qualified plan" as one which: includes a description of the activities to be undertaken and that are to be financed with EZ/EC SSBG funds; contains a commitment that EZ/EC SSBG funds will not be used to supplant federal or non-federal funds for services and activities which fall within the three broad goals of the program; demonstrates that the plan was developed in cooperation with the local government(s) with jurisdiction over the area; and includes an explanation of why the EZ or EC intends to use any portion of the EZ/EC SSBG funds for any activities which do not fall within the statutory program options. The Secretary of HHS awarded the EZ/EC SSBG funds on December 21, 1994, after determining that the EZ and EC plans submitted by the localities designated by HUD and USDA were "qualified." Increased flexibility refers to the expanded range of programmatic activities that can be financed with EZ/EC SSBG monies, as opposed to the more limited options for typical Title XX Social Services Block Grant funds. Flexibility does not imply a relaxation of the fundamental financial management principles specified in state or federal law and regulations. The amount of the EZ/EC SSBG grant for each EZ and EC is $40 million for each rural Empowerment Zone; $100 million for each urban Empowerment Zone; and $2,947,368 for each Enterprise Community. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) awards these grants. OBRA 1993 includes a timetable for when HHS must award the EZ/EC SSBG grants. The statute stipulates that HHS must award, to the appropriate states, grants for the Enterprise Communities on the date of designation. HHS awarded these grants to the states on December 21, 1994. OBRA 1993 specifies that HHS must award the grants to the states for the Empowerment Zones in two equal installments, one-half on the date of designation and the second one-half on the first day of the following federal fiscal year. Accordingly, HHS awarded one-half of each Zone's grant to the state on December 21, 1994, and the second half on October 1, 1995. OBRA 1993 specifies that an EZ or EC shall use the grant funds to benefit residents of the designated EZ or EC by providing services directed at one or more of the following three goals: achieving or maintaining economic self-support to prevent, reduce, or eliminate dependency; achieving or maintaining self-sufficiency, including reduction or prevention of dependency; and preventing or remedying the neglect, abuse, or exploitation of children and adults unable to protect their own interests, or preserving, rehabilitating, or reuniting families. These goals are outlined on page 30 of the EZ/EC Application Guide. They allow for broader uses than those that apply to the "regular" Social Services Block Grant (Title XX) program. An EZ or EC may use EZ/EC SSBG funds for economic and community development activities, as well as social services activities which are typical to the Title XX program. OBRA 1993 lists seven program options described in the statute that created the Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community program. The OBRA 1993 statutory program options are as follows: fund community and economic development services focused on disadvantaged adults and youths, including skills training; transportation services; and job, housing, business, and financial management counseling support programs that promote home ownership, education, or other routes to economic independence for low-income families, youth, and other individuals assist in the provision of emergency and transitional shelter for disadvantaged families, youth, and other individuals provide assistance to nonprofit organizations and community and junior colleges so they will be able to provide disadvantaged individuals with opportunities for short-term training courses in entrepreneurial, self-employment, and other skills that will promote individual self-sufficiency and the interests of the community fund programs to provide training and employment for disadvantaged adults and youths in construction, rehabilitation, or improvement of affordable housing, public infrastructure, and community facilities provide support for residential or nonresidential drug and alcohol prevention and treatment programs that offer comprehensive services for pregnant women and mothers and their children, and establish programs that provide activities outside of school hours, including keeping school buildings open during evenings and weekends for mentoring and study. These program options are found in the HUD and USDA regulations for the program as well as in OBRA 1993. An EZ or EC may finance any portion of a purchase or improvement of land, or the purchase, construction, or permanent improvement of any building or other facility with EZ/EC SSBG funds only if the purchase or substantial improvement: 1) is included in the EZ's or EC's strategic plan; 2) would benefit residents of the census tracts which make up the EZ or EC; 3) is an activity for meeting any of the authorizing statute's three broad goals; and either a) the purchase or improvement is an activity undertaken to accomplish one of the authorizing statute's program options; or b) the locality has formally requested and received a waiver from HHS for this activity. An EZ or EC may request such a waiver by writing a letter outlining the request to: Donald Sykes Director, Office of Community Services Administration for Children and Families U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 370 L'Enfant Promenade -- 5th floor West, S.W. Washington, DC 20447 http://www.ezec.gov/About/ssbg.html 

OMO - Organic Marketing Options

OMM - Offshore Minerals Management

OMP - Orthophotographic Mapping Program

On-and-off grazing permit - A written agreement with a permittee for additional grazing capacity for other rangeland not covered by the permit. - DOI-BIA Glossary

On/Off Grazing Allotment - An allotment that has a minimal portion of its land area in National Forest. It can include private, state and federally owned land. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

On Record - A deed, etc., is said to be "on record" when it has been filed or registered at the clerk's office and made a matter of public record. - Cadastral Data glossary

Onchocerciasis - Disease caused by infestation with the filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of the blackfly of the genus Silumium. The vector of the disease, which is also known as river blindness, is a major public health problem in many tropical countries. The severity of onchocerciasis is usually greatest in rural settlements near rivers and streams that are the breeding sites of the blackfly. (UN)

Oncogenic - Causing tumors, either benign or malignant. (UN)

ONDA - Oregon Natural Desert Association

ONE - Office National de l'Environnement (IUCN)

ONE - The Office of Natural Environment (FHWA)

100-year floodplain - That area that would be covered by water during the 100-year flood event. - Bioenergy Glossary

OO - Objective Observer

OO - iOptOut.org

OOB - Out Of Business

OOC - Oath Of Citizenship

OOC - Out Of Character

OOC - Out Of Court

OOCM - Organization Of Competitive Markets

OOOM - One-On-One Meetings

OOS - Out Of Status (INS)

OOS - Out-Of-Step

OP - Odor Pollution

OP - Operation Phoenix

OP - Optimal Performance

OP - Ordered Practice

OP - Orderly Progression

OPA - Office of Public Affairs

OPA - Office of Policy Analysis

OPA - The Oil Pollution Act (OPA) was created largely in response to rising public concern following the Exxon Valdez incident to improve the nation's ability to prevent and respond to oil spills. OPA established provisions that expand the federal government's authority and provides the money and resources necessary to respond to oil spills. The OPA also created the national Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, which can provide up to one billion dollars per spill incident. - EPA Superfund glossary

Opacity - Amount of light obscured by particulate pollution in the air. Evaluation of smoke density is based on opacity according to the Ringelmann chart. (UN)

OPEC - Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

Open - Generally denotes that an area is available for a particular use or uses. Refer to specific program definitions found in law, regulations, or policy guidance for application to individual programs. For example, 43 CFR 8340.0-5 defines the specific meaning of "open" as it relates to OHV use. - BLM

Open Additional Restrictions - Areas open to mineral exploration and development subject to additional restrictions that can be legally required by BLM pursuant to law, regulation, or other legal authority such as Area of Critical Environmental Concern designation, Off Highway Vehicle or other closure order, community pit designation, etc. (BLM-DOI)

Open Areas and Vistas - While now largely in woodlands, some of the newly acquired corridor contains open areas and vistas. When in private hands most of these open areas were maintained by plowing, grazing, hay making, and lawn mowing. In this part of the northeast such open areas, unless actively maintained, will soon revert to shrubs, and ultimately to woodlands. From the hiker's standpoint, such open areas can be desirable because they provide views and a diversity of surroundings. Moreover, it should not be overlooked that these open areas provide an additional benefit from the ecological viewpoint. This diversity provides the needed habitat for a number of species of birds and animals as well as space for a considerable number of plant species. In these counties where each year an increasing number of acres are being converted to suburban development, the maintaining of such open areas should be an especially important consideration. No new vistas are planned. Existing open areas and vistas will be maintained by selective trimming or mowing. Where extensive cutting or other management activities seem desirable, the DPATMC will consult with the NYNJTC and the ATC prior to undertaking any such project. Some open areas border on existing or planned residential developments. Where helpful, the DPATMC will undertake vegetative screening of the Trail to minimize the impact of the development on the open areas. See the inventory and photographs for details about the individual areas. DPATMC has started keeping a photographic record of vistas and open areas. A copy of the photographs will be retained by the committee. The photographs will be retaken approximately every 5 years and will be used to observe changes in the views, either due to growth of vegetation or development in the viewshed. Corrective measures will be taken based on this historical record. (Dutchess/Putnam County Appalachian Trail Management Committee - New York and New Jersey)

Open Burning - Outdoor burning of wastes such as lumber, scrapped cars, textiles, sawdust and so forth. (UN)

Open Briefing - This modality is used when the UN Security Council wishes to obtain a briefing from senior officials of the UN Secretariat (including Personal Envoy, Special Representatives or Special Envoys of the UNSG) or heads of UN agencies on developments relating to particular UNSC issues. Chair - UNSC President. Involvement - Participation is restricted to the members of the Council and the senior official of the UN Secretariat or an appointment-holder of the UNSG, who will conduct the briefing.

Open canopy short woody plants - A General cover category consisting of short woody canopy cover of 5 to 25 percent and tall woody canopy cover of less than 5 percent. The distinction between short (< 4 meters) and tall (> 4 meters) woody plants is made for current conditions, not potential. Arid rangeland and desert can fall into this category although vegetation density and percentage of ground cover may be low. - National Resources Inventory

Open canopy tall woody plants - A General cover category consisting of tall woody canopy cover of 5 to 25 percent and short woody canopy cover of less than 25 percent. The distinction between tall (> 4 meters) and short (< 4 meters) woody plants is made for current conditions, not potential. Arid rangeland and desert can fall into this category although vegetation density and percentage of ground cover may be low. - National Resources Inventory

Open Debate - This format provides an opportunity for non-Council members to address the Council on UNSC issues. Another version of the open debate is a.k.a. the "orientation debate". The same modality is employed, except that orientation debates are held to allow the Council to get the views of non-Council members on how to deal with specific issues before the Council proceeds to take action. Chair - UNSC President. Involvement - All non-Council members, representatives of regional organizations and other international bodies are permitted to attend as observers and participate in the debate without a right to vote under Rules 37 or 39 of the Provisional Rules of Procedure. The Council nevertheless reserves the right to accede or not to accede any request of non-Council members to participate in the debate under Rules 37 or 39. Members of the media and the public are also allowed to witness the proceedings.

Open Dump - Uncovered site used for disposal of waste without environmental controls. (UN)

Open Fields - Currently or recently managed fields (i.e., agriculture or mowed areas) and grassy meadows (e.g., recently disturbed sites) that are early in succession but do not possess significant shrub/sapling growth. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/ 

Openland habitat - Openland habitat consists of croplands, pastures, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild herbaceous plants. The kind of wildlife attracted to these areas include bobwhite quail, pheasant, meadowlark, field sparrow, killdeer, cottontail rabbit, red fox, and woodchuck. - NRCS, USDA

Open Land - Non-built-up land with no, or with insignificant, vegetation cover. (UN)

Open Meeting - This format is used to allow the UN Security Council to conduct its debate on particular issues in public. Chair - UNSC President. Involvement - While non-Council members, the media and public are allowed to attend and observe the proceedings, participation in the debate is restricted to members of the Council and representatives of countries that are directly affected by the subject of the discussion. If the Council deems it necessary, it may also invite representatives of UN agencies and other international organizations to participate in the meeting.

Open Order - An order to buy or sell stock, which is good until cancelled by the client.

Open Pit - A surface mine, open to daylight, such as a quarry. Also referred to as open-cut or open-cast mine.

Open Pit Mining - A surface mining method in which overlying rock and soil are removed to expose an ore body, which is then drilled, blasted, and hauled from the pit. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Open Road - A road with no motorized access restrictions.

Open Road Density - A standard set in the Forest Plan that is applied to Management Areas important to big game. This road density standard of three-quarters of a mile of open road per square mile of habitat correlates directly to the elk habitat effectiveness of the area (i.e. 68 percent).

Open Space - Any parcel or area of land or water essentially unimproved and set aside, dedicated, designated or reserved for public or private use or enjoyment, or for the use and enjoyment of owners and occupants of land adjoining or neighboring such open space, provided that such areas may be improved with only those buildings, structures, streets, and off-street parking and other improvements that are designed to be incidental to the natural openness of the land. An area of a lot either left in a natural state or receiving permeable vegetative landscape treatment; such as, ponds and lakes, either natural or manmade; and water features, grass, shrubs, flowers, trees, groundcover, etc. (See Public Open Space)

Open Space - The term open space generally refers to the natural open landscape, recreational, agricultural or landscaped area, such as parks and golf courses. - Cornell Preservation Glossary 2. An area that affords unobstructed passage or views. These areas are typically open fields, meadows, mowed lawns, or agricultural lands. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/  2. Relatively undeveloped land set aside for its recreational, habitat, or resource values. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Open Space Requirement (Residential Planned Unit Developments) - Regulations contained in the Residential Planned Unit Development Zoning category, the amount of property obligated to remain as leisure or recreation area for the use of Planned Unit Developments residents, not to be comprised of less than 10% of the total area designated as residential use.

Open Standard Requirements - Areas open to mineral exploration and development subject only to requirements over which BLM has no discretionary control such as the Clean Air/Clean Water Acts, National Environmental Policy Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Coastal Zone Management Act, Endangered Species Act, National Historic Preservation Act, etc. (BLM)

Operation and Maintenance, Stream - See Stream Operation and Maintenance

Operational Guidelines - See Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention - The Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention, known also as the Operational Guidelines or simply as the Guidelines, were prepared by the World Heritage Committee for the purpose of informing States Parties to the Convention of the principles which guide the work of the World Heritage Committee in establishing the World Heritage List, the List of World Heritage in Danger and in granting international assistance under the World Heritage Fund (See UNESCO February 1996: 1-2, Paragraph 4). The Operational Guidelines provide guidance concerning the format and content of nominations to the World Heritage List and present the timetable for submission and evaluation of the nominations. The Operational Guidelines also provide details on other questions, mainly of a procedural nature, which relate to the implementation of the Convention. Most importantly the Operational Guidelines present the "Criteria for the inclusion of cultural properties in the World Heritage List" and the "Criteria for the inclusion of natural properties in the World Heritage List". The Operational Guidelines have been prepared with the intention of ensuring objective and scientific decision- making on the part of the World Heritage Committee. The first version of the Operational Guidelines were adopted by the World Heritage Committee in 1977. Since 1977 the Operational Guidelines have been adjusted and expanded to reflect the subsequent decisions of the Committee. Nine major revisions of the Operational Guidelines had been produced and adopted by the World Heritage Committee up until June 1996. - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Operations - All functions, work, facilities, and activities on public lands in connection with prospecting, discovery, and assessment work, development, extraction, and processing of mineral deposits locatable under the mining laws; reclamation of disturbed areas; and all other reasonably incident uses, whether on a mining claim or not, including the building of roads, transmission lines, pipelines, and other means of access across public lands for support facilities. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Operations Inventory (OI) (also Forest Operations Inventory - FOI) - An intensive, site-specific forest inventory of forest stand location, size, silvicultural needs, and recommended treatment based on individual stand conditions and productivity. (BLM)

Operations Inventory Unit - An aggregation of trees occupying an area that is sufficiently uniform in composition, age, arrangement and condition to be distinguishable from vegetation on adjoining areas. (BLM)

OPM - Open Pit Mine

OPP - Official Public Process

OPP - The Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) regulates the use of all pesticides in the U. S. and establishes maximum levels for pesticide residues in food, thereby safeguarding the nation's food supply. - EPA Superfund glossary

Opportunity cost - The value of goods or services foregone, including environmental goods and services, when a scarce resource is used for one purpose instead of for its next best alternative use. (FAO-UN)

OPPT - The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) focuses on promoting pollution prevention efforts for controlling industrial pollution; safer chemicals through a combination of regulatory and voluntary efforts; risk reduction to minimize exposure to existing substances such as lead, asbestos, dioxin, and polychlorinated biphenyls; and public understanding of risks by providing understandable, accessible, and complete information on chemical risks to the broadest audience possible. - EPA Superfund glossary

Optimum sustainable population - The number of animals which will result in the maximum productivity of a population or species, considering the carrying capacity of the habitat and the health of the ecosystem of which they form a constituent element. - MMPA

OPPTS - The Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substance (OPPTS) oversees the Office of Pesticides Programs (OPP) and the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT). OPPTS promotes pollution prevention and the public's right to know about chemical risks. Some of OPPTS's top priorities include dealing with emerging issues like endocrine disrupters and lead poisoning prevention. - EPA Superfund glossary

OPRHR - Office of Parks, Recreation, and Historic Preservation

OPSW - The Oregon Plan for Salmon and Watersheds

Option - An agreement to purchase a property reached between the property vendor and some other party that wishes to explore the property further.

Option (on stock) - The right to buy (or sell) a share at a set price, regardless of market value.

Optimum Habitat - The amounts and arrangement of cover and forage that results in the greatest level of production that is consistent with other resource requirements.

Optional Flex Acreage - Under the planting flexibility provision of the Agricultural Act of 1949, as amended by the FACT Act of 1990, producers could choose to plant up to 25% of the crop acreage base to other Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC)-specified crops (except fruits and vegetables) without a reduction in crop acreage bases on the farm, but receive no deficiency payments on this acreage. The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 further amended the 1949 Act to make a 15% reduction in payment acreage mandatory. The remaining 10% was optional flex acreage. Optional flex acreage was eligible for deficiency payments when planted to the program crop. Optional flex acres no longer exist under the FAIR Act of 1996.

OR - Obstruction Removal

OR - Organic Recyclers

ORA - Oregon Rural Action http://www.worc.org - member, Western Organization of Resource Councils (WORC) (RED FLAG)

ORBIMAGE - Orbital Imaging Corporation

ORC - Outreach Coordinator

ORCS - Operational Records Classification System

ORD - Office of Research and Development

ORD - The Office of Research and Development (ORD) conducts leading-edge research and fosters the sound use of science and technology to help fulfill EPA's mission to protect human health and safeguard the environment. As a part of that effort, ORD performs research and development to identify, understand and solve current and future environmental problems; provides responsive technical support to EPA's mission; integrates the work of ORD's scientific partners (other agencies, nations, private sector organizations, and academia); and provides leadership in addressing emerging environmental issues and in advancing the science and technology of risk assessment and risk management. - EPA Superfund glossary

Ordinance - A municipally adopted law or regulation.

Ordinance - A general term for local laws which regulate and sets standards for land development.

Ordinary high water mark - That line on the shore established by the fluctuations of water and indicated by physical characteristics such as clear, natural line impressed on the bank, shelving, changes in the character of the soil, destruction of terrestrial vegetation, the presence of litter and debris, or other appropriate means that consider the characteristics of the surrounding areas. 33 CFR 328.3(e).

Ore - A mixture of ore minerals and gangue from which at least one of the metals can be extracted at a profit.

Orebody - A mineralized mass whose characteristics have been determined and deemed commercially viable. The term orebody is used once the economic limits of the mineralized mass and its grade have been examined. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Orebody - A natural concentration of valuable material that can be extracted and sold at a profit.

Ore Pass - Vertical or inclined passage for the downward transfer of ore connecting a level with the hoisting shaft or a lower level.

Ore Reserves - The calculated tonnage and grade of mineralization which can be extracted profitably; classified according to the level of confidence that can be placed in the data.

Ore Reserves - The portion of a mineral deposit that can be profitably mined. Use of this term implies detailed knowledge of all the geological, engineering, economic, and environmental parameters that might affect the profitability of an operation. For a new mining project or for the mining of new zones in an existing mine, a formal feasibility study is conducted to evaluate all parameters of the project. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Oreshoot - The portion, or length, of the vein, or other ore structure, that carries sufficient valuable mineral to be extracted profitably.

Organic - Chemically, a compound or molecule of plant or animal origin containing carbon bound to hydrogen. Organic compounds make up all living matter. The term organic frequently is used to distinguish 'natural' products or processes from man-made 'synthetic' ones. Thus natural fertilizers include manures or rock phosphate, as opposed to fertilizers synthesized from chemical feedstocks. Likewise, organic farming and organic foods refer to the growing of food crops without the use of synthetic chemical pesticides or fertilizers; pests are controlled by cultivation techniques and the use of pesticides derived from natural sources (e.g., rotenone and pyrethrins, both from plants) and the use of natural fertilizers (e.g., manure and compost). Some consumers, alleging risks from synthetic chemicals, prefer organic food products. The FACT Act of 1990 required USDA to define organic foods for marketing purposes.

Organic Act of 1916 - The Act of August 25, 1916, frequently referred to as the National Park Service Organic Act, created the National Park Service. By law, the National Park Service was mandated to "conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wildlife therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." The Organic Act also grants the Secretary the authority to implement "rules and regulations as he may deem necessary or proper for the use and management of the parks, monuments, and reservations under the jurisdiction of the NPS".

Organic Certification - The FACT Act of 1990 authorizes producers of organically grown crops and livestock to label their products as 'USDA Certified Organic' if their operations meet established federal standards for organic production, as determined by accredited certifying agents.

Organic Compounds - Compounds containing carbon (excluding carbonates, bicarbonates, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide) that form the basis of living matter. In domestic sewage, organics are mainly metabolic wastes of feces or urine plus grease, detergents and so forth. (UN)

Organic Farming - Farming system that avoids the use of artificial fertilizers, pesticides or herbicides and uses organic manures and organic methods of crop rotation. (UN) Crop production systems that generally exclude the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and other chemicals. To the maximum extent feasible, organic farming systems rely on crop rotations, crop residues, animal manures, legumes, green manures, off-farm organic wastes, mechanical cultivation, and biological pest control to maintain soil productivity, to supply nutrients to plants, and to control weeds and pests.

Organic Fertilizers - Fertilizers derived from animal products and plant residues containing sufficient nitrogen. (UN)

Organic Foods - Food products produced by organic farming practices and handled or processed under organic handling and manufacturing processes as defined by several private and state organic certifying agencies. Once a USDA organic certification and labeling program is operational, there will be a single national standard for what constitutes organic foods.

Organic level - The amount of organic matter prescribed to be left after logging. - Bioenergy Glossary

Organic Maturation - The process of turning peat into coal.

Organic Soil - Soil at least partly derived from living matter, such as decayed plant material.

Organically evolved landscape - Organically evolved landscape is one of the three main categories of cultural landscapes adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its sixteenth session in December 1992 (UNESCO 14 December 1992: 54-55) and included in the Operational Guidelines (UNESCO February 1996: 11, Paragraph 39). Paragraph 39 (ii) of the Operational Guidelines refers to organically evolved landscapes in the following way: 39.(i) The second category is the organically evolved landscape. This results from an initial social, economic, administrative, and/or religious imperative and has developed its present form by association with and in response to its natural environment. Such landscapes reflect that process of evolution in their form and component features. They fall into two sub-categories: 1. a relict (or fossil) landscape is one in which an evolutionary process came to an end at some time in the past, either abruptly or over a period. Its significant distinguishing features are, however, still visible in material form. 2. a continuing landscape is one that retains an active social role in contemporary society closely associated with the traditional way of life, and in which the evolutionary process is still in progress. At the same time it exhibits significant material evidence of its evolution over time (UNESCO February 1996: 11). See Associative cultural landscape, Clearly defined landscape, Continuing landscape, Cultural landscape, Relict (or fossil) landscape - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Organism - Any living plant, animal or human being. (UN)

Organization for Economic Development and Cooperation (OECD) - An international organization established by the United States and Canada and certain Western European countries in 1960. The OECD studies and discusses trade and related matters. Members include the United States, Canada, European Union countries, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and Turkey. Most recently Mexico and South Korea have become OECD members.

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is an international organization established in 1961 in Paris, superseding the Organization for European Economic Cooperation that was set up in 1948 to coordinate European reconstruction under the Marshall Plan. Its 25 members are the industrialized market economies in North America and Europe, plus Japan, Australia and New Zealand. Throng consultations among members, the OECD strives to achieve the highest sustainable levels of growth and employment, and a rising standard of living the member countries, while maintaining financial stability. It thus seeks to contribute to the development of the world economy. Another major goal is the coordination of economy aid from OECD member countries to less-developed countries. The OECD assists member countries, through research and analytical work, in formulating policies aimed at promoting economic and social welfare. - WB

Organization of World Heritage Cities (OWHC) - The Organization of World Heritage Cities (OWHC) was established in 1993 to develop a sense of solidarity and a cooperative relationship between World Heritage cites particularly in view of the implementation of the Convention. The OWHC thus facilitates an exchange of knowledge, management techniques and financial resources for the purpose of protecting monuments and sites. The OWHC is based on the idea that sites within populated cities endure pressures of a different nature and therefore may require a more dynamic style of management. There are over one hundred World Heritage cities to date. - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Organoleptic - Relating to the senses (taste, color, odor, feel). Traditional USDA meat and poultry inspection techniques are considered organoleptic because inspectors perform a variety of such procedures-- involving visually examining, feeling, and smelling animal parts--to detect signs of disease or contamination. These inspection techniques are not adequate to detect foodborne pathogens that are of growing concern.

Organophosphates - A group of phosphorus-containing pesticide chemicals intended to control insects. Examples are malathion and parathion. (UN) Insecticides that contain phosphorus, carbon, and hydrogen. They are cholinesterase inhibitors; some are highly acutely toxic, but they usually are not persistent in the environment. Parathion is an example of an organophosphate.

Orient - To establish the correct relationship in direction with reference to the points of the compass; to bring into correct relationship in direction with reference to points on the compass. - Cadastral Data glossary

Origin Of The Landscapes (Landscape Origin) - Geologic processes can be classified as either endogenic or exogenic. Endogenic processes are those that are generated underground and include mountain building and volcanic activity. Exogenic processes are those that occur upon the earth's surface and are represented principally by weathering and erosion. The endogenic and cxogenic processes act simultaneously to reshape the surface. At this boundary between the earth's crust and atmosphere, there is an exchange of energy and movement of materials that creates "interference" patterns. We call these patterns landforms, which collectively produce landscapes. A simple interference pattern results when wind blows across water to form wave trains or over sandy regions to form sand dunes. In these instances the wind is the energy driver, and the surface medium is homogeneous. However, when a system consists of multiple energy drivers such as running water, glaciers, and tectonic uplift and a variety of rocks (some soft, some hard, some shattered), then the landscapes become incredibly complex. Moreover, the landforms change and evolve through time. Such is the situation around the San Juan Skyway. http://www.mountainstudies.org/databank/geology/geologytext.htm 

Original Jurisdiction - Nearly all of the cases considered by the U.S. Supreme Court come to it from other courts (Federal or state) on appeal -- or more accurately via petitions for a "writ of certiorari." However, under the U.S. Constitution (Article III, Section 2), the Supreme Court has "original jurisdiction" over several small but important categories of cases. That means, quite literally, that the parties can bring such disputes directly to the Supreme Court. The categories are defined in terms of who the parties are. The original jurisdiction of the Court is laid out by statute in 28 U.S.C. 1251. Section 1251(a) provides that with one type of dispute (disputes between states), the Court's jurisdiction is not only "original," it is exclusive. In other words, if the parties cannot settle the matter, no other court but the Supreme Court has authority, under the Constitution, to take jurisdiction. Rule 17 of the Supreme Court Rules governs actions based on the Court's original jurisdiction. Relatively few original jurisdiction cases come to the Court. In recent times there have been one or two a year. The Court's practice in these cases is to appoint a "Master" to hear the evidence, determine facts, and recommend a decision. This allows the Court to deal with the dispute very much like it does with those that come to it on appeal, for it puts the Court in the posture of reviewing the Master's findings and recommendations in the light of legal arguments made by the opposing parties. Typically, the disputes between states coming to the Court involve conflicting property claims. Two recent examples include Louisiana v. Mississippi (decided in October 1995) and Nebraska v. Wyoming (decided in May 1995). - Supreme Court glossary

Original Plat - Used to distinguish the first plat from the subsequent additions. Original Town or Original Townsite are employed in the same manner. - Cadastral Data glossary

Original Standard Corners - Standard township, section and quarter section corners; meander corners, corners terminating the survey of a standard parallel, and closing corners in those cases where they were originally established by measurement along the standard line as points from which to start a survey. Corners on the base line are to be regarded the same as those on standard parallels. - Cadastral Data glossary

ORM - Off-Road Motorcycle

Orogeny - The process of mountain-building by folding of the Earth's crust.

Orographic Effect - The effect on the passing flow of air of mountains, which may cause the lifting or diverting of air, creation of clouds, and increases in leeward precipitation. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Orographic rainfall - Mountain induced precipitation, especially where air masses are forced over topographic barriers. Downwind areas beyond such a mountain range experience the relative dryness known as the rainshadow effect.

ORP - Office of River Protection (Dept. of Energy)

ORPT - Ohio Refuge Planning Team

ORS - Optical Remote Sensing

Orthodox Seed - Seed that can be dried to moisture levels between 4 and 6 percent and kept at low temperatures. - UNDP/WRI

ORV - Off-Road Vehicle

ORV - Outstandingly Remarkable Values

ORVA - Off-Road Vehicle Association

ORW - Olentangy River Wetland (Ohio)

ORWRP - Olentangy River Wetland (ORW) Research Park (Ohio)

ORWRP - Olentangy River Wetlands Research Park. WetLinks From OSU's Olentangy River Wetlands Research Park http://swamp.ag.ohio-state.edu/wetlinks.html 

OS - Obligate Species

OS - Official Source

OS - Open Space

OS - Operating System

OS - Ore-Shoot

OS - Organizational Support

OS - Outreach Strategy

OS - Outstanding Securities

OSA - Office of Scientific Affairs

OSA - Open Space Acquisition

OSA - Open Space Attributes

OSC - Office of Species Conservation

OSC - Open space corridor

OSC - Outer Continental Shelf

OSCP - The Office of Science Coordination and Policy (OSCP) provides coordination, leadership, peer review, and synthesis of science policy within the Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances. OSCP program areas include biotechnology, endocrine disrupters, and the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP). - EPA Superfund glossary

OSD - Office of Strategic Defense

OSD - Open Space District

OSE - Office of the State Engineer

OSEC - Office of Sustainable Ecosystems and Communities

OSEC-CBEP - The Office of Sustainable Ecosystems and Communities (OSEC) helps implement integrated, geographic approaches to environmental protection with an emphasis on ecological integrity, economic sustainability, and quality of life -- known as Community Based Environmental Protection (CBEP). OSEC develops and supports demonstration projects, tools, and policies that sustain CBEP activities. - EPA Superfund glossary

OSFP - Ohio Steel Futures Program

OSG - Operating Support Grant

OSGP - Open Space Greening Program http://www.cenyc.org/HTMLOSP/mainosp.htm 

OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration

OSHLP - Official Streets and Highways Landscape Plan

OSHRP - Open Space and Historic Resources Plan

OSI - Open Space Initiative

OSM - Office of Surface Mining

OSM - Office of Surface Mining (DOI branch)

OSM - Original Stated Meaning

Osmosis - Diffusion of solvents through a semi-permeable membrane into a more concentrated solution. This is the process by which the water in soil passes into the cells of the root hairs of plants. (UN)

OSN - Open Space Network http://www.plannersweb.com/trends/5opensp.html 

OSP - Open Space Preservation

OSP - Original Stated Purpose

OSPS - The Outreach and Special Projects Staff (OSPS) coordinates and implements for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) the agency's principles and new initiatives, such as Brownfields, Environmental Justice (EJ), and the Tribal initiatives. Through its unique cross-program perspective, OSPS involves all stakeholders and seeks to leverage OSWER resources through partnerships with EPA Headquarters and Regions, public and private organizations, and the general public. - EPA Superfund glossary

OSR - Open Space Requirements

OSS - Office of Strategic Services

OSS - Open Space Systems http://www.plannersweb.com/trends/5opensp.html 

OST - The Office of the Special Trustee for American Indians (DOI)

OSTP - Office of Science & Technology Policy

OSW - The Office of Solid Waste (OSW) operates under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). OSW protects human health and the environment by ensuring responsible national management of hazardous and non-hazardous waste. - EPA Superfund glossary

OSWER - The Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) develops guidelines and standards for the land disposal of hazardous wastes and underground storage tanks. OSWER also implements a program to respond to abandoned and active hazardous waste sites and accidental releases, including some oil spills, and encourages the use of innovative technologies for contaminated soil and groundwater. - EPA Superfund glossary

OSWER - Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response - EPA http://www.epa.gov/oswer/ 

OTAN - Ohio Transportation Network

OTD - Opposition To Development

Otero County, New Mexico Emergency Declaration - From the U.S. Code Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov] [Laws in effect as of January 16, 1996][Document not affected by Public Laws enacted between January 16, 1996 and August 28, 1996] [CITE: 16USC1531] TITLE 16--CONSERVATION CHAPTER 35--ENDANGERED SPECIES Sec. 1531. Congressional findings and declaration of purposes and policy - (a) Findings - The Congress finds and declares that-- (1) various species of fish, wildlife, and plants in the United States have been rendered extinct as a consequence of economic growth and development untempered by adequate concern and conservation; (2) other species of fish, wildlife, and plants have been so depleted in numbers that they are in danger of or threatened with extinction; (3) these species of fish, wildlife, and plants are of esthetic, ecological, educational, historical, recreational, and scientific value to the Nation and its people; (4) the United States has pledged itself as a sovereign state in the international community to conserve to the extent practicable the various species of fish or wildlife and plants facing extinction, pursuant to-- (A) migratory bird treaties with Canada and Mexico; (B) the Migratory and Endangered Bird Treaty with Japan; (C) the Convention on Nature Protection and Wildlife Preservation in the Western Hemisphere; (D) the International Convention for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries; (E) the International Convention for the High Seas Fisheries of the North Pacific Ocean; (F) the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora; and (G) other international agreements; and (5) encouraging the States and other interested parties, through federal financial assistance and a system of incentives, to develop and maintain conservation programs which meet national and international standards is a key to meeting the Nation's international commitments and to better safeguarding, for the benefit of all citizens, the Nation's heritage in fish, wildlife, and plants. (b) Purposes - The purposes of this chapter are to provide a means whereby the ecosystems upon which endangered species and threatened species depend may be conserved, to provide a program for the conservation of such endangered species and threatened species, and to take such steps as may be appropriate to achieve the purposes of the treaties and conventions set forth in subsection (a) of this section. (c) Policy (1) It is further declared to be the policy of Congress that all Federal departments and agencies shall seek to conserve endangered species and threatened species and shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of this chapter. (2) It is further declared to be the policy of Congress that Federal agencies shall cooperate with State and local agencies to resolve water resource issues in concert with conservation of endangered species. (Pub. L. 93-205, Sec. 2, Dec. 28, 1973, 87 Stat. 884; Pub. L. 96-159, Sec. 1, Dec. 28, 1979, 93 Stat. 1225; Pub. L. 97-304, Sec. 9(a), Oct. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1426; Pub. L. 100-478, title I, Sec. 1013(a), Oct. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 2315.) References in Text - This chapter, referred to in subsections (b) and (c)(1), was in the original "this Act'', meaning Pub. L. 93-205, Dec. 28, 1973, 81 Stat. 884, as amended, known as the "Endangered Species Act of 1973'', which is classified generally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out below and Tables. Amendments - 1988--Subsection (a)(4)(G). Pub. L. 100-478 substituted "; and'' for period at end. 1982--Subsection (c). Pub. L. 97-304 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2). 1979--Subsection (a)(5). Pub. L. 96-159 substituted "wildlife, and plants'' for "wildlife''. Effective Date Section 16 of Pub. L. 93-205 provided that: "This Act [enacting this chapter, amending sections 460k-1, 460l-9, 668dd, 715i, 715s, 1362, 1371, 1372, and 1402 of this title and section 136 of Title 7, Agriculture, repealing sections 668aa to 668cc-6 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] shall take effect on the date of its enactment [Dec. 28, 1973].'' Short Title of 1982 Amendment - Section 1 of Pub. L. 97-304 provided: "That this Act [amending this section and sections 1532, 1533, 1535, 1536, 1537a, 1538, 1539, 1540, and 1542 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1533, 1537a, and 1539 of this title] may be cited as the 'Endangered Species Act Amendments of 1982'.'' Short Title of 1978 Amendment - Pub. L. 95-632, Sec. 1, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3751, provided: "That this Act [amending sections 1532 to 1536, 1538 to 1540, and 1542 of this title] may be cited as the 'Endangered Species Act Amendments of 1978'.'' Short Title - Section 1 of Pub. L. 93-205 provided: "That this Act [enacting this chapter, amending sections 460k-1, 460l-9, 668dd, 715i, 715s, 1362, 1371, 1372, and 1402 of this title and section 136 of Title 7, Agriculture, repealing sections 668aa to 668cc-6 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] may be cited as the 'Endangered Species Act of 1973'.'' Relationship to Endangered Species Act of 1973 - Pub. L. 102-251, title III, Sec. 305, Mar. 9, 1992, 106 Stat. 66, provided that: "The special areas defined in section 3(24) of the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1802(24)) shall be considered places that are subject to the jurisdiction of the United States for the purposes of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.).'' Minimization of Conflicts With Recreational Fisheries - For provision that all Federal agencies minimize conflicts between recreational fisheries and administration of this chapter, see Ex. Ord. No. 12962, Sec. 4, June 7, 1995, 60 F.R. 30770, set out as a note under section 1801 of this title. Section Referred to in Other Sections. This section is referred to in section 1539 of this title.

1,000 Friends of (fill in state name, or watershed, etc.)

OTG - On-the-ground (compliance monitoring)

Other aquatic habitats - Includes wetlands and deepwater habitats occurring in the Riverine, Lacustrine, or Marine Systems, and deepwater habitats occurring in the Estuarine System as defined by Cowardin et al. 1979 (see Wetlands). - National Resources Inventory

Other Forest Land - Forest land other than timberland and productive reserved forest land. It includes available and reserved forest land, which is incapable of producing annually 20 cubic feet per acre of industrial wood under natural conditions, because of adverse site conditions such as sterile soils, dry climate, poor drainage, high elevation, steepness, or rockiness. - USDA/FS

Other Official Flows (OOF) - Transactions by the official sector with countries on the List of Aid Recipients which do not meet the conditions for eligibility as Official Development Assistance or Official Aid, either because they are not primarily aimed at development, or because they have a Grant Element of less than 25 per cent. - Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) Glossary

Other Pesticide Chemicals - Chemicals registered as pesticides but which are produced and marketed mostly for other purposes, i.e., multi-use chemicals. Notable examples are sulfur, petroleum products (e.g., kerosene, oils and distillates), salt and sulfuric acid. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Other Program Element (OPE) - One of twelve components identified in the Comprehensive Plan which will be implemented through programs other than CERP, including the Critical Restoration Projects Authority, or which will be implemented with an appropriate local sponsor under separate Design Agreements and Project Management Plans. - Everglades Plan glossary

Other Public Ownership - An ownership class that includes all public lands except national forests. - USDA/FS

Other Removals - The growing stock volume of trees removed from the inventory by cultural operations such as timber stand improvement, land clearing, and other changes in land use that result in the removal of the trees from timberland. - USDA/FS

Other rural land - A Land cover/use category that includes farmsteads and other farm structures, field windbreaks, barren land, and marshland. - National Resources Inventory

OTISATBCB - Office of Technical and Informational Services Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board

OTM - Obscuration of Troop Movement

OTM - Other Than Mexicans (illegal immigrants crossing the Mexican - United States border -- used by INS)

OTM - Other than Mexicans http://www.usborderpatrol.com/borderframe60.htm  http://www.house.gov/tancredo/Immigration/SO.2003.05.15.html 

OTM - Other than Mexico http://www.usborderpatrol.com/borderframe60.htm  http://www.house.gov/tancredo/Immigration/SO.2003.05.15.html 

OTU - Outcome Tracking Unit

OUBMN - Organic Unity Between Mankind and Nature

Our Common Future - The report of the Brundtland Commission, which linked economic development to alleviate poverty with environmental protection to prevent ecological catastrophe. The report defined Sustainable Development as that which "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." UN

Outbuilding - A building separate but associated with a main building, such as a shed, chicken coop or privy. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/ 

Outcome - The ultimate, long-term, resulting effects -- both expected and unexpected -- of the customer's use or application of the organization's outputs. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm  2. The impact on a resource or landscape of program activities (for example, water quality changes and improved habitat condition). http://www2.srs.fs.fed.us/strategicplan/view_and_submit_comment.asp?ID=52  3. A result, usually expressed in terms of resource conditions or visitor experiences. The Government Performance and Results Act makes a distinction between outcomes (results), outputs (efforts/products/activities), and inputs (money, manpower, and other things needed to produce an output). (DOI/NPS)

Outcrop - An exposure of rock or mineral deposit that can be seen on surface, i.e., that is not covered by overburden or water.

Outcropping - The exposure of bedrock or strata projecting through the overlying cover of detritus and soil. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Outfall Sewer - Pipe or conduit used to carry either raw sewage or treated effluent to a final point of discharge into a body of water. (UN)

Out-Migration Rate - Rate at which people move out of a county or region over a given period of time. - USDA/FS

Output - A unit of production for project work. The unit of production may be, or is related to, the annual performance measure upon which budgets are built and performance is evaluated. http://www2.srs.fs.fed.us/strategicplan/view_and_submit_comment.asp?ID=52  2. An effort, product or activity. The Government Performance and Results Act makes a distinction between outcomes (results), outputs (efforts/products/activities), and inputs (money, manpower, and other things needed to produce an output). (DOI/NPS)

Outstanding - Standing out among others of its kind; distinguished; excellent. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Outstanding Natural Area (ONA) - An area that contains unusual natural characteristics and is managed primarily for educational and recreational purposes. (BLM)

Outstanding Natural Area (ONA) - These are established to preserve scenic values and areas of natural wonder. The preservation of these resources in their natural condition is the primary management objective. Access roads, parking areas, and public use facilities are normally located on the periphery of the area. The public is encouraged to walk into the area for recreation purposes wherever feasible. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary OUV - Outstanding Universal Value (UNESCO's World Heritage program)

Outstanding universal value - Outstanding universal value is referred to in several places in the Convention and the Operational Guidelines without specific definition. Parts of the cultural and natural heritage, "because of their exceptional qualities, can be considered to be of outstanding universal value, and as such worthy of special protection against the dangers which increasingly threaten them" (UNESCO February 1996: 1, Paragraph 1). Outstanding universal value is sometimes simply referred to as World Heritage value. At the "Expert Meeting on Evaluation of general principles and criteria for nominations of natural World Heritage sites" held at the Parc national de la Vanoise, France on 22 to 24 March 1996, The expert group recalled that different interpretations have been made of the term "outstanding universal value" which is a key to the establishment of a selective World Heritage List. In a number of cases the term has been also interpreted as implying "best of its kind". The expert group stressed that the notion of outstanding universal value has been constructed over time and may be interpreted as a concept incorporating both uniqueness and representativeness (UNESCO 15 April 1996: 1). - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Outstandingly Remarkable Values (a.k.a. ORVs) - A term from the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act; to qualify as outstandingly remarkable, a resource value must be a unique, rare, or exemplary feature that is significant at a regional or national level. - FS

Oven-dry ton (ODT) - An amount of wood that weighs 2,000 pounds at zero percent moisture content. - Bioenergy Glossary

Overburden - Surface waste materials covering a mineral deposit.

Overburden Ratio - In strip mining the ratio of the vertical thickness of overburden to the vertical thickness of the underlying ore. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Overdraft - The reduction of ground water storage that occurs when withdrawals from an aquifer exceed recharge. Sometimes referred to as mining of ground water.

Overgrazing - Grazing by livestock or wildlife to the point where the grass cover is depleted, leaving bare, unprotected patches of soil. As a result, water and wind cause erosion, especially on clay soils, and the growth of poisonous plants and thorny shrubs may increase. (UN)

Overgrazing - Continued heavy grazing that exceeds the recovery capacity of the community and creates a deteriorated range. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

Overland Flow - Wastewater cleansing technique that allows the wastewater to flow over a sloped surface. As the water so flows, the contaminants are removed and the water is collected for reuse at the bottom of the slope. (UN) The quantity of water that moves across the land surface. Contributions to overland flow are from runoff and from the surfacing of subsurface flows before they reach a receiving stream or a defined drainage channel.

Overlapping - Is defined as to partly cover, cover or extend beyond two or more classification concepts - i.e. not to be completely separate (e.g. "the group xy in classification N is partly `overlapping' with category yx in classification N, rev. 1"). (UN)

Overlay (in mapping) - Combining of two or more map themes for the same area so as to form a new map of combined theme characteristics. (UN)

Overlay Districts - Zoning districts in which additional regulatory standards are superimposed on existing zoning. Overlay districts provide a method of placing special restrictions in addition to those required by basic zoning ordinances. - Smart Growth Green Development Glossary

Overlay Zones - Zones created by the local legislature by identifying a special resource or development area and adopting new provisions that apply in that area in addition to the provisions of the zoning ordinance. In effect, overlay zones create new districts that are superimposed upon the existing district or districts.

Overmature Timber - Trees that have attained full development, particularly in height, and are declining in vigor, health, and soundness.

Overstory - The upper canopy or canopies of plants, usually referring to trees, shrubs, and vines. The portion of trees in a forest which form the uppermost layer of foliage. The upper canopy layer; the plants below comprise the understory.

Overstory Removal - A harvest method that removes the overstory of a two-story stand and leave the smaller understory for further development.

Overturned Sedimentary - Beds that have been deformed in such a way that the oldest beds are lying on top of younger beds.

OWG - One World Government

OWHC - Organization of World Heritage Cities

Owner - The individual(s), corporation(s), or partnership(s) holding fee simple title to property, or the head of the public agency or subordinate employee of the public agency to whom such authority was delegated and who is responsible for administering publicly owned land. Owner does not include individuals, partnerships, corporations, or public agencies holding easements or less than fee interests (including leaseholds) of any form. A Native American tribe that is the beneficial fee simple owner of lands, with the United States as trustee, will be considered as owner of private property for the purposes of this part. Similarly, individual member(s) of a Native American tribe who are beneficial owner(s) of property, allottee(s) held in trust by the United States, will be considered as owner(s) of private property for the purposes of this part. - NPS

Owner or Operator (RCRA/40 CFR 270.2) - The owner or operator of any facility or activity subject to regulation under RCRA. (RCRA/40 CFR 280.92) When the owner or operator are separate parties, refers to the party that is obtaining or has obtained financial assurances. - EPA

Ownership - The separation of Federal and nonfederal lands and the distinction between administrative units of land; water areas are not classified according to ownership. There are seven categories: County or parish, Federal, Indian tribal and individual trust lands, Private, Municipal, State, Water-unspecified. - NRI Glossary 2. The property owned by one ownership unit, including all parcels of land in the United States. - USDA/FS 2. Ownership - The separation of federal and nonfederal lands and the distinction between administrative units of land. Water areas are not classified according to ownership. The six categories of ownership are: 1. Private - A type of ownership pertaining to land belonging to an individual person or persons, a partnership, or a corporation (all of which are persons in the legal sense), as opposed to the public or the government; private property. 2. Municipal - A type of ownership pertaining to land belonging to the local government of a town or city. 3. County or parish - A type of ownership pertaining to land belonging to an administrative subdivision of a state in the United States, which is identified as a county or an equivalent administrative unit in areas where counties do not exist; examples are parishes in Louisiana and boroughs in Alaska. 4. State. A type of ownership pertaining to land belonging to one of the states, commonwealths, or territories of the United States of America. 5. Federal land. A land ownership category designating land that is owned by the federal government. It does not include, for example, trust lands administered by the Bureau of Indian Affairs or Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) land. No data are collected for any year that land is in this ownership. 6. Indian tribal and individual Indian trust lands. A type of ownership of land administered by officially constituted Indian tribal or individual Indian trust entities. - National Resources Inventory

OWO - Old World Order

OWOW - Office of Wetlands, Oceans and Watersheds - EPA

OWRC - Oregon Water Resources Congress

OWT - Oregon Water Trust

Oxidation - A chemical reaction caused by exposure to oxygen that results in a change in the chemical composition of a mineral.

Oxide - Any chemical combination with oxygen.

Oxide Ore - Ore containing minerals that have been altered by oxidation or the weathering process. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Oxidize - To combine with oxygen.

Oxidize - A chemical reaction in which the reference element or compound losses electrons to another "reduced" element or compound- usually to oxygen (a powerful electron attractor). Oxidation typically results in the breaking up of complex compounds. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Oxidized Zone - Portion of ore deposit where oxygen has displaced other non-metallic elements in chemical combination with metals.

Oxidation - A chemical reaction caused by exposure to oxygen that results in a change in the chemical composition of a mineral.

Oxygen Demand - The biological or chemical demand of oxygen dissolved in water; required by biological processes for respiration. - Everglades Plan glossary

OYES - Ohio's Youth Energy Summit

Ozone (O3) - A highly reactive molecule composed of three oxygen atoms. Environmentally, ozone is important in two completely separate contexts--one, as a naturally occurring screen of harmful radiation in the outer atmosphere (i.e., stratospheric ozone), and two, as a component of polluting smog formed from emissions resulting from human activities (i.e., urban smog). In the stratosphere 7 to 10 miles above the Earth, naturally occurring ozone acts to shield the Earth from harmful radiation. In the 1970s and 1980s, it was discovered that emissions of certain chemicals catalyze destruction of stratospheric ozone, allowing more radiation to reach the Earth's surface. The U.S. is a signatory to the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Ozone Depleting Substances, which bans or limits uses of chemicals whose emissions deplete stratospheric ozone. Among the chemicals being phased out as ozone depleters are chlorofluorocarbons used in refrigeration and air conditioning and methyl bromide, a pesticide. In the lower atmosphere (troposphere), ozone is a major air pollutant that contributes to smog, adversely affects human health, and is toxic to some plants, damaging forests and crops. Tropospheric ozone forms from reactions between nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds in the presence of sunlight. The precursor pollutants are emitted by combustion sources such as motor vehicles and utilities, use of solvents, and petrochemical facilities. Tropospheric ozone is regulated under a National Ambient Air Quality Standard.

Ozone-Depleting Substances - See greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, ozone layer, global warming, Montreal Protocol. (UNESCO)

Ozone Layer - Layer of gaseous ozone (O3) in the stratosphere that protects life on Earth by filtering out harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. In the last couple of decades a thinning of this layer has been observed, with this being most severe at areas near both the north and south poles. This thinning has been linked to air pollution and more particularly the emission of greenhouse gases from human activities. The greater amount of ultraviolet radiation that reach the surface of the planet as a result of the depletion of atmospheric ozone is associated with increased incidence of certain skin cancers, the depletion of some types of micro-organisms in the sea, and is potentially associated with other environmental and agricultural problems. (UNESCO)

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