P factor. See Practice factor. - National Resources Inventory

P.L. 566 - Public Law 83-566 (August 4, 1954), Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act of 1954.

P wave - Primary, longitudinal, irrotational, push, pressure, dilatational, compressional, or push-pull wave. P waves are the fastest body waves and arrive at stations before the S waves, or secondary waves. The waves carry energy through the Earth as longitudinal waves, moving particles in the same line as the direction of the wave. P waves can travel through all layers of the Earth. P waves are generally felt by humans as a bang or thump. - USGS Earthquake glossary

PA - Parkland Acquisition

PA - Partnering Agencies

PA - Partnership Agreement

PA - Passive Annihilation (a link on the VHEMT Links page) "Passive Annihilation is an existential form of anti-procreation. The principle goes like this: If you can't gain informed consent from a child before bringing him/her into the world, you don't have the authority to do so. It follows that NOBODY has the right to procreate. That's the nutshell; it's more intricate than that. Passive Annihilation is a cousin to VHEMT, the Voluntary Human Extinction Movement, which has a more environmental slant."

PA - Pedestrian Access

PA - Personal Accountability

PA - Pilot Area (Protected Area - UN-USAID)

PA - Political Activism

PA - Political Agenda

PA - Port Authority

PA - poverty alleviation

PA - Power Authority

PA - Preferred Alternative

PA - Production Agriculture (NOT a synonym for farmland preservation!)

PA - Program Amount

PA - Program of Action

PA - Programmatic Accessibility

PA - Project Area

PA - Protected Area(s)

PA - Public Access

PA - Public Awareness

PAA - Primary Analysis Area (DOI - USFWS)

PAA - Priority Abatement Area

PAA - Proposed Abatement Area

PA.com - Pro Activist.com

PAC - Planning And Compliance

PAC - Public Awareness Campaign

PAC - Political Action Committee

PAC - Provincial Advisory Committee

PAC - Provincial Advisory Council

PACE - Purchase of Agricultural Conservation Easements

PACE - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act

PACE - Personal Achievement through Computer Education

PACE - Program for the Autonomy and Communication for the Elderly

Pace - A measure of length 2.5 feet long; the ordinary length of a step. A geometric pace is five feet long. - Cadastral Data glossary

Pachamama - A word meaning 'Mother Earth' in the Inca culture. UNEP

PACIFICMPA - Pacific Coast Marine Protected Areas "A Public Clearinghouse for Planning Information." http://www.pacificmpa.org/

Pacific bluefin tuna - The subspecies of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus orientalis that is found in the Pacific Ocean. - MFCMA

Pacific Fishery Management Council (PFMC) - The Pacific Council is one of eight regional fishery management councils established under the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976 and the Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996 (now called the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act). The Pacific Council has developed fishery management plans for salmon, groundfish and coastal pelagic species in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon and California, and recommends Pacific halibut harvest regulations to the International Pacific Halibut Commission.

Pacific HMS - Pacific Highly Migratory Species

Pacific Rim - A far flung group of countries and parts of countries (extending clockwise from New Zealand to Chile) sharing the following criteria: they face the Pacific Ocean, they evince relatively high levels of economic development, industrialization, and urbanization, their imports and exports mainly move across Pacific waters.

Paid Diversion - A program repealed by the FAIR Act of 1996, under which farmers were paid to voluntarily take acreage out of production. The diverted land was devoted to approved conservation practices. Unlike acreage reduction and set-aside programs, participation in a paid diversion program was not normally a condition of eligibility for other support program benefits.

PACP - Planning And Compliance Process

PADETES - Participatory Demonstration and Training Extension System (Ethiopia)

PADU - Protected Area Data Unit - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC). These data sheets are used as the basis for monitoring natural properties (IUCN 1995: 3). - UNESCO World Heritage Glossary

PAE - Preservation And Enhancement

PAE - Protect And Enhance

PAF - Political Action Funds

PAG - Political Advocacy Group

PAG - Precautions for All Government

PAGP - Preservationists Against the Greenways Project

PAH - Poly-nuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons

PAHO - Pan-American Health Organization

PAI - Protectable As Items (UN)

PAJE - People's Alliance for Jobs and the Environment

Palatability - The relish with which a particular plant species or part of a plant is consumed by an animal.

Pale - Excessive soil development, usually very old.

Paleomagnetism - The natural magnetic traces that reveal the intensity and direction of Earth's magnetic field in the geologic past. Also, the study of these magnetic traces. - USGS Earthquake glossary

Paleontological Resource - Remains of any ancient organism, including fossilized plants, invertebrates (hard or soft bodied animals without a skeletal structures such as insects, crabs, clams, and snails) and vertebrates (including dinosaurs, mammals, sharks and fish, or any animal with a skeletal structure). - SPRPMA

Paleontology - The branch of geology that deals with life forms from the past, especially prehistoric life forms, through the study of plant and animal fossils. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Paleoseismology - The study of ancient (prehistoric) earthquakes. - USGS Earthquake glossary

Paleosol - A term used by archeologists and some geologists to refer to an ancient soil deposit.

Paleosols are particularly important because they often contain evidence about some of the earliest cultures to inhabit North America. BLM-DOI

Pallid - Deficient in color. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)

PALMM - Publication of Archival, Library and Museum Materials. PALMM is a digital library of the Florida university libraries project, funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services.

PALs - Plantwide Applicability Limits - EPA

Palustrine system - All non-tidal wetlands dominated by trees, shrubs, persistent emergents, emergent mosses, or lichens, and all such wetlands that occur in tidal areas where salinity due to ocean derived salts is below 0.5 percent [U.S.FWS] - NRI Glossary

Palustrine Wetland - Wetlands occurring in the Palustrine System, one of five systems in the classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats (see Wetlands, Cowardin et al. 1979). Palustrine wetlands include all nontidal wetlands dominated by trees, shrubs, persistent emergent plants, or emergent mosses or lichens, as well as small, shallow open water ponds or potholes. Palustrine wetlands are often called swamps, marshes, potholes, bogs, or fens. - National Resources Inventory

PAM - Planning And Management

PAM - Protected Area Management (USDA/FS)

Pampas - Pampa is a subregion of Argentina. It is noted for food production. While it represents only about 20% of the land area of Argentina, two-thirds of the population lives in the Pampa. The word Pampa means plain.

Pan - A compact, dense layer in a soil that impedes the movement of water and growth of roots. For example, hardpan, fragipan, claypan, plowpan, and traffic pan. - USDA

Pan - To wash (in a metal, bowl-like pan) gravel and sand or rock samples that have been ground to small particles, in order to separate gold or other valuable metals.

PANS - Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences

PAO - Pedestrian Access Only

PAOT - Persons at one time (persons at one time capacity) - USDA Forest Service

PAP - Pre Arranged Plan(s)

PAP - The Preferred Alignment Plan

PAP - Professional Appraisal Practice

PAP - Public Access Point

PAR - Parks And Recreation

PAR - Preliminary Area Reconnaissance

PAR - Prior Authorization Review

Parallel Flow Paths - Layers of ground water flow moving at such slow speeds that significant mixing between layers does not occur.

Parataxonomists - Field-trained biodiversity collection and inventory specialists recruited from local areas. - UNDP/WRI

Parcel - In land ownership mapping for assessment purposes, a parcel is usually held to be a tract of land under one identical ownership. It may be a combination of two or more tracts acquired by separate deeds. - Cadastral Data glossary

Parcel Identifier - A sequential, numeric, alphabetic or alphanumeric system used as shorthand for referring to a particular parcel in lieu of its full, legal description. - Cadastral Data glossary

Parcelling (verb) - The act of plotting ownership boundaries on a map whether in subdivisions or metes and bounds. - Cadastral Data glossary

PARD - Programmatic Assistant Regional Director (FWS)

Parent material - The unconsolidated organic and mineral material in which soil forms. - USDA

Parent Material - The mineral or organic matter from which the upper layers of soil are formed.

Parent Parcel - An indefinite term used in reference to a parcel of land as it existed at a specific time, or as it existed under a specific owner. It is often used in reference to a parcel as it was patented, subdivided or mapped. - Cadastral Data glossary

Paris Club - The Paris Club is the name govern to the ad hoc meetings of Western - creditor government that, since 1956, have arranged, when necessary, for the renegotiation of debt wowed to official creditors or guaranteed by them. (Debts to commercial banks are renegotiated with committees of the banks involved.) Neither the world Bank nor the IMF is a member of the Paris Club although the IMF has played an increasingly important role in putting together debt restructuring packages with commercial banks. To reschedule debt, both the Paris Club and commercial banks require the debtor country to have agreed on a stabilization program with the IMF. - WB

Parity-based support prices - Commodity support prices (such as loan rates or commodity program purchase prices) whose level in a given year is mandated to be calculated in a way that will maintain its purchasing power at the level it had in the 1910-14 base period. Under "permanent provisions," of farm legislation (provisions that would automatically apply in the absence of current farm acts that suspended the permanent provisions) prices of some commodities would be supported at 50 to 90 percent of parity through direct government purchases or non-recourse loans. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

Parity Price - A measurement of the purchasing power of a unit of a particular commodity. Originally, parity was the price per bushel, bale, pound, or hundredweight that would be necessary for a unit of a commodity today to buy the same quantity of other goods (from a standard list) that the commodity could have purchased in the 1910-14 base period. Under permanent law, prices of some commodities would be supported at 50 to 90% of parity through direct government purchases or non-recourse loans. In 1948, the parity price formula was revised to make parity prices dependent on the relationship of farm and non-farm prices during the most recent 10-year period for non-basic commodities. Basic commodities, including wheat, corn, rice, peanuts, and cotton use the higher of the historical or the new formula.

Parity Ratio - An aggregate measure of the relative purchasing power of farm products; the ratio between the index of prices received by farmers for all farm products and the index of prices paid by farmers for commodities and services used in farm production and family living. The parity ratio measures relative price relationships (prices received versus prices paid). Over time the parity ratio has declined due to greater efficiency gains in agriculture. Compared to a parity ratio of 100 in the 1910-14 time period, the 1995 annual parity ratio was 45.

Park - The terms national park or park refer to any unit of the national park system. Although national park system designations formally categorize units as national parks, national preserves, national monuments, national historic sites, national historical parks, national memorials, national recreation areas, national lakeshores, national seashores, national rivers, national battlefields, or national cemeteries, all units of the national park system are managed under a single set of laws and policies with the only distinctions being special mandates included in the specific legislation applying to each particular unit. (DOI/NPS)

Parkland/Recreational Landscape - Those areas of open space with recreational facilities and infrastructure that typically have maintained lawns.

Park-Like Structure - Stands with large scattered trees and open growing conditions, usually maintained by ground fires.

Park purpose - The reasons why a park is so important that it has been set aside as a unit of the national park system. The terms purpose and mission are generally the same concepts. (DOI/NPS)

Park significance - The relative international, national, or regional importance of the resources that contributed to the park's addition to the national park system. (DOI/NPS)

PARR - Protect America's Rights and Resources

PARR - Protect Americans' Rights & Resources

Partial Cut - Term to relate harvest units where many trees are left and forested appearance is retained. Partial cutting usually provides no long-term benefits to forest health and productivity.

Partial Retention - A visual quality objective which, in general, means man's activities may be evident but must remain subordinate to the characteristic landscape.

Partial Taking - Florida Rock Industries, Inc. v. United States (U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit 1994) The federal court of appeals saw no logical distinction between (1) a taking of private property by physical occupation for the public use as a park and (2) a regulatory imposition to preserve the property as a wetland for public uses. The case was remanded to the Court of Claims to determine how much of the value of the 98 acres had been taken by government regulation. In 1995, Oregonians In Action stated, "The decision of the U.S. Supreme Court not to review Florida Rock is a major breakthrough; the high court implies it favors paying landowner compensation for 'partial takings' by regulatory use restrictions as well as total takings."(1) "Looking Forward," Oregonians In Action. March 1995 - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary

Partially Untied Aid - Official Development Assistance (or Official Aid) for which the associated goods and services must be procured in the donor country or among a restricted group of other countries, which must however include substantially all developing countries (substantially all CEEC/NIS countries in the case of Official Aid). Partially untied aid is subject to the same disciplines as Tied Aid Credits and Associated Financing. - Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) Glossary

Particle Density - The mass per unit volume of the soil particles.

Particulate Matter - Small particles found in emissions from motor vehicles and industrial processes. These very small particles can be harmful to the respiratory system. (UNESCO)

Participating Interest - A company's interest in a mine, which entitles it to a certain percentage of profits in return for putting up an equal percentage of the capital cost of the project.

Particulate Matter - A category of air pollutants that refers to small, solid particles or liquid droplets suspended in the air, including soot, fumes, dust, pollen and spores, smoke, and spray. Particles vary in biological effect depending on their size and composition. Two National Ambient Air Quality Standards have been set for particulates: One, in effect since 1987, regulates particles smaller than 10 microns in diameter (PM10), a size range that includes fugitive dust from construction and tilling the soil. A 1997 change in how compliance with the PM10 standard is measured somewhat reduces the stringency of the standard, which will make it easer for areas not in compliance (41 in early 1997) to attain the standard. The second PM standard, promulgated in July 1997, regulates particles smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), a size range dominated by combustion products, but which can include very fine fugitive dust and ammonia that can come from agricultural sources. Because of the need to develop monitoring and assess ambient levels of PM2.5, it will be the mid-2000s before pollution levels are established and any control programs might be instituted.

Particulates - Small particles suspended in the air and generally considered pollutants.

Parting Fire - Assay procedure for separating gold from other metals.

Paratransit - Forms of public passenger transportation that can operate over the highway and street system, but without a fixed route. Examples of paratransit include shared-ride taxis, carpools, rental cars, and subscription bus clubs.

Partial Correlation/Correspondence - Occurs where a category of one classification can be coded to two or more categories of other classifications. (UN)

Partial Log Suspension - During yarding operations, suspension of one end of the log above the ground. (BLM)

Partially Developed - Areas where nearly all of the development opportunities are through development other than redevelopment. (See Development and Redevelopment)

Partners for Wildlife - A voluntary partnership program administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service to provide financial and technical assistance to private landowners who wish to protect or restore wetlands. This program has been widely used by rural landowners, including farmers.

PAS - Pan-African Symposium, also known as PAS1 and PAS2. (UN/IUCN) http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/susg/pas1.html

PAS - Personal Assistance Services

Passerine Birds - Birds of the order Passeriformes, which includes perching birds and songbirds such as blackbirds, jays, finches, warblers, and sparrows. More than half of all known birds belong to this order. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Passive Recreation - Recreational activity, usually unstructured, requiring little use of physical facilities.

Pastoralism - A form of agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock. Many peoples described as herders actually pursue mixed agriculture, in that they may also fish, hunt, or even grow a few crops, but pastoral peoples' lives do revolve around their animals. (UN)

Pasture - (1) Land that is separated from other areas by a fence or natural barriers. (2) The act of letting livestock graze on land for forage.

Pastureland - Land used primarily for the production of domesticated forage plants for livestock (in contrast to rangeland, where vegetation is naturally occurring and is dominated by grasses and perhaps shrubs). Rotation pasture or cropland under winter cover crops is not included in this definition. The 1992 national resources inventory recorded 126 million acres of pastureland, 9% of all nonfederal rural lands.

Pastureland - Land used primarily for the production of adapted, introduced or native species in a pure stand, grass mixture or a grass-legume mixture. Cultural treatment in the form of fertilization, weed control, reseeding or renovation is usually a part of pasture management in addition to grazing management. In 1982, 32 percent of pastureland in the United States was considered good, 40 percent fair and 19 percent poor. [source: USDA-SCS 1982 NRI] 2. A Land cover/use category of land managed primarily for the production of introduced forage plants for livestock grazing. Pastureland cover may consist of a single species in a pure stand, a grass mixture, or a grass-legume mixture. Management usually consists of cultural treatments: fertilization, weed control, reseeding or renovation, and control of grazing. For the NRI, includes land that has a vegetative cover of grasses, legumes, and/or forbs, regardless of whether or not it is being grazed by livestock. - National Resources Inventory

Pastureland and Native Pasture - A Land Cover/Use category of land managed primarily for the production of introduced or native forage plants for livestock grazing. Pastureland may consist of a single species in a pure stand, a grass mixture or a grass-legume mixture. Management usually consists of cultural treatments-fertilization, weed control, reseeding, or renovation and control of grazing. (For the NRI, includes land that has a vegetative cover of grasses, legumes, and/or forbs, regardless of whether or not it is being grazed by livestock.) [NRI-97] - NRI Glossary

PAT - Parents As Teachers

PAT - Power Acquisition Tool

Patch - An area of homogeneous vegetation, in structure and composition.

Patch (dynamics) - An area of uniform composition (homogeneous). Patch dynamics is the relationship between homogenous areas in a heterogeneous landscape. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary 2. An area of relatively homongenous habitat that is different from its surroundings. Example: a patch of forest surrounded by cropland. 3. A stand of similar-aged forest that differs in age from adjacent patches by more that 20 years. When used in the design of landscape patterns, the term refers to the size of either a natural disturbance opening that led to even-aged forests or an opening created by cutblocks. - Biodiversity Guidebook Glossary

Patch Cut - A clear-cut that creates small openings in a stand of trees, usually between fifteen and forty acres in size. On the Dixie National Forest and elsewhere, patch cuts are used to provide the disturbance needed to regenerate aspen.

Patent - The ultimate stage of holding a mineral claim, after which no more assessment work is necessary; determines that all mineral rights, both surface and underground have been earned.

Patent - A government grant of temporary monopoly rights on innovative processes or products. - UNDP/WRI 2. A legally enforceable right granted by a country's government to an inventor. (UN) 3. The title conveyed by the government describing land disposed of by the government is called a patent. - Cadastral Data glossary 2. The instrument by which the Federal Government conveys title to the public lands. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Patented Lands - Lands conveyed by the United States to private persons. - Cadastral Data glossary

PATH - Partners for Advanced Transit & Highways

PATH - Peoples Action for Threatened Habitat

PATH - Plan for Analyzing & Testing Hypotheses (Bonneville Power Administration) http://www.efw.bpa.gov/PATH/index.html

PATH - Program for Advanced Transit and Highway

Pathogen - A specific causative agent of disease, such as a virus.

PATHWAI - People Against Treating Humans Worse than Animals, International. Countering animal rights nonsense. http://www.pathwai.org/

Patriarchal Inheritance Customs - Where land ownership, wealth and material possessions is passed down the family lineage always from father to son or grandson. (UNESCO)

PAW - People for the American Way

PAYD - Pay-As-You-Drive (car insurance) On Thursday, June 19, 2003, the Oregon Senate passed House Bill 2043, a bill designed to encourage automobile insurance companies to offer cents-per-mile premiums. The bill is now before the governor, who has not decided whether or not he will sign. Known as mileage-based or Pay-As-You-Drive (PAYD), the policies are beneficial to those persons who use their vehicles rarely. The risk of accident is substantially dependent on how long the vehicle is on the road, so those who drive less often pay more per mile under the current system. That results in a disincentive to use other means of transportation, since drivers have unlimited miles for their premium term -- the more they drive, the more they get out of their insurance policy. PAYD premiums, on the other hand, create an incentive to use alternate means of transportation, such as mass transit, bicycles, or carpooling. In addition to driver benefits, PAYD insurance will result in improved air and water quality, reduced congestion, mitigation of our impact on the climate, and resource conservation. Auto insurers are interested in offering the policies, but bear the costs of setting up the system and tracking mileage. House Bill 2043 provides the incentive to create such infrastructure through tax credits to insurance companies for PAYD policies issued. Source: OEC (Oregon Environmental Council - http://www.orcouncil.org )

Pay Layer - Ore, a mineral deposit of high enough quality to be mined at a profit. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Pay Streak - A layer or channel within a gravel deposit that contains a much higher average gold content that the surrounding gravels.

Pay Streak - The areas of concentration of gold in placer deposits. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Payment-in-Kind (PIK) - In general, a payment made in the form of Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) -owned commodities (or title to them) in lieu of cash. This form of payment was widely used during the 1980s for paid diversion, deficiency payments, and export subsidy payments as a means of disposing of or avoiding the acquisition of commodity inventories. PIK certificates entitled the holder to specific quantity of commodities.

Payment limitation - The maximum amount of commodity program benefits a person can receive by law. "Persons," as defined by payment limitation regulations established by the Secretary of Agriculture, are individuals; members of joint operations; or entities such as limited partnerships, corporations, associations, trusts, and estates that are actively engaged in farming. The 1996 Act sets payment limits at $40,000 per person per fiscal year for payments on production flexibility contracts. The Food Security Act of 1985, as amended by the 1996 Act, established limits at $75,000 per person per crop year for the total amount received from marketing loan gains and loan deficiency payments for one or more crops of contract commodities or oilseeds, during 1996-2002. However, the agriculture budget appropriations acts for fiscal years 2000 and 2001 established a $150,000 payment limitation for the total of marketing loan gains and loan deficiency payments for the 1999 and 2000 crops of contract commodities and oilseeds (and honey for 2000 crop). - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

Payments In Lieu of Taxes (PILT) - A program administered by the Department of Interior to compensate counties for the tax-exempt status of federal lands; the fixed payments per entitlement acre (on most but not all federal lands) are adjusted for low county populations and for other revenue-sharing payments (e.g., Forest Service county payments) in a complicated formula.

PB - Plate Boundary (tectonic)

PB - Population Biology

PB - Postponed Benefits

PB - Prescribed Burn

PB - Protection Buffer

PB - Pro Bono

PBA - Poland Business Association

PBA - Policy, Budget and Administration (DOI)

PBEMAC - Pensacola Bay Ecosystem Management Advisory Council

PBI - Pacific Biodiversity Institute

PBM - Print and Broadcast Media

PBPL - Particle Beam Physics Laboratory

PBLUP - Preservation Based Land Use Policy (Policies)

PBR - Performance-Based Regulation

PBS - Public Broadcasting Station

PC - P-Code (GPS)

PC - Personal Computer

PC - The Pinelands Commission (New Jersey) (UN-directed)

PC - Planning Commission

PC - Point of Contact

PC - Political Challenges

PC - Political Climate

PC - Politically Correct

PC - Pollution Credits

PC - Population and Consumption

PC - Private Conservation

PC - Probable Cause

PC - Professional Critic

PC - Public Charity

PC - Public Citizen (an organization that is pro 'sustainable development')

PCA - Petro-Chemical Affiliates

PCA - Plant Conservation Alliance (National Fish and Wildlife Foundation) http://www.plantconservation.org

PCA - Predator Conservation Alliance (Bozeman, MT)

PCA - Priority Corridor Areas

PCA - Private Cause of Action

PCA - Problematic Cause-and-Effect

PCAO - President's Commission on Americans Outdoors

PCB - Polychlorinated Biphenyls

PCB's - Polychlorinated biphenyls. A group of organic compounds, PCB's are highly toxic to aquatic life. They persist in the environment for long periods of time and are bioaccumulants. - Bioenergy Glossary

PCCW - Public Citizens Congress Watch

PCD - Pollution Control District

PCD - Project Control Document

PCDC - Permanent Committee for Drought Control (IUCN)

PCFFA - Pacific Coast Federation of Fishermen's Associations

PCI - Parents and Children's Initiative (the Ad Council)

PCM - Patented Coal Mine

PCM - Pivotal Commercial Market

PCMCIA - International standards body and trade association with over 500 member companies founded to establish standards for Integrated Circuit cards

PCO - Personal Contact Opportunities

PCO - Plant Conservation Officer (NCCPG) http://www.nccpg.com/Show.Asp?Code=452

PCO - Pork Checkoff

PCOA - President's Commission on Americans Outdoors

PCP - Pollution Contingency Plan

PCP - Public Comment Period

PCPWM - The Park City Principles for Water Management (Utah)

PCR - Panama Canal Railway (NAFTA Railway)

PCR - Partnering for Community Renewal (EZEC)

PCR - Pollution Control Regulations

PCR - Pollution Control Requirements

PCRP - Post Conservation Reserve Program

PCSD - Presidents Commission on Sustainable Development

PCSDCP - The Pima County Sonoran Desert Conservation Plan (Arizona, known by those who are victimized by it as The Pima County Sonoran Desert Confiscation Plan)

PCT - Pew Charitable Trust

PCT - Plum Creek Timber Company

PCT - Private Conservation Traditions

PCWAC - Promote Cooperation While Avoiding Conflict

PD - Permitted Discharges

PD - Policy Directive

PD - Political Destabilization

PD - Political Dissident

PD - Population Density

PD - Prime Directive

PD - Public Domain Lands

PDC - Planning District Commission

PDC - Professional Designation Certificate

PDD - Presidential Decision Directive

PDER - Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources

PDF - Planet Drum Foundation

PDF - Portable Document Format

PDF - Project Design Feature

PDM - Population Density Monitoring

PDM - Property Data Modules (DOI)

PDO - Pacific Decadal Oscillation (NOAA)

PDP - Price Discovery and Profit

PDP - Professional Development Program

PDP - Prospective Development Proposal

PDR - Property Development Rights

PDR - Purchase of Development Rights

PDW - Public Destruction of Weapons

PE - Partnership for the Environment

PE - Peer Education

PE - Permanent Easement

PE - Perpetual Easement

PE - Planet Earth

PE - Presumptive Eligibility

PEA - Professional Environmental Activists

Peace Clause - Term used to refer to Article 13 of the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture which exempts certain policies from challenges in the World Trade Organization so long as countries are meeting their commitments under the agreement.

Peak Flow - The greatest flow attained during the melting of the winter snow pack.

Peak Period - The period of time during which the maximum amount of demand occurs. Generally, the measurement is based on a period of one hour.

Peanut poundage quota - The maximum quantity of peanuts that is eligible for the higher of two price support loan rates. The Food and Agriculture Act of 1977 (P.L. 95-113) initiated the current two-price poundage quota program for peanuts where a national poundage quota is established and each producer receives a share of the national total. Producers can market more than their quota, but only the quota amount is eligible for domestic edible use and for the higher of the two commodity loan rates. Over-quota marketings are called "additional peanuts," and can only be sold for export or processing (crush). Under the 1990 Act, each year's national peanut poundage quota was set equal to estimated domestic use of peanuts for food products and seed, subject to a minimum 1.35 million tons. The 1996 Act redefined the national poundage quota to exclude seed use and eliminated the 1.35-million-ton minimum. The 1996 Act also permits the sale, lease, and transfer of a quota across county lines within a State up to specified amounts of quota annually. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

PEARL - Public Educational Access to Resources on Lakes

Peat - Highly organic soil often in bogs or fens. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)

PEBLDS - Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy

PECE - The Policy for Evaluation of Conservation Efforts (DOI/USFWS & NMFS) http://endangered.fws.gov/pubs/pece_q&a.pdf

Ped - A unit of soil structure; an aggregate, such as prism, block, or granule, formed by natural processes.

Ped - An individual natural soil aggregate, such as a granule, a prism, or a block. - USDA

Pedagogy - The study of soil as a geologic entity. The way of organizing the curriculum and choice of teaching strategies in order to ensure that a particular set of long term educational aims are met. (UNESCO)

Pedestrian - A person traveling on foot.

PEDCO - Petroleum Development Corporation (Gillette, Wyoming)

Pedisediment - Fine textured sediment that is similar in composition to the constituents of the underlying material. - USDA

Pedon - The smallest volume that can be called a soil. It has three dimensions. It extends downward to the depth of plant roots or to the lower limit of the genetic soil horizons. Its lateral cross-section is roughly hexagonal and ranges from 1 to 10 m2 in size, depending on the variability in the horizons.

Pedon - The smallest volume that can be called "a soil." A pedon is three dimensional and large enough to permit study of all horizons. Its area ranges from about 10 to 100 square feet (1 square meter to 10 square meters), depending on the variability of the soil. - USDA

PEER - Progress with Economic and Environmental Responsibility

PEER - Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility

PEG - Partisan Environmental Groups

Pegmatite - A coarse-grained, igneous rock, usually irregular in texture and composition, similar to a granite in composition; it usually occurs in dykes or veins and sometimes contains valuable minerals.

PEI - Political and Economic Incentives

PEI - Prince Edward Island

PEIF - Postsecondary Education Improvement Fund

PEIS - Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (USDA's Farm Service Agency, re: CRP and ECP)

Pelagic Zone - The open water zone in a lake that is characterized by freely floating organisms (zooplankton and phytoplankton) and certain fish species.

Pelecypod - Mollusks distinguished by a calcareous two-valve shell (clams). Also called bivalves. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Pellet - A marble-sized ball of iron ore bonded by clay and fused for hardness.

PEM - Privacy Enhanced Mail

PEM - protein-energy malnutrition

Pen Pals - A friendship that is established and grown through letter correspondence. Many people around the world have made this a hobby and have been rewarded with deep and lasting friendships with people despite often being separated by long distances and postal service irregularities. (UNESCO)

Penn Central vs. New York City (1978) - Beginning in 1978, the U.S. Supreme Court argued in Penn Central vs. New York City (1978) that a reduction in a property's value does not constitute a taking as long as the owner has some economic value remaining for reasonable investment backed expectations.

Penta - Pentachlorophenol is an oil-borne wood preservative widely used in the treatment of utility poles, vaulted ceiling beams, fresh water pilings, and bridge timbers. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) - An organic compound commonly used as a wood preservative. - EPA Community Relations Plan Glossary

Pentavalent arsenate - A naturally-occurring trace element present in soil, water and air, as well as in the tissues of plants and animals (including humans); the form of arsenic used in the wood preservative CCA. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Per Capita - Latin for "by heads." A measurement that is presented in terms of units per person, as opposed to a total or aggregate figure.

Per Curiam - A "per curiam" decision is a decision delivered via an opinion issued in the name of the Court rather than specific justices. Most decisions on the merits by the Supreme Court (and other appellate courts in the U.S.) take the form of one or more opinions signed by individual justices (and joined in by others). Even when such signed opinions are unanimous, they are not termed "per curiam." "Per curiam" decisions are given that label by the Court itself and tend to be short. Usually, though not always, they deal with issues the Court views as relatively non-controversial. For examples, see, e.g.,Wood v. Bartholomew, No. 94-1419 (Oct. 10, 1995) and Kimberlin v. Quinlin, No. 93-2068 (June 12, 1995) . However, they are not necessarily unanimous. Indeed, some per curiam decisions are accompanied by dissenting opinions. See, e.g., Bush v. Gore, No. 00-949 (December 12, 2000). The top appellate courts of most states (including, e.g., Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina) use the same terminology. During each Supreme Court term, the LII's Supreme Court collection includes a running list linking to per curiam decisions and other orders or actions taken without full opinion by the Court. - Supreme Court glossary

Pentlandite - An iron and nickel sulphide mineral.

PEP - Partnership Enhancement Monetary Grant Program (yes, this is correct) (The National Tree Trust)

PER - Pan Evaporation Rate (agriculture) (Author's note: does this factor in risk assessment of resources?)

PER - Prior Existing Rights

PER - Protect, Enhance, Restore

PERC - Political Economy Research Center

Perched Water Table - A layer of saturated soil that results when an underlying impermeable layer, composed of soil and/or rock, restricts the downward movement of water. This water table is usually above the regional water table.

Perched Water Table (PWT) - Water table above an impermeable bed underlain by unsaturated rocks of sufficient permeability to allow movement of ground water. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Percolation - Filtration of water through a material. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Percolation - The trickle or seepage of water through a porous material. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Percolation - Downward flow or infiltration of water through the pores or spaces of rock or soil.

Perennial - Occurs year-round, continuous.

Perennial - A plant which lives for three or more years. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)

Perennial Plant - A plant that has a life cycle of three or more years.

Perennial Stream - A stream that has flowing water throughout the year for many years and from source to mouth.

Perennial stream - A stream or reach of a stream that normally flows continuously throughout the year. - National Resources Inventory

Perennial Vegetation - Plants that have a life cycle of 3 or more years. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Perfect Title - Title showing the absolute right of possession and of property in a particular person. Perfect title, however, does not mean "perfect" in the strict sense of the word. A "perfect title" must be one that is good and valid beyond all reasonable doubt; free from litigation, palpable defects, and grave doubts. It should consist of both legal and equitable title. "Perfect title" is synonymous with "merchantable title" and "marketable title". - Cadastral Data glossary

Performance Gap - The gap between what customers and stakeholders expect and what each process and related subprocesses produce in terms of quality, quantity, time, and cost of services and products. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm

Performance Indicator Definitions - Accomplishments projected for future years, allocated for current years, and reported for prior years under the following definitions are the result of Forest Service discretionary and mandatory appropriations. With few exceptions, contributed accomplishments (e.g., challenge cost share activities) are not included. - FS

Performance Measurement - The process of developing measurable indicators that can be systematically tracked to assess progress made in achieving predetermined goals and using such indicators to assess progress in achieving these goals. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm

Performance standard - A formally established criterion for special activity which (a) outlines the work involved; (b) describes work methods and composition of efficient crews; and (c) lists the expected accomplishments or productivity rate.

Performance Zoning - Establishes minimum criteria to be used when assessing whether a particular project is appropriate for a certain area; ensures that the end result adheres to an acceptable level of performance or compatibility. This type of zoning provides flexibility with the well-defined goals and rules found in conventional zoning. - Smart Growth Green Development Glossary

Peridotite - An intrusive igneous rock consisting mainly of olivine.

Period - The time between two successive wave crests. - USGS Earthquake glossary

Periphyton - The biological community of microscopic plants and animals attached to surfaces in aquatic environments, for example algae. - Everglades Plan glossary

Periphyton - Microscopic plants and animals that are firmly attached to such solid surfaces under water as rocks, logs, pilings, and other structures. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Permanent Law - Legislation that would be in force in the absence of all temporary or short-term laws (e.g., farm bills). The Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, the Agricultural Act of 1949, and the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act of 1948 serve as the basic laws authorizing the major commodity programs. Technically, each new farm bill (including the FAIR Act of 1996) amends the permanent law for a specified period. The FAIR Act of 1996 also repeals some provisions of permanent law and suspends other provisions through 2002. Many programs and activities of USDA are authorized by permanent laws that are periodically amended.

Permanent legislation - Legislation that would be in effect in the absence of all temporary amendments (farm acts). These laws include provisions of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act of 1948, and the Agricultural Act of 1949. They serve as the basic laws authorizing the major commodity programs. Generally, each new farm act amends the permanent legislation for a specified period. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

Permanent Vegetative Cover - Trees, or perennial grasses, legumes, or shrubs with an expected life span of at least 5 years. Permanent cover is required on cropland entered into the Conservation Reserve Program.

Permanent Wilting Point - the largest water content in soil at which plants will wilt and not recover when placed in a humid chamber. It is estimated at about -1.5 MPa matric potential.

Permeability - A measure of the relative ease with which water will move through soil or rock.

Permeability Of Soil - The ease with which liquids (typically water) or other materials penetrate or pass through a bulk mass of soil or a layer of soil. Different soil layers vary in permeability. Clay layers are very impermeable while sand and gravel layers are very permeable.

Permit - 1. A written agreement between Indian landowners and a permittee, whereby the permittee is granted a revocable privilege to use Indian land or Government land, for a specified purpose. - DOI-BIA Glossary 2. A short-term, revocable authorization to use public lands for specific purposes. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Permit or license applicant - When used with respect to an action of a Federal agency for which exemption is sought under section 1536 of this title, any person whose application to such agency for a permit or license has been denied primarily because of the application of section 1536(a) of this title to such agency action. - ESA

Permitted Grazing - Grazing on a National Forest range allotment under the terms of a grazing permit.

Permitted Acreage - The acreage on which a farm program participant is permitted to grow a program crop after satisfying acreage reduction requirements. For example, when a 10% acreage reduction program is in effect for wheat, a farmer with a 100-acre wheat base may grow wheat on 90 acres, the permitted acres. Limits on production are eliminated by the FAIR Act of 1996 through the year 2002.

Permitted Use - The forage allocated by, or under the guidance of, an applicable land use plan for livestock grazing in an allotment under a permit or lease and is expressed in Animal Unit Months (AUMs). BLM-DOI

Permitted Uses - Lists the type of uses permitted; where a use is not listed, it is prohibited.

Permittee - 1. A person or entity who has acquired a legal right of possession to Indian land by a permit for grazing purposes under this part. - DOI-BIA Glossary 2. (Livestock Operator) A person or organization legally permitted to graze a specific number and class of livestock on designated areas of public land during specified seasons each year. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Persistent - To remain unchanged or fixed in a specified condition. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)

Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) - Chemicals that pollute the environment and are especially harmful as they stay around for a long time. - UNEP Children's Glossary

Persistent Pesticides - Pesticides that do not readily break down in the environment. Becoming long-lived components of the ecosystem, these chemicals may have enduring effects at low concentrations or may bio-accumulate, posing hazards to higher predators.

Person - Any individual (whether or not a citizen or national of the United States), any corporation, partnership, association, or other entity (whether or not organized, or existing under the laws of any state), and any Federal, state, local, or foreign government or any entity of any such government. - MFCMA 2. The term ''person'' means an individual, corporation, partnership, trust, association, or any other private entity; or any officer, employee, agent, department, or instrumentality of the Federal Government, of any State, municipality, or political subdivision of a State, or of any foreign government; any State, municipality, or political subdivision of a State; or any other entity subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. - ESA

Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) - A hand-held, computer-assisted survey collection tool used to record NRI data. - National Resources Inventory

Personal Income - The sum of wage and salary disbursements, other labor income, proprietors' income, rental income of persons, personal dividend income, personal interest income, and transfer payments to persons, less personal contributions for social insurance. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Personal Use - The use of a forest product, such as firewood, for home use and not for commercial use.

Pest - 1. Any species, strain or biotype of plant, animal or pathogenic agent injurious to plants or plant products. - UN/FAO International Plant Protection Convention Glossary 2. Any animal that is not valued by human society and usually overgrows or competes with valued animals. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Pest Resistance Management Plans (PRM) - To protect the continued use of bio-pesticides, EPA is requiring companies developing transgenic crops to submit and implement pest resistance management (PRM) plans as a requirement of product registration. If they are exposed to a toxin excessively, most insect populations can develop resistance, making pest control products less effective. With new bio-pesticide technologies comes the concern that pests will rapidly develop resistance to natural insecticides. A resistance management plan is intended to sustain the useful life of transgenic technology.

Pest risk analysis - The process of evaluating biological or other scientific and economic evidence to determine whether a pest should be regulated and the strength of any phytosanitary measures to be taken against it. - UN/FAO International Plant Protection Convention Glossary

Pest Scouting - Inspecting a field for pests, including insects, weeds, and pathogens. Pest scouting is a basic component of integrated pest management programs. It is used to determine whether pest populations are at levels that warrant control intervention and also may help to determine the most appropriate method of control.

Pesticide User Expenditures - Dollar value of purchases by persons or businesses applying pesticides, such as farmers, commercial pesticide applicators and homeowners. Reported numbers are nominal values for the years indicated, i.e., not adjusted or indexed for inflation. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Pesticides - Chemicals used to kill insects or other organisms harmful to cultivated plants or human health. Many pesticides are toxic to humans, livestock and wildlife as well as to the target pest. Ecosystems have no natural mechanism for breaking down most human-made chemicals with the result that they usually persist in the environment. Despite 40 years of extensive pesticide use, worldwide crop losses from insects have almost doubled. The FAO reports that more than 1600 insect species have developed pesticide resistance. Pesticides kill harmful insects but they also kill beneficial ones like bees. (UNESCO) A substance used to kill, control, repel, or mitigate any pest. Insecticides, fungicides, rodenticides, herbicides, and germicides are all pesticides. EPA regulates pesticides under authority of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). In addition, under FIFRA, a substance used as a plant regulator, defoliant, or desiccant is defined as a pesticide and regulated accordingly. All pesticides must be registered and carry a label approved by EPA.

Pesticide Data Program (PDP) - A program established by USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service to provide pesticide residue data on food commodities, primarily fruits and vegetables. Congress transferred funding for the $10 million program to EPA for FY1997.

Pesticide Residue Tolerance - The amount of pesticide residue allowed by law to remain in or on a food sold in interstate commerce. Whenever a pesticide is registered for use on a food or a feed crop, a tolerance (or exemption from the tolerance requirement) must be established. EPA establishes the tolerance levels, which are enforced by the Food and Drug Administration and USDA.

Pesticide Usage - Refers to actual applications of pesticides, generally in terms of quantity applied or units treated. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

PET - Park Education Travel Program NPT (National Park Trust) Launches PET Program: "These unique trips of small educational groups will offer a special "behind the scenes" look at what the United States and other countries are doing to preserve their lands, their cultures, and their natural systems." http://www.parktrust.org/travel/index.html

PET - Planning Effectively for Tomorrow

PET - Potentially Economic Target

P.E.T. Party - So called because it represents the pharmaceutical, energy, and tobacco companies.

PETA - People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

Petrified Wood - Fossilization of wood through introduction or replacement by silica (silicified wood) in such a manner that the original form and structure of the wood is preserved. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Petroglyph - A form of rock art manufactured by incising, scratching or pecking designs into rock surfaces. - BLM

PETS - Proposed, Endangered, Threatened, or Sensitive Species

PEW - Palustrine Emergent Wetlands

PF - Packard Foundation

PF - Pedestrian Facilities

PF - Peradam Foundation

PF - Pheasants Forever

PF - Private Foundation

PFAC - Pension Fund Adviser Company

PFAP - Putting Farmed Animals Into Politics

PFC - Production Flexibility Contract

PFC - Proper Functioning Condition (of riparian/wetland areas) (BLM-DOI)

PFE - People For the Environment

PFF - Progress and Freedom Foundation

PFIA - Pennsylvania Forest Industry Association

PFMC - Pacific Fishery Management Council

PFP - The Pressure Front Program (United Nations - see UNGC) http://www.sustainability.com/programs/pressure-front/default.asp

PFP - Property For Parks Program Property For Parks (PFP) Program - "Saving the Legacy of the National System of Parks!" How it Can Work for You: If you own property, you can aid in the preservation of America's parklands by participating in the National Park Trust's (NPT) PROPERTY FOR PARKS program. When you donate property to this program, NPT will sell it and use the money to help preserve our national system of parks. Since 1983 NPT has been the beneficiary of over $10 million worth of donated property. Our dedicated staff has more than 50 years of experience working with park issues. What are the benefits? Corporations and individuals donating real estate receive an immediate tax deduction and avoid capital gains taxes. For individuals, donation write-offs can be staged over a period of years to maximize donor benefits. Individuals donating real estate can reduce state and federal estate taxes. Gifts of real estate can be donated through a will or living trust, and can be used to fund Charitable Remainder Trusts. Individuals donating property can retain their right to use the property for their lifetime, and take an immediate charitable income tax deduction for a portion of the value (when designated as a life estate). NPT also accepts other marketable assets such as bounds, mutual funds and stocks. The National Park Trust will endeavor to use proceeds from this property for the types of parks and locations the donor prefers. If the donor wishes, we will also provide appropriate recognition of the donation as determined by the recipient park agency. NPT uses professional experts to help donors maximize benefits from their property. These experts on charitable giving, tax planning and real estate are available to you through the National Park Trust. The Property for Parks program has been announced in Fortune, Business Week, and other publications. The publicity and response from these publications show that there is a yearning across America to find creative solutions to solve what is clearly a commitment of all Americans: The preservation of America's parklands. For more information on how you can help the National Park Trust through the Property for Parks program, contact NPT at 202-548-0500 or online at legacy@parktrust.org. http://www.parktrust.org/npt-report2/pfp_prog.html

PFPS - Producer-Financed Purchase System

PFSE - People For a Sound Economy

PFSM - Partnership For Stream Management

PFSR - The Public Forest Service Roads Program (USDA/Forest Service)

PFW - Partners For Wildlife

PFW - People For the West!

PFW - People For Wyoming http://www.PeopleForWyoming.com

PFUSA - People For the U.S.A.

PG - Pegasus Gold

PG - Power Grid

PG - The Practice Group

PG - Prescribed Grazing

PG - Public Good

PGC - Pennsylvania Game Commission

PG&E - Pacific Gas & Electric

PGM - Platinum Group Metals

PGP - Public Good Project

pH - An expression of the intensity of the basic or acidic condition of a liquid or of soil; may range from 0 to 14, where 0 is the most acid, 7 is neutral, and above 7 is alkaline on a logarithmic scale. Natural waters usually have a pH between 6.5 and 8.5.

PH - Production Habitat

PH - Production History

Phaneritic - A term used to describe the coarse grained texture of some igneous rocks.

Phase - The onset of a displacement or oscillation on a seismogram indicating the arrival of a different type of seismic wave. - USGS Earthquake glossary

Phase, soil - A subdivision of a soil series based on features that affect its use and management. For example, slope, stoniness, and thickness. - USDA

Phasing - Developing according to a schedule and in step with plans for the provision of Infrastructure so that Infrastructure is in place to serve each stage of development as it is built.

PHBI - Pioneer Hi-Bred International

PHC - Primary Habitat Components (DOI/BLM & USFWS)

PHE - Possible Health Effects

PHE - Probable Health Effects

Phenocryst - A porphyritic crystal inclusion.

Phenotype - The morphological, physiological, biochemical, behavioral, and other properties of an organism that develop through the interaction of genes and environment. (See genotype.) - UNDP/WRI

PHMS - Pacific Highly Migratory Species

PHO - Production Habitat Objective

Phosphorus - An essential nutrient for plants and animals that is commonly applied to crops as a phosphate fertilizer. Phosphorus can contribute to the eutrophication of lakes and other water bodies. Sources of excess phosphorus include sewage and agricultural runoff.

Photographic interpretation - The act of examining photography images for the purpose of identifying objects and judging their significance. - National Resources Inventory

Photosynthesis - The biological synthesis of chemical compounds in the presence of light.

PHP - Pasture and Hay Planting

Phreatic line - The uppermost level at which flowing water emerges.

Phreatophyte - A plant that absorbs its water from a permanent supply in the ground. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

PHT - Post-Harvest Treatment

Phyla - In taxonomy, the primary divisions of the plant and animal kingdoms. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Phylogenetic - Pertaining to the evolutionary history of a particular group of organisms. - UNDP/WRI

Phylum - In taxonomy, a high-level category just beneath the kingdom and above the class; a group of related, similar classes. - UNDP/WRI

Physical Capital - Things, such as machinery, tools, equipment, furniture, parts, and buildings that are needed to produce goods and services. See also capital and human capital. (UNESCO)

Physical capital (produced assets) - Buildings, machines, and technical equipment used in production plus inventories of raw materials, half-finished goods, and finished goods. - WB

Physical Education - Part of the formal school curriculum that aims to develop physical fitness and coordination in students, through participation in team and individual sporting pursuits, calisthenics and other physical exercises. Often also involves some form of health and lifestyle education to complement the physical activities. (UNESCO)

Physical Model - data model used for the implementation of a logical model; designed to account for data storage, indexes, how to retrieve data, and how keys are concatenated. Physical models strive to optimize logical models for how data are going to be used, such as for reports, data entry, and analysis, taking into account the software that will be used, as well as whether the database will be relational, hierarchical or network. - Cadastral Data glossary

Physiographic boundary - A boundary between states that conforms to rivers or mountain crests, or other physiographic features.

Physiographic Province - A region defined by a unified geologic history and a characteristic geologic structure and climate that differs from adjoining regions. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Physiographic Region - Region of similar geologic structure and climate with a unified history of land formation. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Phytoplankton - Unattached microscopic plants of plankton, subject to movement by wave or current action. See Plankton. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Phytoremediation - The use of plants to decontaminate water and soils rich in dissolved nutrients (as phosphates). - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Phytosanitary measure - Any legislation, regulation or official procedure having the purpose to prevent the introduction and/or spread of pests. - UN/FAO International Plant Protection Convention Glossary

PI - Pioneer Institute

PI - Plan Implementation

PI - Planning and Implementation

PI - Potential Impact

PI - Potomac Institute

PI - Private Investment

PI - Program Integrity

PI - Probe International

PI - Public Inquiry

PI - Public Interest

PIAC - Pro-Industry Action Coalition

PIAG - Pro-Industry Action Groups

PIBEO - Public Input Before Expert Output (James Stansbury, Stansbury Resolutions By Design, Inc., 4412 14th Ave. E., Bradenton, Florida 34208, 941-748-8663, with Glatting Jackson, http://www.glatting.com/ ) Mr. Stansbury has worked on visioning projects throughout Florida and the United States, including the Richland County, South Carolina, Visioning 2020 Plan; St Petersburg Vision 2020 Plan; and the Sarasota 2050 Plan (all with Glatting Jackson). Facilitation-Mediation Consultants, Stansbury Resolutions By Design, Inc. offers consensus-building services to public and private sectors. Specializing in strategic planning retreats; land use and resource management dispute resolution; visioning and community design resolution; visioning and community design.

PIC - Prior Informed Consent

PICA - Private Initiative Conservation Area

Picket Line - A reference line, marked by pickets or stakes, established on a property for mapping and survey purposes.

PICP - Prior Informed Consent Procedure

Pictograph - A form of rock art created by applying mineral based or organic paints to rock surfaces. - BLM

PID - Proportional, Integral and Differential

PID - Public Information Dissemination

PIEC - Parental Involvement in Education of Children

PIELC - Public Interest Environmental Law Conference (since 1983)

PIER - Public Interest Energy Research

PIF - Partners In Flight

PIFPA - Partners In Flight Physiographic Areas

PIG - Public Interest Group

Pig - Common term for an ingot of cast metal.

Pig Iron - Crude cast iron from a blast furnace.

Pillar - A block of solid ore or rock left in place to structurally support the shaft, walls or roof in a mine.

Pile - A timber, usually round, that is wholly or partly embedded in surface soil or underwater soil as a support for a superstructure such as a bridge, building, trestle, or wharf. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Piling unmerchantable material (PUM) - A logging contract requirement to remove and pile unmerchantable woody material of a specified size. - Bioenergy Glossary

PILT - Payment In Lieu of Taxes (Author's note: In the case of USFWS, after the first few years, fails to meet promised or expected levels significantly.)

Pilot Projects - Projects designed to address uncertainties associated with projects and to determine the feasibility, as well as optimum design, of a facility prior to embarking upon full scale implementation of the feature. - Everglades Plan glossary

PIMT - Provincial Implementation Monitoring Team

PIN - Personal Identification Number

Pine Plantation - Stands that have been artificially regenerated by planting or direct seeding and with a southern yellow pine, white pine-hemlock, or other forest type. - USDA/FS

Pineland - Nearly level land composed of coarse, poorly drained soils and dominated by pine trees. - Everglades Plan glossary

Pinelands Commission (New Jersey) - A State agency created by the Pinelands Protection Act of 1979 (N.J.S.A. 13:18A-1 et seq.) to develop a management plan for, and exercise regulatory control over, development activities in the Pinelands.

Pinelands Infrastructure Trust Fund (New Jersey) - A trust fund established by the Pinelands Infrastructure Bond Act of 1985, which provided $30 million for wastewater treatment facilities needed to accommodate existing and future needs in Pinelands Regional Growth Areas. These funds are allocated to various governmental entities pursuant to the Pinelands Infrastructure Trust Fund Plan prepared and approved by the Pinelands Commission.

Pioneer Species - A plant capable of invading a bare site (newly exposed soil surface) and persisting there until replaced by another species or community as succession progresses.

Pioneering - One of two processes of new group formation in red-cockaded woodpeckers (see also budding), by which a group colonizes previously unoccupied areas. Because of the difficulty of cavity excavation, this process occurs at very low frequencies. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf

PiP - Parks in Peril (UN)

PIP - Plan Implementation Program

PIP - Proposed Industrial Park

PIP - Public Information Program

PIP - Public Investment Program

PIP - Public Involvement Policy

Piping - Action of water passing through or under an embankment dam causing progressive removal of soil particles leading to development of a channel, appearing downstream as a hole discharging water. - Bureau Of Reclamation -- BOR -- Water Acquisition Glossary 2. Formation of subsurface tunnels or pipelike cavities by water moving through the soil. - USDA

PIPPR - Pioneer Institute for Public Policy Research

PIR - Previously Identified Resources

PIRG - Public Interest Research Group

Pit Lake - Water body that forms at the bottom of an open pit mine when mining extends below the water table. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Pitch - Refers to the relative angle of slope or dip of an ore deposit.

Pitchblende - An important uranium ore mineral, containing a high percentage of uranium oxide. It is black in color, possesses a characteristic pitch-like or greasy luster and is highly radioactive.

Pitting - Digging test pits for sampling gravels.

PK - Peace-Keepers (UN)

PK - Plant Kingdom

PKCS - Public-Key Cryptography Standards

PKF - Peace-Keeping Force (UN)

PKI - Public-Key Infrastructure

PL - Paid Lobbyist

PL - Parliamentary Library (Canada)

PL - Planning

PL - Political Legitimacy

PL - Priority List

PL - Private Land

PL - Professional Lobbyist

PL - Protected Land

PL - ProtectLand

PL - Public Land (actually, Federal Land)

PLA - Pennsylvania Landowners' Association

Placer - An alluvial deposit of sand and gravel containing valuable metals such as gold, tin, etc.

Placer Claim - A mining claim located upon gravel or ground whose mineral contents are extracted by the use of water. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Placer Deposit - A mass of gravel, sand, or similar material resulting from the crumbling and erosion of solid rocks containing particles of gold or other valuable minerals that have been derived from rocks or veins. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs. 2. A mass of gravel, sand, or similar material derived from weathering and erosion of bedrock. These masses often contain of heavy mineral grains concentrated due to the action of water. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Placer Mining - Mining sand and gravel deposits for their mineral content.

Plan - The documentation of a decision or decisions and all the factors that were considered during the decision making. The National Park Service produces four kinds of plans: general management plans, strategic plans, implementation plans, and annual performance plans. Each of these is described separated in the glossary. (DOI/NPS)

Plan Amendment - A change in the terms, conditions or decisions of a resource management plan. (BLM)

Plan Maintenance - Any documented minor change that interprets, clarifies, or refines a decision within a resource management plan but does not change the scope or conditions of that decision. (BLM)

Plan of Operations - A plan for mining exploration and development that an operation must submit to BLM for approval when more than 5 acres a year will be disturbed or when an operator plans to work in an area of critical environmental concern or a wilderness area. A Plan of Operations must document in detail all actions that the operator plans to take from exploration through reclamation. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Plan Revision - A new resource management plan prepared by following all steps required by the regulations for preparing an original resource management plan. (BLM)

Plane Survey - A survey in which the curvature of the earth is usually neglected. The computations of relative positions of stations being made by plane geometry and plane trigonometry. Most surveys used to develop cadastral maps are plane surveys. - Cadastral Data glossary

Plankton - Suspended, floating, or weakly swimming microscopic plants and animals in the water that provide a basis for the aquatic food chain. Plankton include bacteria, algae, protozoans, rotifers, larvae, and small crustaceans. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Planning - Structured decisionmaking. (DOI/NPS)

Planned Sewer Service Area - An area that is proposed to be served by sanitary sewer of sufficient capacity to serve anticipated development within the area. These areas include: 1) Sewer Service Areas delineated in Area-wide or County Water Quality Management Plans or Wastewater Management Plans that have already been approved by DEP, with the exception of sewer service areas that are recommended for deletion from such a plan by a county or municipality during Cross-Acceptance; and 2) Service areas for Regional or Community sewage systems that are recommended for inclusion in a future Wastewater Management Plan by a county or municipality.

Planned Unit Development (PUD) - A development concept which allows for flexible development standards in order to achieve a more creative, efficient, and aesthetically desirable design and placement of buildings, open spaces, and circulation patterns and to best utilize special site features, such as topographical size and shape. Regulations designed to promote variety and flexibility in land development while stressing the efficient use of open space and public facilities; in some communities these regulations may be designed to promote mixed-use districts; may provide for the type and number of residential and commercial uses allowed as well as bulk and area requirements and design of buildings; may also include provisions for incentive zoning or a density bonus to provide benefits such as affordable housing, recreational facilities, open space, day care facilities, infrastructure, or cash in lieu of thereof.

Planned Unit Development (PUD) Zoning - Planned unit development provisions allow land to be developed in a manner that does not fit into all the use, bulk, and open space requirements of any of the standard zoning districts. The PUD allows greater flexibility and innovation than conventional standards because a planned unit is regulated as one unit instead of each lot being regulated separately. - Smart Growth Green Development Glossary

Planning Analysis - A process using appropriate resource data and NEPA analysis to provide a basis for decisions in areas not yet covered by an RMP. - BLM

Planning Area - All of the lands within the management boundary addressed in a DOI resource management plan; however, DOI planning decisions apply only to DOI-administered lands and mineral estate. (DOI) 2. The area of National Forest land covered by a Regional Guide or Forest Plan. (DOI)

Planning Criteria - The standards, rules, and other factors developed by managers and interdisciplinary teams for their use in forming judgments about decision making, analysis, and data collection during planning. Planning criteria streamline and simplify the resource management planning actions. - BLM

Planning Period - The fifty-year time frame for which goods, services, and effects were projected in the development of the Forest Plan.

Planning unit - A sub-unit of the landscape planning unit; a biogeoclimatic subzone within a drainage, for example. - Biodiversity Guidebook Glossary

Planktivore - A plankton eating organism. - Everglades Plan glossary

PLANSUS - The Place-name Survey of the United States, an arm of the American Name Society created to promote the collection, study, and dissemination of place-name information and methods. Goal: PLANSUS seeks to help new researchers and to inform all researchers on current methods and progress of place-name research worldwide.

Plant Vigor - Plant health. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

Plant - A building or group of buildings, and their contained equipment, in which a process or function is carried out; on a mine it will include warehouses, hoisting equipment, compressors, maintenance shops, offices, mill or concentrator.

Plant association - A grouping of plant species, or a plant community, that recurs across the landscape. Plant associations are used as indicators of environmental conditions such as temperature, moisture, light, etc. - Bioenergy Glossary

Plant Association - A plant community type based on land management potential, successional patterns, and species composition. (BLM)

Plant Communities - Assemblies of plants living together. An association of plants of various species found growing together in different areas with similar site characteristics. (BLM)

Plant growth regulator - Blocks or accelerates plant growth. - EPA

Plant Patent Act - 35 U.S.C. §§ 161-164, July 19, 1952, as amended 1954. This Act allows an individual to obtain a patent for newly invented or discovered plants. A person who invents or discovers and asexually reproduces a distinct and new variety of plant, including cultivated sports, mutants, hybrids and newly found seedlings, other than a tuber-propagated plant or plant found in an uncultivated state, may obtain a patent, subject to the federal laws governing patents for inventions. The description of the plant in the patent application must be as complete as reasonably possible. A plant patent grants the right to exclude others from asexually reproducing the plant or selling or using the plant so reproduced. §§ 161-163.

Plant-pesticide - As proposed by EPA (November 23, 1994), plant-pesticides are all substances responsible for pest resistance in plants, as well as the genes needed for production of these substances. EPA has further proposed that plant-pesticide traits introduced into plants using recombinant DNA techniques should be registered under legal requirements of FIFRA and FFDCA. Exempt from tolerance requirements would be those defense substances and genes evolved naturally or transferred to the plant by traditional plant breeding methods.

Plant Regulator - A chemical that affects the physiological behavior of plants, for example through accelerating or retarding the rate of growth or maturation of produce. Typically the definition of plant regulator excludes nutrients. Plant regulators must be registered as pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act.

Plant products - Unmanufactured material of plant origin (including grain) and those manufactured products that, by their nature or that of their processing, may create a risk for the introduction and spread of pests. - UN/FAO International Plant Protection Convention Glossary

Plant Variety Protection Act of 1970 - P.L. 91-577 (December 24, 1970) was enacted to provide patent-like protection for new non-hybrid seed varieties. The ultimate goal was to create an incentive for public and private research on new commercial plant varieties by making it possible for scientists to benefit financially from developing them. The Plant Variety Protection Act Amendments of 1994 ( P.L. 103-349, October 6, 1994) made the law consistent with the International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants of March 19, 1991, to which the United States is a signatory. The law now ensures that new varieties are protected as intellectual property, as defined under the International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants. USDA rather than the Patent and Trademark Office, administers the law.

Plantation - A large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all plantations were established within the tropics; in recent decades many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives.

Plantation Maintenance- Actions in a nonestablished forest stand to promote the survival of desired crop trees. (BLM)

Plantation Release - All activities associated with promoting the dominance and/or growth of desired tree species within an established forest stand. (BLM)

PLANTS - The National PLANTS Database http://plants.usda.gov/

Plants - Living plants and parts thereof, including seeds and germplasm. - UN/FAO International Plant Protection Convention Glossary

PLAS - Public Lands Action Summit

Plastic Limit - (engineering term) The water content at which the soil rolled to a 1/3-cm wire begins to crumble.

Plastic limit - The moisture content at which a soil changes from semisolid to plastic. - USDA

Plasticity Index - A scale of relative value indicating swelling or the expansive characteristics of soil. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Plasticity Index - (engineering term ) The water content percentage between the liquid limit and the plastic limit.

Plasticity index - The numerical difference between the liquid limit and the plastic limit; the range of moisture content within which the soil remains plastic. - USDA

Plat - A plan of a subdivision of land creating buildings, lots, or tracts, and showing all essential dimensions and other information essential to comply with the subdivision standards, and subject to approval by the Planning and Zoning Commission, or other comparable regulatory agency. The plat must be prepared by a professional civil engineer registered in the State, or a Public Surveyor registered in the State. Reference to a plat in the Zoning Ordinance means an official plat of record has been approved by the Planning and Zoning Commission and filed in the plat records of the County.

Plat - A drawing showing one subdivision with its respective right-of-way, easements, blocks, lots, etc. Same as plot, map, or chart. - Cadastral Data glossary

Plat Plan - Sometimes referred to as a plat map; usually a survey drawing of an individual parcel of land showing special characteristics and the location of any buildings thereon. - Cadastral Data glossary

Plate - On a cavity tree, the area surrounding the cavity entrance with bark removed by red-cockaded woodpeckers. Newly formed cavities may not exhibit a well-developed plate. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf

Plate Tectonics - A geological theory that postulates that the Earth's crust is made up of a number of rigid plates that collide, rub up against and spread out from one another.

Plateau - An upland or tableland. An area of relatively high elevation.

Plateau - An elevated, relatively flat region commonly limited on at least one side by an abrupt descent to lower land. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Playa - An inland drainage basin, surrounded by sheets of alkaline or saline crust and containing a shallow, often ephemeral lake. (NPS) 2. A dried-up, flat-floored area consisting of thin, evenly layered sheets of fine clay, silt, or sand, and representing the bottom of a shallow, undrained desert lake basin in which water accumulates and is quickly evaporated, usually leaving deposits of soluble salts. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

PLBD - Partnerships for Linguistic and Biological Diversity (UN - WIPO)

PLC - Pacific Lumber Company

PLC - Please Light Candles

PLC - Public Lands Council

PLCAA - Professional Lawn Care Association of America

Pleasuring Ground - A public park [that is] off limits to grazing, mining, logging, and other exploitation. - NPS

Pledges & Grants Receivable - Funds promised to an organization from grantmakers, individual donors, etc., but not yet received.

Pleistocene Megafauna - Large mammals that inhabited North America before the end of the last glaciation and that became extinct. Such animals include the mammoth, mastodon, camel, giant slot, Bison antiquus, and Bison occidentalis. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

PLF - Pacific Legal Foundation

PLF - Precision Land Forming

PLG - Public Lands Grazing

PLGI - Public Lands Grazing Industry

PLGR - Programmable Light-weight GPS Receiver

PLH - Public Land Highway

PLH - Public Land Holdings

PLHD - Public Lands Highways Discretionary Program (TPL - Trust for Public Lands)

PLIN - Public Library Information Network

PLM - Public Land Management

PLMHW - Perception and Language in a More-than-Human World

Plot - A forest area defined by its condition. - Bioenergy Glossary

PLOW - Private Landowners of Wisconsin

Plowpan - A compacted layer formed in the soil directly below the plowed layer. - USDA

PLP - Primary Local Partner

PLP - Public Land Protection

PLP - Public Lands for the People http://www.plp2.org/index.html

PLP - The Public Lands Partnership

PLP - Public Lands Program

PLPR - Public Land Protection and Restoration

PLR - Public Lands Rancher

PLR - Public Lands Ranching

PLS - Planning and Land Services

PLS - Planning Level Survey, also known as an Inventory of Natural Resources (INR). An inventory of natural resources that must be identified to prevent the impairment of a military mission or to meet regulatory requirements. (USGS, Environmental Management and Compliance Requirements Handbook, SM 445-1-H)

PLS - Public Land Survey

PLSS - Public Land Survey System

PLT - Project Learning Tree (USDA)

PLT - ProLogis Trust

PLT - As of April 1, 2002, the Patagonia Land Trust http://www.patagonialandtrust.org/  will be relocated to the Foundation for Deep Ecology and the Conservation Land Trust - http://www.theconservationlandtrust.org - offices at Fort Cronkhite in the Marin Headlands in Sausalito, California. Together, these organizations are dedicated to the preservation of wild nature through land acquisition, activism, publishing, and grant making. Pumalin Park, a project of the Conservation Land Trust, is comprised of over 700,000 acres and functions as a national park under a private initiative. While most of the park is pristine wilderness, it has extensive public access and is a popular destination. http://www.deepecology.org/directory.html

PLTP - Professional Loggers and Timber Producers

PLU - Predominate Land Use

PLU - Public Land Use

PLUAC - Public Land Use Advisory Committee

Plugs - A common name for a small offshoot from a larger batholith.

Plume - A visible or measurable discharge of a contaminant from a given point of origin. A plume can be visible or thermal in water, or visible in the air. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Plunge - The vertical angle an orebody makes between the horizontal plane and the direction along which it extends, longitudinally to depth.

PLUS - Public Lands Used Sensibly (Montana Snowmobile Association)

PLUS - Public Land Users Society

Plutonic - Refers to rocks of igneous origin that have come from great depth.

PM - Particulate Matter

PM - Personnel Management

PM - Pest Management

PM - Policy Maker

PM - Population Monitoring

PM - Program Manager

PM - The Progressive Movement (Greenpeace and others)

PMA - Pinelands Municipal Alliance (NJ)

PMA - Plant Management Areas

PMA - Potentially Mineralized Areas

PMB - Policy, Management and Budget

PMC - Precious Metals Council

PMP - Performance Measurement Process

PMP - The President's Materials Policy (1951, Truman)

PMPR - Private Management of Public Resources

PM10 - Inhalable particulate matter

PM10 - Particulates that are less than 10 microns in diameter. These particulates are present in the smoke created by burning wood. - Bioenergy Glossary

PM2.5 - Fine particulate matter

PMUNT - The Pace Model United Nations Team

PN - Parental Notification

PN - Protest Net

PN - Public Notice

PN4WDA - Pacific Northwest Four Wheel Drive Association

PNTR - Permanent Normal Trade Relations

PNWIN - Pacific Northwest Information Node http://pnwin.nbii.gov/

PO - Partnering Organizations

PO - Population Objective

PO - Prairie Organics

PO - Program Officer

PO - Purchase Order

POA - Plan and Ordinance Administration

POA - Programme Of Action (UN)

POA - Property Owners Association

POB - Point Of Beginning (surveyor term)

POC - Pew Oceans Commission

POC - Point Of Compliance

POC - Policty Oversight Committee (made up of elected representatives of constituency groups) (UN)

POC - Port-Orford Cedar

POC - Production Of Compound

POC - Property Owner Concerns (Conservation Fund)

POCI - Property Owner Compensation Initiative

POCLAD - Program on Corporations, Law, and Democracy

Pocosin - A wetland dominated by a dense cover of evergreen and deciduous shrubs. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf

POE - Process Of Elimination

POEMS - Practical Ocean Energy Management Systems, Inc. http://www.poemsinc.org/home.html

POG - Pattern Of Growth

POGO - Project On Government Oversight

POH - Protection Of Habitat

Point - Unit of value of a stock as quoted by a stock exchange. May represent one dollar, one cent or one-eighth of a dollar, depending on the stock exchange.

Point of Beginning - In a deed description, it is a reference point from which the description begins. It is abbreviated as P.O.B. - Cadastral Data glossary

Points of Call - Monuments, landmarks, objects, boundaries, or other elements of a description, in a deed, that defines the limits of the boundaries of a parcel of land, e.g., "the NW corner of Lot 4", "the left bank of the river", "the north line of the J.P. Smith property", "the center of the county road", etc. The courts have held that where points-of-call are inconsistent with the measurements (either by course, angle, or distance) the points of call are paramount. - Cadastral Data glossary

POL - Privately Owned Land

POL - Profile Of Learning

POL - Publicly Owned Land

Pole - 5.5 yards; 16.5 feet; one rod. - Cadastral Data glossary

Pole/Sapling - The stage of forest succession in which trees are between three and seven inches in diameter and are the dominant vegetation.

Pole Timber - Trees at least five inches in diameter, but smaller than the minimum size or utilization standard for sawtimber.

Policy - A declared intention and course of action adopted by government, party, etc., for the achievement of a goal. (FAO-UN)

Policy - The National Park Service establishes specific criteria and procedures for how it will conduct its activities and carry out its mission. These policies apply to all NPS activities in all units of the National Park System. Park managers must comply with NPS policies, and the National Park Service may be sued in court for failure to comply with its own policies. (DOI/NPS)

Policy Objective - A more specific articulation of a Goal that guides application of Statewide Policies in the particular Planning Area.

Polishing Pond - The last in a series of settling ponds through which mill effluent flows before being discharged into the natural environment.

Polishing treatment - The final sewage treatment process to further reduce BOD5, suspended solids, and other pollutants. - Bioenergy Glossary

Point Source (of) Pollution - Pollutants that are discharged or emitted from discrete 'point' sources, such as pipes and smokestacks. Both the Clean Water Act and the Clean Air Act focus control requirements on point sources and both require permits for major sources of discharges from point sources. While much agricultural pollution is non-point source, some agricultural activities are affected: for example, feedlots of over 1000 animal units are considered point sources requiring permits under the Clean Water Act. However, irrigation return flows, although considered point sources, are expressly exempted from the permit requirement.

Political Rights - The right of people to participate in the political life of their communities and society. For example, the right to vote for their government or run for office. See Civil and Political Rights. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary

Political subdivision - The term "political subdivision" means any municipal corporation, township, or county. 10 O Jur 3d, Buildings, Zoning and Land Controls 255 A "political subdivision" means "county," "township," "city," "village," or "school district." 37 O Jur 3d, Elections 1 "Political subdivision" means the city health district; general health district; municipal corporation; board of park commissioners of a city, county, township, park district, or conservancy district; sanitary district; regional sewer and water district; and any other political subdivision of this state which is empowered to levy special assessments or charges. 84 O Jur 3d, Special Assessments 105fn "Public corporation" or "political subdivision" means counties, townships, municipal corporations, school districts, road districts, ditch districts, park districts, levee districts, and all other governmental agencies clothed with the power of levying general or special taxes. 92 O Jur 3d, Water 20fn

Polluted Water - Water containing a natural or human-made impurity. The water is classified as polluted when the concentration of the pollutant exceeds the acceptable standard for a particular use. Water that contains disease-causing or toxic substances is said to be contaminated.

Pollution/Contamination - A pollutant is any substance that is introduced into a water resource, naturally or by human activities, in sufficient amounts to adversely affect the quality of the resource for a specific use. Water pollution refers to the undesirable change in the condition of water to the point where the potential of the water for a specific use is limited or impaired. When the quality of a water resource falls below an acceptable level for a particular use, the water may be classified as polluted or contaminated. Pollution and contamination are very similar in meaning and often are used interchangeably. Contamination historically has related to water containing disease-causing or toxic substances that prevent or reduce the potential for use of that water. In recent times, the term contamination has been used to define the act of degrading the quality of a water supply or making a water supply impure, and to indicate that chemicals, sediments, or bacteriological impurities are present in water.

Pollution Prevention Act - 42 U.S.C. 13101 and 13102, s/s et seq. (1990) The Pollution Prevention Act focused industry, government, and public attention on reducing the amount of pollution through cost-effective changes in production, operation, and raw materials use. Opportunities for source reduction are often not realized because of existing regulations, and the industrial resources required for compliance, focus on treatment and disposal. Source reduction is fundamentally different and more desirable than waste management or pollution control. Pollution prevention also includes other practices that increase efficiency in the use of energy, water, or other natural resources, and protect our resource base through conservation. Practices include recycling, source reduction, and sustainable agriculture.

Polypedon - A volume of soil having properties within the limits of a soil series, the lowest and most homogeneous category of soil taxonomy. A "soil individual." - USDA

POO - Plan Of Operations

Pool Tail Embeddedness - The degree to which larger particles are covered or surrounded by finer sediments in the downstream end of a pool. A qualitative rating is assigned. The pool tail is where salmonids generally create redds for spawning. Greater pool tail embeddedness would be expected to reduce biotic productivity.

Pools - Very slow or stagnant water that forms where the channel bottom is substantially lower in elevation than upstream or downstream. For fisheries surveys, pools are classified by the feature that caused the pool to form. These features are undesignated, artificial, beaver, boulder, culvert, large woody debris, meander and root wad.

Poor filter - Because of rapid permeability the soil may not adequately filter effluent from a waste disposal system. - USDA

Poorly graded - Refers to a coarse grained soil or soil material consisting mainly of particles of nearly the same size. Because there is little difference in size of the particles, density can be increased only slightly by compaction. - USDA

POP - Points Of Presence

POP - Public Opinion Poll

POPP - Pursuit Of Power Politics

POPs - Persistent Organic Pollutants

Population - A group of individuals of the same species occupying a given area. Methods of specifying such an area may differ according to purpose. A common specification is the area within which gene flow is sufficient to avoid genetic differentiation. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf

Population - A group of individuals with common ancestry that are much more likely to mate with one another than with individuals from another such group. - UNDP/WRI

Population - Is the total membership or population or 'universe' of a defined class of people, objects, or events. There are two types of population viz. target population and survey population. A target population is the population outlined in the survey objects about which information is to be sought and a survey population is the population from which information can be obtained in the survey. The target population is also known as the scope of the survey and the survey population is also known as the coverage of the survey. For administrative records the corresponding populations are: the `target population' as defined by the relevant legislation and regulations, and the actual `client population'. (UN)

Population augmentation - Translocation between populations to increase population size. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf

Population Density - Total number of inhabitants per square unit of surface area.

Population dynamics - Properties of a population such a trend and regulation of population size. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf

Population Growth - The increase in a country's population, divided by the population. It reflects the number of births and deaths and the number of people moving to and from a country. Usually expressed as an annual average rate. (UNESCO)

Population Growth Rate (average annual) - The increase in a country's population during one year, divided by the population at the start of that year. It reflects the number of births and deaths during the period and the number of people moving to and from a country. The average annual population growth rates for a period of years provide a better picture than do rates for a single year. In 1998 total world population was more that 5.8 billion, and the average world population growth rate was between 1980 and 1998 1.6. (WB-UN)

Population Momentum - The tendency for population growth to continue beyond the time that replacement-level fertility has been achieved because of a relatively high concentration of people in the childbearing years. For example, the absolute numbers of people in developing countries will continue to increase over the next several decades even as the rates of population growth will decline. This phenomenon is due to past high fertility rates which results in a large number of young people. As these youth grow older and move through reproductive ages, the greater number of births will exceed the number of deaths in the older populations. (UNESCO)

Population Projections - Demographers make predictions about future population based on trends in fertility, mortality, and migration. (UNESCO)

Population trend - See increasing population trend, decreasing population trend, and stable population trend. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf

Population Vulnerability Analysis (PVA) - Assessment of the probability of extinction of a population or species (United Nations).

Pore Water Pressure (Pore Pressure) - The stress transmitted through the fluid that fills the voids between particles of a soil or rock mass. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Porosity - The relative quantity of holes or opening in a substance. The percentage of the volume of a material, such as soil or rock, that is occupied by pore spaces. Porosity is an indication of the capacity of the material to hold water.

Porphyry - Any igneous rock in which relatively large, conspicuous crystals (called phenocrysts) are set in a fine-grained groundmass.

Porphyry Copper - A deposit of disseminated copper minerals in a large body of porphyry.

Port Authority - A port authority is the agency responsible for ensuring that the port is provided with the services, facilities and equipment to enable goods and passengers to be transferred through the ports in the most efficient and cost effective manner to meet the needs of the port's users at a commercially acceptable rate of return.

Portal - Any nearly horizontal entrance to a mine. The surface entrance to a tunnel or adit.

Portfolio - A list of financial assets.

POS - Private open space (UN)

Positive Cultural Element - Human alterations that are scenically positive attributes, most of which have historical backgrounds or nostalgic connotations. Examples include split-rail fences, stone walls, barns, orchards, hedgerows, and cabins. There may be nodes, enclaves or constellations of positive cultural elements. - FS

POSS - Proposed Open Space System

Possible Reserves - Valuable mineralization not sampled enough to accurately estimate its tonnage and grade, or even verify its existence. Also called "inferred reserves".

Posted County Price (PCP) - This price is calculated for wheat and feed grains for each county by the Farm Service Agency. The PCP reflects changes in prices in major terminal grain markets (of which there are 18 in the country), corrected for the cost of transporting grain from the county to the terminal. It is utilized under the marketing loan repayment provisions and loan deficiency payment provisions of the wheat and feed grains commodity programs.

Postindustrialization - The phase in a country's economic development that follows industrialization and is characterized by the leading role of service sector in the national economy. - WB

Post harvest -- Refers to activities in the food and fiber sector that occur after agricultural products are sold from, or leave, the farm or ranch. In total, about 75% of the retail cost of the market basket of foods is added in post harvest activities.

Potable Water - Water that is safe and palatable for human consumption. Water that is safe to drink. (UN)

Potash Potassium - Compounds mined for fertilizer and for use in the chemical industry.

POTC - Property Owner and Tenant Concerns (Conservation Fund)

Potential Area of Critical Environmental Concern - An area of DOI-administered land that meets the relevance and importance criteria for Area of Critical Environmental Concern designation, as follows: (1) Relevance. There shall be present a significant historic, cultural, or scenic value; a fish or wildlife resource or other natural system or process; or natural hazard. (2) Importance. The above-described value, resource, system, process, or hazard shall have substantial significance and values. This generally requires qualities of more than local significance and special worth, consequence, meaning, distinctiveness, or cause for concern. A natural hazard can be important if it is a significant threat to human life or property. (DOI)

Potential breeding group - An adult and adult male that occupy the same cluster, whether or not they are accompanied by a helper, attempt to nest, or successfully fledge young. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf

Potential evapotranspiration - Water loss that will occur if at no time there is a deficiency of water in the soil for use of vegetation. (Thornthwaite, 1944, p. 687.) - USGS

Potential national natural landmark - An area that, based on recommendation or initial comparison with other areas in the same natural region, seems to merit further study of its merits for possible national natural landmark designation. - NPS

Potential Natural Communities (PNC) - The stable biotic community that would become established on an ecological site if all successional stages were completed without human interference under present environmental conditions.

Potential natural water loss - The water loss during years when the annual precipitation greatly exceeds the average water loss. It represents the approximate upper limit to water loss under the type and density of vegetation native to a basin, actual conditions of moisture supply, and other basin characteristics, whereas potential evapotranspiration represents the hypothetical condition of no deficiency of water in the soil at any time for use of the type and density of vegetation that would develop. (After Troxell and others, 1954, pl. 11B.) - USGS

Potential rate of evaporation. See Evaporativity. - USGS

Potentiometric Surface - The level to which water rises in a tightly cased well constructed in a confined aquifer. In an unconfined aquifer, the potentiometric surface is the water table. The term piezometric is sometimes used in place of potentiometric.

Potentiometric Surface - A groundwater term relating to the contoured (mapped) surface showing the distribution of hydraulic head within a particular aquifer. In an unconfined aquifer, the potentiometric surface is the water table. In a confined aquifer the potentiometric surface illustrates how high water would rise in wells that penetrate the aquifer. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

POTUS - President Of The United States

Poverty - Living on less than one US dollar per day. - UNEP Children's Glossary

Poverty line - The income level people require to buy life's basic necessities- food, clothing, housing- and satisfy their most important sociocultural needs. The poverty line changes over time and varies by region. Also called subsistence minimum. - WB

POW - Planning of Wetlands

POW - Prisoner Of War

POWW - Palustrine Open Water Wetland

PP - Patent Pending

PP - Peer Pressure

PP - Permitted Proximity

PP - Physical Process

PP - Physiographic Province

PP - Pilot Program

PP - Plan Preparation

PP - Planning Phases

PP - Planned Parenthood

PP - Platform Positions

PP - Pocket Park

PP - Pocket Policeman

PP - Political Prisoner

PP - Political Purposes

PP - Population Poisoning

PP - Power Politics

PP - Power Pool

PP - Prairie Pothole (JVP-USFWS-DOI)

PP - Precautionary Principle

PP - Preservation Project

PP - Prevailing Party (legal)

PP - Protection Plan

PP - Public Parks

PP - Public Policy

PP - Public-Private

PP - Public Protest

PP - Purchasing Power

PPA - Paris Peace Accords

PPA - The Pinelands Protection Act

PPA - Pollution Prevention Act of 1990

PPA - Privacy Protection Act of 1980

PPA - Public Port Authority

PPAP - Public-Private Aid Package (includes tax abatements)

PPATT - Promoting Physical Activity Through Trails (CDC - Centers for Disease Control)

PPC - Personal Protective Clothing

PPC - Polystyrene Packaging Council

PPC - Public Power Council (NOAA/NMFS, Portland, Oregon)

PPE - Planning for Personal Enrichment

PPE - Plotting for Personal Enrichment

P/PE - Presumed/Possibly Extinct

PPG - Pacific Power Grid

PPG - Projected Population Goal

PPG - Public Policy Goals

PPI - Pilot Projects Initiative (The U.S. Institute)

PPI - Public Policy Information

PPM - Parts Per Million

PPMVD - Parts Per Million Volume Day

PPOS - Public Parks / Open Space

PPP - Parallel Programs and Policies

PPP - Pastured Poultry Producers

PPP - Plan Puebla-Panama

PPP - Polluter Pays Principle (IUCN)

PPP - Public-Private Partnerships

PPP - Purchasing-Power Parity (UN)

PPP - 'Power Point' Presentation

PPR - Preserve Protect and Restore

PPR - Private Property Rights

PPR - Provincial Project Review

PPRC - Pulp and Paperworkers Resource Council

PPRP - Parkways and Park Roads Program

PPS - Precision Positioning Service (GPS)

PPT - Parts Per Thousand

PPWC - Pumping Plant for Water Control

PR - Parental Rights

PR - Participation Requirements

PR - Passive Recreation

PR - Payout Requirement

PR - Peer Review

PR - Permit Retirement

PR - Personal Responsibility

PR - Phosphate Rock

PR - Population Reduction

PR - Primary Rights

PR - Protected Resources

PR - Protocol Ratification

PR - Public Relations

PRA - Participatory rural appraisal

PRAC - People Raging Against Creeps

PRAC - Property Rights Action Committee

PRACFL - Property Rights Action Committee

Practice factor (P factor - USLE) - The ratio of soil loss with a support practice like contouring, stripcropping, or terracing, to soil loss with straight-row farming up and down the slope. - National Resources Inventory

PRAHWG - Property Rights Ad Hoc Working Group, Washington, D.C., based property rights coalition, organized by Andrew Langer of NFIB

Prairie - Land predominately covered in grasses. - Everglades Plan glossary

Prairie Potholes - A type of wetland characteristic of glaciated areas in the Upper Midwest (North Dakota especially) that is at the center of a shallow depression. Many potholes are wet during only a portion of the year, usually early spring. They provide important nesting habitat for migratory waterfowl, and were designated as a national priority area by the Secretary of Agriculture under the Conservation Reserve Program.

PRAIRIEMAP - Prairie Ecosystem Map Assessment Project (DOI/USGS) http://prairiemap.wr.usgs.gov/  and http://prairiemap.wr.usgs.gov/ftp/  and VERY important Links page: http://prairiemap.wr.usgs.gov/links.htm

PRB - Population Reference Bureau (a link on the VHEMT Links page) Non-advocacy is their watchword, statistics as pure as they can get. Informing the public about demographics since 1929. Providing numbers about political entities with less political influence. Includes links to many other sources of demographic data.

PRB - Productive Resource Base

PRBCA - Platte River Basin Cooperative Agreement (Colorado, Nebraska, and Wyoming)

PRBO - Point Reyes Bird Observatory

PRBRC - Powder River Basin Resource Council http://www.worc.org - member, Western Organization of Resource Councils (WORC) (RED FLAG)

PRC - Pacific Rivers Council

PRC - Parental Report Card

PRC - Parents Rights Coalition

PRC - Preliminary Review Comments

PRC - Public Relations Campaign

PRCA - Property Rights Congress of America

PRD - Parks and Recreation Department

PRD - Parks and Recreation Director

Pre-Construction Engineering and Design Phase (PED) - The phase of project development that follows the study phase and precedes the construction phase. While the Comprehensive Plan comprised the study phase of this program, Project Implementation Reports, Detailed Design and Plans and Specifications comprise the PED phase. - Everglades Plan glossary

Pre-Columbian - The period of time before Columbus arrived in the Americas.

Pre-Commercial Thinning - Removing some of the trees from a stand that are too small and thus less marketable to be sold for lumber or house logs, so the remaining trees will grow faster.

Pre-Existing Use - Land use that may not conform to a zoning ordinance but existed prior to the enactment of the condition.

Pre-Harvest - Refers to activities on the farm or ranch that occur before crop or livestock products are sold. 'Pre-harvest food safety activities,' for example, is a term often used to describe USDA's efforts, through research and cooperative work, to foster changes in on- farm production that can reduce public health risks in live animals before they are sent to slaughter.

Pre-Production Expenses - Expenses incurred prior to the period when a farm activity begins producing, primarily raising orchard trees or breeding animals.

Preamble - An introductory statement to a classification, outlining the intent, purpose, scope and coverage of a classification. (UN)

Precambrian Shield - An area covering much of northern Canada consisting of the oldest, most stable part of the North American continental plate.

The Precautionary Principle - When an activity raises threats of serious or irreversible harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures that prevent the possibility of harm (for example, moratorium, prohibition) shall be taken even if the causal link between the activity and the possible harm has not been proven or the causal link is weak and the harm is unlikely to occur. (approved and imbedded in numerous international treaties including the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development aka UNCED, the Second North Sea Declaration, the Bergen Declaration on Sustainable Development; the Ministerial Declaration of the Second World Climate Conference; the Maastricht Treaty on the European Union; the Helsinki Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and international lakes; and others)

Precinct - A section of the study area that has boundaries based on size rather than similar landscape character or municipal boundaries.

Precipitate - The material that settles from a liquid solution when a particular substance is added to the solute.

Precipitation - The process by which water vapor condenses in the atmosphere or onto a land surface in the form of rain, hail, sleet or snow.

Precipitation - 2. Separation of dissolved elements from water by forming a solid substance with other elements. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary 3. As used in hydrology, precipitation is the discharge of water, in liquid or solid state, out of the atmosphere, generally upon a land or water surface. It is the common process by which atmospheric water becomes surface or subsurface water . The term "precipitation" is also commonly used to designate the quantity of water that is precipitated. (Meinzer, 1923, p. 15.) Includes rainfall, snow, hail, and sleet, and is therefore a more general term than rainfall. - USGS

Precisely delineated [natural] areas - Precisely delineated [natural] areas are referred to as part of the definition of natural heritage in Article 2 of the Convention (UNESCO 1972). See Natural heritage - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Precision Farming - Farmers use global positioning (GPS) technology involving satellites and sensors on the ground and intensive information management tools to understand variations in resource conditions within fields. They use this information to more precisely apply fertilizers and other inputs and to more accurately predict crop yields.

Predation - The acquisition of food by killing and eating another organism. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf

Predation - 1.) Refers to consumption of an organism by another organism. 2.) Refers to the consumption and/or killing of animals. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Predator - An animal that lives by preying on other animals. Predators are at or near the tops of food chains.

Predator Control - A predator-prey interaction in which the predator controls the prey population size; that is, in which the predator population is the limiting factor for the prey population size. - UNDP/WRI

Preferred Alternative - The alternative recommended for implementation in the EIS (40 CFR 1502.14). USFWS's selected alternative identified in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

Preferred Shares - Shares of a limited liability company that rank ahead of common shares, but after bonds, in distribution of earnings or in claim to the company's assets in the event of liquidation. They pay a fixed dividend but normally do not have voting rights as with common shares.

Pregnant Pond - A pond containing liquid that is charged with valuable minerals. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Pregnant Solution - A solution in hydrometalurigical treatment that is charged with valuable minerals and awaits their removal. See Barren Solution. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Prehistoric - Relating to or existing in times predating written history. This term generally refers to those North American cultures in existence prior to A.D. 1540. - USDA/FS

Prejuducial procedural error - One that reasonably may be considered to have affected the outcome of the designation process. - NPS

Preparatory assistance - Preparatory assistance is one of the types of international assistance available to States Parties from the World Heritage Fund. Paragraphs 90 and 91 of the Operational Guidelines outline the types of activities that may be funded by preparatory assistance. The upper limit available as preparatory assistance is US$15,000 (UNESCO February 1996: 31-32). The form used to request preparatory assistance (UNESCO 1990c) can be obtained from the World Heritage Centre. The Request for Preparatory Assistance form is also available electronically via the INTERNET. See International assistance - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Preparatory Cut - The removal of trees near the end of a rotation to open the canopy so the crowns of seed bearing trees can enlarge. this improves seed production and encourages natural regeneration.

Preplan - Describes the purpose, location, issues to be resolved, participants' roles and responsibilities, budget, and schedule. - DOI/BLM

Prescribed Burn - The application of fire to fuels in either a natural or modified state under such conditions as to allow the fire to be confined to a predetermined area and at the same time to produce the intensity of heat and rate of spread required to further certain planned objectives (i.e. silviculture, wildlife management, reduction of fuel hazard, etc.). A controlled fire used to meet land management goals such as reducing shrub and tree invasion or changing plant species composition toward a more desirable forage.

Prescribed Fire - Fire set intentionally in wildland fuels under prescribed conditions and circumstances. Prescribed fire can rejuvenate forage for livestock and wildlife or prepare sites for natural regeneration of trees.

Prescribed Fire - Controlled application of fire to natural fuels under conditions of weather, fuel moisture, and soil moisture that will allow confinement of the fire to a predetermined area and, at the same time, will produce the intensity of heat and rate of spread required to accomplish certain planned benefits to one or more objectives to wildlife, livestock, and watershed values. The overall objectives are to employ fire scientifically to realize maximum net benefits at minimum environmental damage and acceptable cost. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary 2. Any fire ignited by management actions under certain, predetermined conditions to meet specific objectives related to hazardous fuels or habitat improvement. A written, approved prescribed fire plan must exist, and NEPA requirements must be met, prior to ignition. - FS

Prescription - Management practices selected and scheduled for application on a designated area to accomplish and attain specific land and resource management goals and objectives.

Prescription - Specific written directions for forest management activities. - Bioenergy Glossary

Preseault v. US - INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY. In brief, the issue in this case is whether the conversion, under the authority of the Rails-to-Trails Act and by order of the Interstate Commerce Commission, of a long unused railroad right-of-way to a public recreational hiking and biking trail constituted a taking of the property of the owners of the underlying fee simple estate. At this point we shall refer to the railroad's interest in the property by the term "right-of-way." That term is sufficient to indicate that the railroad had obtained a property interest allowing it to operate its equipment over the land involved. Later in the opinion it will become important to more precisely delineate the nature of the railroad's property interests, after which the use of the term "right-of-way" will refer only to those defined interests. The facts of the case are reported in full in the several opinions already rendered in connection with this matter: the decision of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, holding the Rails-to-Trails Act constitutional and the Preseaults without remedy, Preseault v. ICC, 853 F.2d 145 (2d Cir. 1988) (Preseault I)5; the decision of the United States Supreme Court, on certiorari from the Second Circuit, affirming the constitutionality of the Rails-to-Trails Act on its face, but concluding that the Preseaults may have a remedy in the Court of Federal Claims under the Tucker Act for a Fifth Amendment "taking," Preseault v. ICC, 494 U.S. 1 (1990) (Preseault II); the initial decision of the Court of Federal Claims, Preseault v. United States, 24 Cl. Ct. 818 (1992) (Preseault 1), in which the trial judge, after hearing and argument, granted partial summary judgment for the Preseaults, and denied the Government's cross-motions for summary judgment; and the final judgment of the Court of Federal Claims, reported at 27 Fed. Cl. 69 (1992) (Preseault 2), concluding that the law was against the Preseault's claim for compensation under the Fifth Amendment, granting the Government's second cross-motion for summary judgment, and ordering judgment dismissing the complaint.[6 There are also two decisions in related matters by the Supreme Court of Vermont. The first, in 1985, holds that affected property owners (in that case the Preseaults and others) cannot maintain a suit in state court for a declaration of rights concerning the matter at issue before us because the matter is exclusively within the province of the Federal Government pursuant to the provisions of the Interstate Commerce Commission Act, and that the state court is therefore without subject matter jurisdiction. ]Trustees of the Diocese of Vermont v. State, 145 Vt. 510, 496 A.2d 151 (1985). The second state court decision, some ten years later, affirms an injunction against the Preseaults prohibiting them from using that part of their property subject to the original right-of-way for any purpose other than as members of the general public. State v. Preseault, 652 A.2d 1001 (Vt. 1994). In light of this record, we refer the reader to the earlier opinions for the full details of the events leading up to this appeal. For purposes of the decision here we summarize and condense that history, and recite only the salient facts relevant to the decision. On appeal we affirm a summary judgment if the record before us discloses that "there is no genuine issue as to any material fact and that the moving party is entitled to judgment as a matter of law." Fed. R. Civ. P. 56(c). Although we give due consideration to the views of the trial court, we decide anew questions about the applicable law, without deference to those views. In summary, we conclude that the trial court was correct in finding that the 1899 transfers to the railroad created easements for use for railroad purposes; the fee estates remained with the original property owners. (Part C.1.) We accept the Government's position that ultimately this is a matter to be decided under controlling federal law and Constitution, but we reject the Government's central thesis that general federal legislation providing for the governance of interstate railroads, enacted over the years of the Twentieth Century, somehow redefined state-created property rights and destroyed them without entitlement to compensation. (Part C.2.) The trial court erred in accepting that thesis. As far as the Government's defenses based on the state's property law are concerned, we conclude that even if these easements were still in existence at the time the trail was created, there was no legal justification for the intrusion upon the Preseault's property. We find no support in Vermont law for the proposition, propounded by the defendants and accepted by the dissent, that the scope of an easement limited to railroad purposes should be read to include public recreational hiking and biking trails (Part D). But we find no clear error in the trial court's determination that in fact these easements had been abandoned years before the creation of the trail (Part E), and that determination is affirmed. Finally, we conclude that the taking that resulted from the establishment of the recreational trail is properly laid at the doorstep of the Federal Government. Whether the State's role in the matter should have resulted in liability for the State, or whether the State could absolve itself by pointing to the Federal Government, as the State Court held, is immaterial. The Federal Government authorized and controlled the behavior of the State in this matter, and the consequences properly fall there. (Part E.)

Presence of island remnants - A measure of the importance of island remnants to landscape connectivity relative to other Natural Disturbance Types. Island remnants are the structures remaining after stand initiating disturbances and will therefore be most important where stand-initiating disturbances are predominant. - Biodiversity Guidebook Glossary

Present Net Value (PNV) - Also called present net worth; the measure of the economic value of a project when costs and revenues occur in different time periods. Future revenues and costs are "discounted" to the present by an interest rate that reflects the changing value of a dollar over time. The assumption is that dollars today are more valuable than dollars in the future. PNV is used to compare project alternatives that have different cost and revenue flows.

Presentation - The World Heritage Convention does not specifically define presentation. Throughout the Convention reference is made to the "identification, protection, conservation, presentation and transmission to future generations of the cultural and natural heritage". Article 5 of the Convention makes reference to a number of "effective and active measures" that can be taken by States Parties in ensuring this "identification, protection, conservation, presentation and transmission" (UNESCO 1972). Although presentation is used very frequently in the Operational Guidelines it is not defined. - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Preservation - An effort to sustain the remaining physical fabric of a historic structure, with attention to the seven points of integrity -- location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association -- as defined by the criteria of the National Register of Historic Places. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Pre-Suppression - Activities carried out in advance of fire occurrences to ensure effective suppression when the need arises.

Presidential Directives - Bill Clinton was unhappy with the dictatorial war-making powers surrendered to the Executive by Congress, and sought to systematize those extra-constitutional powers in two secret presidential decrees: Presidential Decision Directives (PDDs) 13 and 25. While neither of these documents have been made public, portions of PDD-13 were leaked in the press and a 15-page "unclassified summary" of PDD-25 has been made available by the Administration.

Preservation - The World Heritage Convention and the Operational Guidelines do not specifically define preservation. Preservation is used interchangeably with conservation, safeguarding and protection in the Operational Guidelines. See Conservation, Protection, Safeguarding - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Preservative - Any substance applied to wood that is effective in preventing the development and action of wood-destroying fungi and insects. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Pressure Potential - The amount of work an infinitesimal amount of soil water can do in moving from a pool of pure water under pressure common to that soil position to a pool of pure water at the same location and at normal atmospheric pressure.

Pressure treating - A process by which preservatives are applied to wood products. While exact procedures may vary, the treatment process involves forcing the preservative deep into the cellular structure of the wood under pressure in a closed cylinder. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Prevalence of Malnutrition Under Age 5 - The percentage of children under five years of age whose health and growth are jeopardized by lack of proper food. (WB-UN)

Prevented Planting Acreage - Land on which a farmer intended to plant a program crop or insurable crop, but was unable to because of drought, flood, or other natural disaster. Used in the calculation of disaster payments and crop insurance indemnity payments.

Prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) - Under the Clean Air Act, a planning and management process for air quality when a new source of air pollution is proposed in an area where ambient air quality is better than applicable standards (areas of special importance). - Bioenergy Glossary

Prevention Strategy - The amelioration of conditions that cause or favor the presence of competing or unwanted vegetation. (BLM)

Prey Base - Populations and types of prey species available to predators, for example fish species and populations available to river otters. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Prey Species - An animal taken by a predator as food. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

PRFA - Property Rights Foundation of America, Inc.

PRI - Pacific Research Institute

PRI - Program-Related Investment

PRIA - Public Rangelands Improvement Act

Price Elasticity - A measure of the sensitivity of supply and demand to changes in price. If price elasticity is low, a large change in price will lead to a small change in supply. - USDA/FS

Price-to-earnings Ratio - The current market price of a stock divided by the company's net earnings per share for the year.

Price support loans - See non-recourse loan program. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

PRIMA - Public Risk Management Association

Primary - The original or unaltered form.

Primary cavity nester - Species that nest in cavities they created. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf

Primary core population - A population identified in recovery criteria that will hold at least 350 potential breeding groups at the time of and after delisting. Defined by biological boundaries. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf

Primary Deposits - Ore minerals deposited during the original period or periods of metallization as opposed to those deposited as a result of alteration or weathering.

Primary [or natural] forest - A forest largely undisturbed by human activities. - UNDP/WRI

Primary Goods or Products - Goods, for example, iron ore, diamonds, wheat, copper, oil, or coffee-that are used or sold as they are found in nature. They are also called commodities. (UNESCO)

Primary Health Care - Health services, including family planning, clean water supply, sanitation, immunization, and nutrition education, that are designed to be affordable for both the poor people who receive the services and the governments that provide them; the emphasis is on preventing disease as well as curing it. (UNESCO)

Primary Key - an attribute that serves as a unique identifier for an entry in an entity. - Cadastral Data glossary

Primary Pollutant - A pollutant emitted directly from a source. See Secondary Pollutant. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Primary Porosity - The porosity that developed during the final stages of sedimentation or was present within sedimentary particles at the time of deposition. See Porosity and Secondary Porosity. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Primary Producers - Green plants that can manufacture food from simple organic substances. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Primary Production: The production of organic substances by photosynthesis; the amount of material so produced per unit time. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Primary Productivity - The transformation of chemical or solar energy to biomass. Most primary production occurs through photosynthesis, whereby green plants convert solar energy, carbon dioxide, and water to glucose and eventually to plant tissue. In addition, some bacteria in the deep sea can convert chemical energy to biomass through chemosynthesis. Primary production refers to the amount of material produced. Net primary production is the measure of the actual accumulation of biomass after some of the products of photosynthesis (or chemosynthesis) are expended for the plant's own maintenance. Productivity, or the rate of production, is affected by various environmental factors, including the amount of solar radiation, the availability of water and mineral nutrients, and temperature. - UNDP/WRI

Primary sample unit (PSU) - An area of land, typically square to rectangular in shape, that is approximately 40, 100, 160, or 640 acres in size. Within the PSU, sample points are assigned. Certain data elements are collected for the entire PSU, while others are collected at the PSU points. The size of the PSU is based on the shape, size, and complexity of the resources being inventoried. In 34 states, PSU's are often 160-acre square parcels measuring 0.5 mile on each side. In the western United States, PSU's are often 40-acre or 640-acre square areas; the 40-acre units are used in most irrigated areas, and the larger PSU's are used in relatively homogeneous areas containing large tracts of rangeland, forest land, or barren land. In the 13 northeastern states, PSU's are defined to be 20 seconds of latitude by 30 seconds of longitude, ranging from 97 acres in Maine to 114 acres in southern Virginia. In Louisiana and parts of northwestern Maine, PSU's are 0.5 kilometer squares (61.8 acres). - National Resources Inventory

Primary structure - The key building or structure defining a cluster of buildings and/or structures; or, the key building or structure supported by a group of ancillary (dependent) buildings and/or structures. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Primary Travelways and Use Areas - National and/or regionally important location largely associated with recreation and tourism use. - FS

Primary Unit - Is a unit which always can take one and only one value for the variable for which the classification represents a value set. (e.g. the primary unit to be classified by `occupation' is the `job'. To classify a `person' by `occupation' one first needs to establish a link between the person and an appropriate `job'). (UN)

Primary Wood-using Plants - Industries receiving roundwood or chips from roundwood for the manufacture of products such as veneer, pulp, and lumber. - USDA/FS

Prime Farmland - Land that is best suited to and available for the production of food, feed, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops. It can be cropland, pastureland, rangeland, forestland, or other land. It has the soil quality, growing season, and moisture needed to produce high yields of crops each year economically, if managed according to acceptable farm practices. Prime farmland produces the highest yields with minimal expenditure of energy and economic resources and does so with the least damage to the environment. Of the 334 million acres of prime farmland, 216 million are in cropland use, according to the 1992 national resources inventory. See also unique farmland. Land that has the best combination of physical and chemical characteristics for producing food, feed, fiber, forage, oil seed, and other agricultural crops with minimum inputs of fuel, fertilizer, pesticides, and labor and without intolerable soil erosion, as determined by the Secretary of Agriculture. It does not include land that is already committed to urban development or storage. Only 3.1% of the Earth's surface is prime farmland.

Prime farmland - Prime farmland is land on which crops can be produced for the least cost and with the least damage to the resource base. Prime farmland has an adequate and dependable supply of moisture from precipitation or irrigation and favorable temperature and growing season. The soils have acceptable acidity or alkalinity, acceptable salt and sodium content and a few rocks. They are not excessively eroded. They are flooded less often than once in two years during the growing season and are not saturated with water for a long period. The water table is maintained at a sufficient depth during the growing season to allow cultivated crops common to the area to be grown. The slope ranges mainly from 0 percent to 5 percent. To be classified as prime, land must meet these criteria and must be available for use in agriculture. Land committed to non-agricultural uses is not classified as prime farmland. [Source: USDA-SCS, 1982 NRI] 2. Land that has the best combination of physical and chemical characteristics for producing food, feed, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops and is also available for these uses. - National Resources Inventory

Primitive - One of the six classes of the recreation opportunity spectrum. Primitive areas offer recreation opportunities for isolation from the sights and sounds of human activities, where a visitor can feel a part of the natural environment, experience a high degree of challenge and risk, and use outdoor skills. - BLM

Primitive Area - An area that is composed of natural, undeveloped lands that are essentially unaffected by civilization and located where the natural environment can be preserved by management of recreation activities and exclusion of additional roads and commercial developments." - BLM (Note: Primitive areas have not been previously defined by the BLM. The term, generally applied to Forest Service lands, has not been used much since the passage of the Wilderness Act when existing primitive areas were declared Wilderness by Congress. This definition opens the door for more restrictive and exclusionary management of lands not now considered "roadless" or part of a Wilderness inventory.)

Primitive Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (PROS) - A classification of wilderness and recreation opportunity. It is characterized by an essentially unmodified environment, where trails may be present but structures are rare, and where it is highly probably to be isolated from the sights and sounds of people. (See ROS.)

Principal Meridian - A line running through an arbitrary point chosen as a starting point for all sectionalized land within a given area. - Cadastral Data glossary

Prior Appropriation - A concept in water law under which users who demonstrate an earlier use of the water from a particular source are said to have rights over all later users of the water from the same source. The system of water allocation used primarily in the arid western United States, where water is scarce. Under this system, earlier claims have priority over later claims, and claims are associated with specific volumes of water. Rights to water can be lost if they are not used.

Prior Converted Wetland - Under the swampbuster program, these are wetlands that were converted to cropland before swampbuster was enacted on December 23, 1985, and meet wetland criteria for saturated soils or water-loving plants. Under swampbuster, there are no restrictions on either drainage maintenance or additional drainage on prior converted wetlands, which are estimated to total more than 50 million acres.

Priority or Prioritization - The level of precedence in order given to a program service or geographic area.

Priority Animal Taxa - Species or subspecies having special significance for management. They include endangered, threatened and special status species; species of high economic or recreation value; and species of significant public interest. (BLM)

Priority Habitats - Aquatic, wetland and riparian habitats, and habitats of priority animal taxa. (BLM)

Priority watersheds - Watersheds selected for the focusing of Federal funds and personnel for the purpose of accelerating improvements in water quality and watershed condition. http://cleanwater.gov/ufp/glossary.html

PRISM - Processes Research by an Imaging Space Mission (UN)

Pristine - Pure. In the State Plan it refers to Category 1 Waters and Trout Production Waters.

Privacy - Privacy is a value that describes a power relationship between individuals and organizations. This relationship can be seen as a continuum marked on the one side by complete informational moral supremacy of the individual, and on the other by complete supremacy of the organization and its needs for efficiency and survival.

Private Applicator - A category of applicator certification for farmers and/or employees such that they can legally apply restricted use pesticides or supervise others doing so who are not certified. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Private Flows - Consist of flows at market terms financed out of private sector resources (i.e. changes in holdings of private long term assets held by residents of the reporting country) and private grants (i.e. grants by non government organisations, net of subsidies received from the official sector). In presentations focusing on the receipts of recipient countries, flows at market terms are shown as follows: - Direct investment: Investment made to acquire or add to a lasting interest in an enterprise in a country on the DAC List of Aid Recipients (see Recipient Countries and Territories). In practice it is recorded as the change in the net worth of a subsidiary in a recipient country to the parent company, as shown in the books of the latter. - International Bank Lending: Net lending to countries on the List of Aid Recipients by commercial banks in the Bank of International Settlements reporting area, i.e. most OECD countries and most offshore financial centres, (Bahamas, Bahrain, Cayman Islands, Hong Kong, Netherlands, Antilles and Singapore), net of lending to banks in the same offshore financial centres. Loans from central monetary authorities are excluded. Guaranteed bank Loans and bonds are included under OTHER PRIVATE or BOND LENDING. - Bond Lending: Net completed international bonds issued by countries on the DAC List of Aid Recipients. - Other private: Mainly reported holdings of equities issued by aid recipient countries, and bank Loans which in this context are included with guaranteed export credits. In data presentations which focus on the outflow of funds from donors, private flows other than direct investment are usually divided into: - Private export credits: See Export Credit. - Multilateral portfolio investment: This covers the transactions of the private non bank and bank sector in the securities issued by multilateral institutions. - Bilateral portfolio investment and other: Includes bank lending, and the purchase of shares, bonds and real estate. - Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) Glossary

Private Final Consumption Expenditure (PFCE) - The SNA concept of "consumption", which excludes public expenditures on education, health and similar categories. The ICP uses a different approach. (UN)

Private Forest - Forest land belonging to individuals and corporations.

Private Initiative Conservation Area - The area designated as Private Initiative Conservation Area is included in the Preferred Alternative and is proposed as a priority area within the watershed where USFWS would not acquire any fee title or easement interest in land. USFWS would seek to work with landowners on a voluntary basis to implement conservation practices on their land that would benefit water quality and natural resource preservation in the watershed.

Private Meetings - Private (Closed) Meeting - This modality was originally limited to the deliberation of the UN Security Council over the appointment of a Secretary-General, as prescribed under Rule 48 of the Provisional Rules. However, in the period before informal consultations became an accepted working method of the Council, the private (closed) meeting format was used to enable the Council to discuss issues and engage parties involved in a dispute or situation or interested in any particular matter in a candid discussion away from the glare of immediate publicity. Chair - UNSC President. Involvement - Restricted only to UNSC members, Secretariat officials and parties invited by the UNSC. Countries, whose interests are also directly affected by the issue, can apply to attend the meeting, but their attendance is subject to the approval of the UNSC. Venue - UNSC Chamber. Records - A communiqué is normally issued at the conclusion of a private meeting, but the Council may also decide that public verbatim records of the discussion be prepared and circulated to non-members in addition to the communiqué. Publicity - Notice of the meeting is posted in the UN Journal.

Private (Open) Meeting - This meeting is open to non-members of the UN Security Council to witness, to enhance the level of transparency of the work of the Council. Chair - UNSC President. Involvement - Participation is limited to Council members and countries and persons with whom the Council wishes to exchange views with. However, non-Council members are permitted to attend as observers. The media and public are nevertheless not admitted. Venue - UNSC Chamber Records. A communiqué and, if the Council so decides, a public verbatim record of the meeting would be issued. Publicity - Notice of the meeting is posted in the UN Journal.

Private Placement - Sale of shares to individuals or corporations outside the normal market, at a negotiated price. Often used to raise capital for a junior exploration company.

Private Road - A road under private ownership authorized by an easement to a private party, or a road that provides access pursuant to a reserved or private right.

Private Voluntary Organization (PVO) - A nongovernmental, nonprofit organization that provides economic and social assistance to people in need, often in foreign countries. PVOs play an important role, along with cooperatives, in distributing U.S. food aid and implementing development projects under P.L. 480 Title II.

PRL - Protest Restriction Law

PRMS - Performance Results Measurement System (NRCS)

PRN - Pseudorandom Noise (GPS)

PRO - Peer Review Organization

PRO - People's Rights Organization

Pro Rata - In proportion (to ownership, income or contribution).

Probable Reserves - Valuable mineralization not sampled enough to accurately estimate the terms of tonnage and grade. Also called "indicated reserves".

Probable Maximum Precipitation - The precipitation that may be expected from the most severe combination of critical meteorologic conditions and that is reasonably possible in an area as found in the National Weather Service Hydrometeorological Reports. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Probable Sale Quantity (PSQ) - Probable sale quantity estimates the allowable harvest levels for the various alternatives that could be maintained without decline over the long term if the schedule of harvests and regeneration were followed. "Allowable" was changed to "probable" to reflect uncertainty in the calculations for some alternatives. Probable sale quantity is otherwise comparable to allowable sale quantity (ASQ). However, probable sale quantity does not reflect a commitment to a specific cut level. Probable sale quantity includes only scheduled or regulated yields and does not include "other wood" or volume of cull and other products that are not normally part of allowable sale quantity calculations. (BLM)

Process - A systematic series of actions directed to some end. It is a usually a set of continuous actions or operations undertaken in a defined manner. Process, when applied to classification development and maintenance, is the means by which the concepts and methodology supporting and underlying classifications are incorporated within classifications, thereby promoting classification best practice. (UN)

Process - A set of activities that produce products and services for customers. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm

Process heat - Heat used in an industrial process rather than for space heating or other housekeeping purposes. - Bioenergy Glossary

Process Management Approach - Approaches, such as continuous process improvement, business process redesign, and reengineering, which can be used together or separately to improve processes and subprocesses. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm

Process Owner - An individual held accountable and responsible for the workings and improvement of one of the organization's defined processes and its related subprocesses. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm

Produced assets - See physical capital. - WB

Produced Nation Income (PNI) - A measure of an economy's material production that excludes income generated by the service sector and depreciation on capital equipment. It is used to measure controlled or communist economics where accounting procedures may ignore the service sector as "unproductive." - WB

Production flexibility contract (AMTA) payments - Payments to farmers during 1996-2002 who have enrolled "contract acreage," under Title I, Subtitle B of the 1996 Act. The annual total amount is first determined for all contract crops combined (wheat, rice, feed grains, and upland cotton), and this total is then allocated to specific crops based on percentage allocation factors established in the 1996 farm act. Each participating producer of a contract crop receives payments equal to the product of their production flexibility contract payment quantity and the national average production flexibility contract payment rate. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

Production flexibility contract payment rate - The amount paid to farmers per unit of participating production under the 1996 Act. A farm's contract acreage and farm program payment yield was established in 1996 during the sign-up period. A national average payment rate per unit for each crop is calculated each year based on the then total participating production (production flexibility contract quantity) and the total amount to be paid out for each crop that was largely predetermined by the 1996 Act. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

Production flexibility contract payment quantity - The quantity of production eligible for production flexibility contract payments under the 1996 Act. Payment quantity is calculated as the farm's program yield (per acre) multiplied by 85 percent of the farm's contract acreage. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

Production resources - The main inputs for any production. Traditionally, economists identified three factors of production: labor, land, and capital. More recently, economists came to use the concept of three types of capital: physical (or produced) capital, human capital, and natural capital. - WB

Productive - The ability of an area to provide goods and services and to sustain ecological values. (UN)

Productive farmland - In this report, productive farmland is used interchangeably with prime and unique or high quality farmland. - USDA

Productive-Reserved Forest Land - Forest land sufficiently productive to qualify as timberland but withdrawn from timber utilization through statute or administrative regulation. - USDA/FS

Productivity - 1.) the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide fixed into plant sugar (starch). 2.) the amount of plant matter accumulated in a given time. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Productivity - A measure of technical efficiency, typically expressed as the added output for an additional unit of input or the average output per unit of input, i.e., labor, land, capital productivity.

Professional Market - Sales of pesticides for application to industrial/commercial/governmental sectors, homes and gardens by certified/commercial applicators. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary

Profile - A vertical, depth by depth characterization of a water column, usually at the deepest part of a lake. - Shoreland Mgmt. Glossary

Profit and Loss Statement - The income statement of a company detailing revenues minus total costs to give total profit.

Progeny Test Site - A test area for evaluating parent seed trees by comparing the growth of their offspring seedlings. (BLM)

Prognosis - A computer model for timber growth and yield. It projects per-acre growth and volume yield for commercial timber stands.

Program - A definite plan of intended procedure. - WB

Program Area - The geographical expanse of program; for CERP, approximately 18,000 square miles from Orlando to the Florida Reef Tract, including the Everglades, Big Cypress, Lake Okeechobee, Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, the Florida Reef Tract, near shore coastal waters, the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, the Florida Keys, Immokalee Rise and the Kissimmee River Valley. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Program crops - Crops for which Federal support programs are available to producers, including wheat, corn, barley, grain sorghum, oats, extra long staple and upland cotton, rice, oilseeds, tobacco, peanuts, and sugar. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

Program Manual - The Scenic Highways Program Manual created to guide an applicant seeking designation for a roadway as a Scenic Highway. It details each phase in the Program Process and offers step-by-step instructions. The Manual also contains all forms an applicant needs to submit for eligibility and designation. - Scenic Byways Program Glossary

Program payment yield - The farm commodity yield of record (per acre), determined by a procedure outlined in legislation. Previous law allowed USDA to make individual farm program yields equal to the average of the preceding 5 years' harvested yield (dropping the highest and lowest yield years). This provision has not been implemented in recent years. Program yields continue to be frozen at 1985 levels. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms

Program Process - The graphical representation or flow-chart of the process that defines the Eligibility, Designation and Implementation Phases of the Scenic Highways Program. - Scenic Byways Program Glossary

Program Services - Fees and other monies received by an organization for services rendered. These services must relate directly to the primary purpose for which the organization received its tax-exempt status.

Programmed timber harvest - A timber harvest scheduled by a management plan to occur at a certain rate. - Bioenergy Glossary

Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) - An environmental impact statement prepared prior to a Federal agency's decision regarding a major program, plan or policy, which usually is broad in scope and followed by subsequently more narrowly focused National Environmental Policy Act compliance documents. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Programmatic Regulations - Section 601(h) of WRDA 2000 states that the overarching purpose of the Comprehensive Plan is the restoration, preservation and protection of the south Florida ecosystem while providing for the other water-related needs of the region, including water supply and flood protection. The purpose of the regulations is to ensure that the goals and objectives of CERP are achieved. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Prohibitions - General categories of activities or uses that are prohibited in every district.

Project. A planned undertaking that includes a number of activities to solve problems and produce results for an organization. - USDA 2. A scheme or undertaking. - WB

Project Area - A single tract of land upon which a mining operator is or will be operating. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Project Area - The area within which the proposed activities are limited to. It may be confused with the Analysis Area that is the area that bounds the analysis for a particular resource and/or issue.

PRONAF - Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar (Brazil)

Propagule - Any piece of plant material that will form a new plant.

Proposed Center - A place that is surrounded by a Community Development Boundary, meets Center criteria, and is included in either a negotiating entity or municipal Cross-acceptance report.

Project Charter - A written understanding between the Project Manager and the Project Management Committee. This charter is developed specifically for each major project. It sets forth the scope, objectives, activities, team organization, responsibilities, and the general methods of operation. The lines of authority and accountability are clearly identified. - USDA

Project Cooperation Agreement (PCA) - A document that describes the roles and responsibilities of the USACE and SFWMD for real estate acquisition, construction, construction management and operations and maintenance. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Project Delivery Team (PDT) - An interdisciplinary group formed from the resources of the implementing agencies, which develops the products necessary to deliver the project. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Project Implementation Report (PIR) - A decision document that will bridge the gap between the conceptual design contained in the Comprehensive Plan and the detailed design necessary to proceed to construction. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Project Manager - Individual responsible for coordinating all functions of project management and held accountable for project performance. - USDA

Project Management Committee - Selected individuals having functional, financial, and technical expertise that oversee the status and progress of AS projects, and approve expenditures of funds. They also oversee planning and management of AS project resources, and provide reports to the Acquisition Review Team as required. - USDA

Project Plan - See Preplan.

Project Sponsor - A governmental entity partnering with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to jointly execute the project as part of the CERP; can be the South Florida Water Management District, a State of Florida Agency, a local government within the State of Florida or a Tribal Government. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Project Team - Individuals assigned responsibilities for performing the activities and producing the products required during an application system development project. Major application systems will have two distinct Project Teams; one during the Initiation Phase, and a second team during the Development Phase. - USDA

Projected Acres - Acres displayed by modeled age class for the decade. These "modeled" age class acres are estimates derived from modeling various silvicultural prescriptions for regeneration, commercial thinning, and density management harvest. Modeled age class acre projections may or may not correspond to "Offered" or "Harvested" age class acres at this point in the decade. Additional age classes are scheduled for regeneratrion, commercial thinning, or density management harvest at other points in the decade. - BLM

Promotional activities - Promotional activities relating to World Heritage conservation may include meetings organised to create interest and greater awareness of the Convention, the exchange of experiences and the preparation of information material relating to the implementation of the Convention. International assistance, provided on a selective basis, to a maximum of US$5000, may be made available from the World Heritage Fund for promotional activities (UNESCO February 1996: 36, Paragraph 107). Article 27 of the Convention refers to educational and information programmes as a means to "strengthen appreciation and respect by their peoples of the cultural and natural heritage" (UNESCO 1972). See International assistance, Young People's Participation in World Heritage Preservation and Promotion - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Proof of Loss - A statement, signed by a Claimant under penalty of perjury and subject to the provisions of 18 U.S.C.1001 that the claim is true and correct, attesting to the nature and extent of the Claimant's injuries. - FEMA Sec. 295.50

Proper Functioning Condition - A riparian-wetland area is considered to be in proper functioning condition when adequate vegetation, landform, or large woody debris is present. The following constitute PFC: 1. Dissipate stream energy associated with high waterflow, thereby reducing erosion and improving water quality. 2. Filter sediment, capture bedload, and aid floodplain development. 3. Improve flood-water retention and groundwater recharge. 4. Develop root masses that stabilize streambanks against cutting action. 5. Develop diverse ponding and channel characteristics to provide the habitat and the water depth, duration and temperature necessary for fish production, waterfowl breeding, and other uses. 6. Support greater biodiversity. BLM-DOI

Property - The World Heritage Convention refers to properties as being component parts of the cultural and/or natural heritage. The term property is used interchangeably with site in the Operational Guidelines (UNESCO February 1996). See Sites, Cultural heritage, Natural Heritage - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Proportionality - Dolan v. The City of Tigard (U.S. Supreme Court 1994, Chief Justice Rehnquist): "We think a term such as 'rough proportionality' best encapsulates what we hold to be the requirement of the Fifth Amendment. No precise mathematical calculation is required, but the city must make some sort of individualized determination that the required dedication is related both in nature and extent to the impact of the proposed development." - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary

Proposed Action - A plan that a Federal agency intends to implement or undertake and which is the subject of an environmental analysis; this is usually, but not always, the agency's preferred alternative for a project; the proposed action and all reasonable alternatives are evaluated against the no action alternative. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Proposed Remedial Action Plan (Proposed Plan) - A Superfund site document which reviews the cleanup alternatives presented in the site Feasibility Study and identifies EPA's Preferred Alternative. Selection of a Preferred Alternative is not a closed-end commitment to use that alternative; rather it is a way for EPA to indicate, based upon its experience and expertise, which alternative is likely the best course of action. EPA must actively solicit public review of and comment on all the alternatives under consideration. - EPA Community Relations Plan Glossary

Proposed Threatened or Endangered Species - Plant or animal species proposed by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service or National Marine Fisheries Service to be biologically appropriate for listing as threatened or endangered, and published in the Federal Register. It is not a final designation. (BLM)

Proprietory Income - Payments received by the self-employed as income, including income received by private business owners, doctors, and lawyers. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

PROSMP - Parks, Recreation, and Open Space Master Plan

Prospect - A mining property, the value of which has not been proven by exploration.

Prospect Pit - A shallow exploratory depression.

Prospecting - The search for valuable mineral deposits.

Prospectus - A document filed with the appropriate securities commission detailing the activities and financial condition of a company seeking funds from the public by issuing shares in the company.

PROTECTS - Practical Reinstatement Of Territorial Economic Communities by True Stewardship

Pro Forma - Projected or anticipated; usually applied to financial data. - Everglades Plan glossary

Project MAR - See MAR Project

Proper Functioning Condition - Ecosystems at any temporal or spatial scale are in a properly functioning condition when they are dynamic and resilient to perturbations to structure, composition and processes of their biological or physical components. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

Properly Functioning Condition - Ecosystems at any temporal or spatial scale are in a properly functioning condition when they are dynamic and resilient to perturbations to structure, compositions, and processes of their biological or physical components. Risk refers to situations in which the outcome is not certain, but the chance of system degradation beyond the point of resiliency and sustainability can be estimated (October 23, 1998, Properly Functioning Condition, Rapid Assessment Process, Intermountain Region, USDA Forest Service). http://www2.srs.fs.fed.us/strategicplan/view_and_submit_comment.asp?ID=52

Proper Stocking - Placing a number of animals on a given area that will result in proper use at the end of the planned grazing period. Continued proper stocking will lead to proper grazing. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

Proper Use - Utilization standards established with limiting factors, such a impacts on other resources or their uses, that is measurable on a site. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

Proposal (40 CFR 1508.23) - A "proposal" exists at that stage in the development of an action when the action sponsor has a goal and is actively preparing to make a decision on one or more alternative means of accomplishing that goal and the effects can be meaningfully evaluated. A proposal may exist in fact as well as by agency declaration that one exists. (USGS, Environmental Management and Compliance Requirements Handbook, SM 445-1-H)

Protected area - An area that has protected designation according to provincial or federal statute. Protected areas are land and freshwater or marine areas set aside to protect the province's diverse natural and cultural heritage. - Biodiversity Guidebook Glossary

Protection - To provide a historic site or property with a defensive system intended to inhibit further loss or deterioration of the existing physical fabric. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary

Protection - The imposition of import tariffs, import quotas, or other barriers that restrict the flow of imports. The opposite of "free trade." Used to: Protect "strategically important" industries- such as agriculture- without which a country would be vulnerable in times of war. Protect new industries until they are strong enough to compete in international markets. Retaliate against protectionist policies of trade partners. Since World War II protectionist policies have been significantly reduced in most countries through negotiations under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). 2. The World Heritage Convention does not specifically define protection. Throughout the Convention reference is made to the "identification, protection, conservation, presentation and transmission to future generations of the cultural and natural heritage". Article 5 of the Convention makes reference to a number of "effective and active measures" that can be taken by States Parties in ensuring this "identification, protection, conservation, presentation and transmission" (UNESCO 1972). Although protection is used very frequently in the Operational Guidelines it is not defined (UNESCO February 1996). Protection is used interchangeably with conservation, safeguarding and preservation in the Operational Guidelines. See Conservation, International protection, National protection, Preservation, Safeguarding - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

Protected Area - Legally established land or water area under either public or private ownership that is regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation objectives (United Nations).

Protests - Part 34, Section 9 - (b) Any affected county may protest the results of the computations of its payments to the regional director in charge of the State and county affected. (c) Any protesting county shall submit sufficient evidence to show error in the computation, or the data from which the computations are made. (d) All protests to the regional director shall be filed within 90 days from the date of receipt of the payment. (e) The regional director shall consult with the affected county to resolve conflicts in the computations and/or data. The regional director shall make a determination as to the correct payment, which determination shall be final and conclusive.

Protocol - A treaty which modifies another treaty (e.g., adding additional procedures or substantive provisions). - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary 2. An amendment or addition to a treaty or convention. - UNEP Children's Glossary

Protocols - The term "protocol" is used for agreements less formal than those entitled "treaty" or "convention". The term could be used to cover the following kinds of instruments: (a) A Protocol of Signature is an instrument subsidiary to a treaty, and drawn up by the same parties. Such a Protocol deals with ancillary matters such as the interpretation of particular clauses of the treaty, those formal clauses not inserted in the treaty, or the regulation of technical matters. Ratification of the treaty will normally ipso facto involve ratification of such a Protocol. (b) An Optional Protocol to a Treaty is an instrument that establishes additional rights and obligations to a treaty. It is usually adopted on the same day, but is of independent character and subject to independent ratification. Such protocols enable certain parties of the treaty to establish among themselves a framework of obligations which reach further than the general treaty and to which not all parties of the general treaty consent, creating a "two-tier system". The Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 1966 is a well-known example. (c) A Protocol based on a Framework Treaty is an instrument with specific substantive obligations that implements the general objectives of a previous framework or umbrella convention. Such protocols ensure a more simplified and accelerated treaty-making process and have been used particularly in the field of international environmental law. An example is the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer adopted on the basis of Arts.2 and 8 of the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer. (d) A Protocol to amend is an instrument that contains provisions that amend one or various former treaties, such as the Protocol of 1946 amending the Agreements, Conventions and Protocols on Narcotic Drugs. (e) A Protocol as a supplementary treaty is an instrument that contains supplementary provisions to a previous treaty, e.g. the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees. (f) A Process-Verbal is an instrument that contains a record of certain understandings arrived at by the contracting parties. (UN)

Proton Precession Magnetometer - A geophysical instrument which measures magnetic field intensity in terms of vertical gradient and total field.

Protraction - In surveying, the act of plotting or laying down on paper, etc. the dimension of a field or plot of ground. - Cadastral Data glossary

Proven Reserves - Reserves that have been sampled extensively by closely spaced diamond drill holes and developed by underground workings in sufficient detail to render an accurate estimation of grade and tonnage. Also called "measured reserves".

Province - In the context used in the report, a geographic area having particular geologic and landform characteristics. - USDA/FS

Provincial Advisory Council (PAC) - See Resource Advisory Council. - BLM

Provisional Application and Provisional Entry into Force of Treaties - 1. Provisional Application - The growing use of provisional application clauses in treaties is a consequence of the need felt to give effect to treaty obligations prior to a state's formal ratification of/accession to a treaty. The obligations relating to provisional application are undertaken by a conscious voluntary act of the state consistent with its domestic legal framework. Provisional application of a treaty that has entered into force - The provisional application of a treaty that has entered into force may occur when a state undertakes to give effect to the treaty obligations provisionally although its domestic procedures for ratification/accession have not yet been completed. The intention of the state would be to ratify/accede to the treaty once its domestic legal requirements have been met. Provisional application may be terminated at any time. In contrast, a state which has consented to be bound by a treaty through ratification/accession or definitive signature, is governed by the rules on withdrawal specified in the treaty concerned (Arts. 54, 56, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969). [Art. 25, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969] (UN) Provisional application of a treaty that has not entered into force - Provisional application of a treaty that has not entered into force may occur when a state notifies that it would give effect to the legal obligations specified in that treaty provisionally. These legal obligations are undertaken by a conscious voluntary act of the state consistent with its domestic legal framework. Provisional application may be terminated at any time. In contrast, a state which has consented to be bound by a treaty through ratification/ accession or definitive signature, is governed by the rules on withdrawal specified in the treaty concerned (Arts. 54, 56, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969). Provisional application may continue even after the entry into force of the treaty in relation to a state applying the treaty provisionally until that state has ratified it. Provisional application terminates if a state notifies the other states among which the treaty is being applied provisionally of its intention of not becoming a party to the treaty. [Art. 25 (2), Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969] (UN)

Provisional Entry into Force - There are also an increasing number of treaties which include provisions for provisional entry into force. Such treaties provide mechanisms for entry into force provisionally, should the formal criteria for entry into force not be met within a given period. Provisional entry into force of a treaty may also occur when a number of parties to a treaty which has not yet entered into force, decide to apply the treaty as if it had entered into force. Once a Treaty has entered into force provisionally, it is binding on the parties that agreed to bring it into force provisionally. The nature of the legal obligations resulting from provisional entry into force would appear to be the same as the legal obligations in a treaty that has entered into force, as any other result would create an uncertain legal situation. It is the criteria for formal entry into force that have not been met but the legal standard of the obligation remains. [Art. 25 (1), Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969] (UN)

PROWAC - Public Right Of Way Accessibility Committee

Proxy - A power of attorney given by the shareholder so that his stock may be voted by his nominee(s) at meetings of shareholders.

PRP - Potentially Responsible Parties

PRR - Projection, Rationalization, Resistance

PRS - Popular Revolutionary Struggle (Greek urban terrorist gang)

PRS - Public Recreation Space

PRSPs - Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers

PRTA - Pacific Research and Training Alliance

PRTR - Pollutant Release and Transfer Register

PRUCOL - Permanently reside under color of law (illegal immigrants)

Prudent Operator - An operator who in good faith tries to develop a mineral operation, doing the best possible job, both economically and environmentally. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

PRWORA - Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996)

PS - Point Source

PS - Political System

PS - Post Script

PS - Price Support

PS - Priority Species

PS - Problem Solving

PS - Protection System

PS - Public Sector

PS - Public Servant

PS - The Public Sphere

PS - Public Support

PSA - Planning and Service Area

PSA - Public Service Announcement

PSAB - Public Service Bulletin (distributed to over 20,000 "media gatekeepers")(the Ad Council)

PSASL - Puget Sound Agricultural Society, Ltd.

PSC - Pacific Science Center

PSCP - Public Service Communications Programs (the Ad Council)

PSCTPS - Program on Strategic Computing and Telecommunications in the Public Sector (Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government)

PSD - Prevention of Significant Deterioration (EPA)

PSE - producer support estimate

PSF - Permanent School Fund

PSG - Partners for Smart Growth

PSG - Private Stewardship Grants DOI/USFWS

PSGP - Private Stewardship Grant Program

PSGP - Private Stewardship Grants Program (DOI/USFWS)

PSI - Public Service Initiatives (the Ad Council)

PSI - Pounds per Square Inch

PSL - Pond Sealing or Lining

PSM - Price Support Mechanism

PSO -Positive Social Outcome

PSP - Point-Source Pollution

PSP - Public / Semi-Public

PSR - Physicians for Social Responsibility

PSR - Public Sector Reengineering

PSRP - Private Sector Resource Professional

PSRZ - [National] Park Subsistence Resident Zone (DOI/NPS & EPA) http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-IMPACT/2002/February/Day-25/i4340.htm

PSS - Preliminary Scoping Statement

PSWQMAT - Puget Sound Water Quality Management Action Team

PSYOPs - Psychological Operations

PT - Physical Taking (as of land or water use/rights)

PTA - Property Tax Abatement

PTA - Public Trust Alliance

PTC - Pedestrian Travel Corridor

PTD - Public Trust Doctrine

PTE - Potential To Emit

PTE - Push The Envelope

PTI - Public Technology, Inc. http://www.pti.org/

PTP - Priority Toxic Pollutants

PTSD - Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Public Assistance Program - The FEMA program establish under Subchapter IV of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 5121, et seq., which provides grants to States, local governments, Indian tribes and private nonprofit organizations for emergency measures and repair, restoration and replacement of damaged facilities. - FEMA Sec. 295.50

Public Comment Period - A period during which the public can formally review and comment on various documents and EPA actions. For example, EPA holds a public comment period when it proposes to add sites to the National Priorities List. EPA also holds a minimum 30-day public comment period to enable community members to review and comment on a Proposed Plan. - EPA Community Relations Plan Glossary

Public Domain - The territory ceded to the Federal government by the original thirteen states, plus additions by treaty, cession, and purchase. 2. (general intellectual property) - The status of an invention, creative work, commercial symbol, or any other creation that is not protected by some form of intellectual property. Items that have been determined to be in the public domain are available for copying and use by anyone. The copying of such items is not only tolerated but also encouraged as part of the competitive process.

Public Domain Lands - Original holdings of the United States never granted or conveyed to other jurisdictions, or reacquired by exchange for other public domain lands. (BLM)

Public Final Consumption Expenditure (PFC) - The ICP concept of government, which excludes public expenditures for education, health and similar categories. (UN)

Public Forest - Forest land belonging to municipal, state and federal governments.

Public goods - Goods that are nonrival- consumption by one person does not reduce the supply available for others- and nonexcludable- people cannot be prevented from consuming them. These characteristics make it impossible to charge consumers for public goods, so the private sector is not interested in supplying them. Instead, they are often supplied by government. Public goods are usually national or local. Defense is a national public good- benefiting the entire population of a country. Rural roads are local public goods, benefiting a smaller group of people. There can also be global public goods, benefiting most of the world's population, for example global peace and security, or information needed to prevent global climate change. Providing such goods (and services) is a function of international organizations. - WB

Public Health, Safety and Welfare - This catchall phrase and the police power to restrict nuisance have enabled zoning agencies to assume great power over private property. Fighting this power on a basis of freedom of the individual has been less effective than on the basis of due process. The due process clause has come to be "the home of much takings law,"(1) according to Richard A. Epstein, of the University of Chicago. Substantive due process must be observed: The content of the regulation must be designed to accomplish a valid public purpose, be reasonable (not arbitrary or capricious), be fair, and be within the authority of the government agency. Procedural due process requires that procedure by which the regulation is adopted and administered must be fair to the interests that are affected, "giving them notice and a reasonable chance to be heard before an accessible and impartial tribunal."(2) Zoning must be "accomplished in a proper, careful and reasonable manner." (Udall v. Hass 21 N.Y. 2d. 463 (1968)(3) Perhaps the assumption of adequacy of public health, safety and welfare goals will be less all-sufficient, considering, Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Commission (U.S. Supreme Court 1992), which held: "To win its case, respondent cannot simply proffer the legislature's declaration that the uses Lucas describes are inconsistent with the public interest, or the conclusory assertion that they violate a common-law maxim such as sic utere tuo ut alienum non laeduas (use your property in such a manner as not to injure that of another), but must identify principles of nuisance and property law that prohibit the uses Lucas now intends in the property's present circumstances." - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary

Public hearing - A public proceeding conducted for the purpose of acquiring information or evidence which will be considered in evaluating a proposed transportation project and/or a DA permit action and which affords the public an opportunity to present their views, opinions, and information on such projects and permit actions. See 33 CFR § 327.3(a).

Public Involvement - The use of appropriate procedures to inform the public, obtain early and continuing public participation, and consider the views of interested parties in planning and decision making.

Public Land - Land or interest in land owned by the United States and administered by the Secretary of the Interior through the BLM, except lands located on the Outer Continental Shelf, and land held for the benefit of Indians, Aleuts, and Eskimos. - BLM

Public Lands/Public Lands Of The United States - As defined in U.S. Public Law 94-79, public lands are any land and interest in land outside of Alaska owned by the United States and administered by the Secretary of the Interior through BLM. In common usage, public lands may refer to all federal land no matter what agency has responsibility for its management. As defined in the Federal Land Policy and Management Act, public lands are any land and interest in land outside of Alaska owned by the United States and administered by the Secretary of the Interior through the Bureau of Land Management. In common usage, public lands may refer to all federal land no matter what agency has responsibility for its management or may refer even to state- and local municipality-owned lands. Land for which title and control rests with a government -- Federal, state, regional, county, or municipal.

Public Lands Surveys, or Public Land Survey System (PLSS) - 1) In general, the survey of Federal or State lands or the lands of any other public body. The term, however, is commonly used to designate the cadastral survey of the public lands of the U.S.; originally the Government land Office (GLO) surveys; the present surveys executed by the Bureau of Land Management (B.L.M.). Synonymous with rectangular surveys of the U.S. lands; or the rectangular survey system. - Cadastral Data glossary 2) 3.11 U.S. Public Land Survey System -- Major Code 300 -- The Public Land Survey System (PLSS) and other special surveys within, and exclusions from, public domain lands, are shown on USGS quadrangle maps. Survey corners, lines, and areas within public domain States are mapped and are collected as DLG-3 data. All States, except the following, are public domain States: Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Hawaii, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Vermont, and West Virginia. The public domain includes the land ceded to the Federal Government by the Thirteen Original States and acquired from native Indians and foreign powers. The surveys of the public domain can be classified into the following general types: Land Grants - Land grants were conferred on individuals by a predecessor government and were never part of the public domain. PLSS Area - The rectangular system of surveys was developed to divide the public lands for disposal by the government. This survey system typically divides the land into 6-mile square townships, which are further subdivided into 1-mile square sections, although there are departures from this regular system. Private Surveys - The government is responsible for conducting these surveys, but some land has been surveyed by private surveyors who have extended the PLSS using the rectangular system of surveys. Special Survey Areas - Some land was disposed of by special surveys that were usually the result of acts of Congress. These include U.S. surveys, homestead entry surveys, Indian allotments, and donation land claims. Special survey areas are not subdivided by rectangular surveys. Waterbodies - Navigable water ways and water bodies over 50 acres were not subject to disposal and were not subdivided by surveys. Reservations - Other land was "reserved" by the Federal Government, and not subject to disposal, such as national parks, forests, and Indian reservations. These lands may contain subdivision lines if the reservations were established after the area had been surveyed. For additional background information on the PLSS and its associated types of survey areas, lines, and corners, see Appendix 3.11.A. 3.11.1 General Principles - Because the PLSS depicted on the graphic cannot be revised from photographs, there is no photorevised feature code in this category. Node Attribute Codes - Node attribute codes are collected only when a monumented survey corner or point has been recovered in the field and is identified on the graphic. All other nodes are unattributed. Do not make any assumptions about survey corners, even if boundary monuments or control stations are shown. Only one code from the list of node attribute codes is assigned to any given node. Changes in azimuth along a survey line, which are not represented by a recovered corner or point, are collected simply as inflection points on the line. Area Attribute Codes - All areas are attributed. Only one code from the list of area attribute codes is assigned to each polygon, except in the case of a land grant that is also a private extension of the public land survey. - Each area code description contains information on which parameter codes are used in conjunction with that area code. Several coding descriptions say: "Used in conjunction with parameter codes 301-305, as appropriate." This means that the township number, the range number, and the section number are collected, if they can be determined from the graphic. If a section number is collected, township and range numbers must be collected. Areas that make up a section, or unsectionalized areas that cannot be assigned any other code from the list of area attribute codes, are considered PLSS areas (300 0110). There are a number of departures from the rectangular survey system. Areas were surveyed, generally by acts of Congress, for such things as wagon roads, coal leases, railroad grants, and small-holding claims. Only a few of these survey areas are uniquely identified on USGS maps and in the DLGs (see below). Other non-rectangular surveys that interrupt the regular rectangular grid are attributed as PLSS area (300 0110). These areas generally do not have a section number. Special surveys (homestead entry surveys, donation land claims, tracts, U.S. surveys, and Indian allotments), land grants, private surveys, water areas, and area outside of the public domain are not considered as PLSS area. How to collect: Evaluation of the limiting survey lines or the label within the area or along the survey line, or both, is required to determine the correct area attribute and the extent of the area to be collected. PLSS areas that have section numbers and are not completely closed off by mapped survey lines are closed off with a closure line or unattributed survey line (see section Areas of old reservations, such as Indian, military, and lighthouse, have been identified on the map. Where their extent defines the limiting lines of a subdivision, the limiting lines are collected as survey lines, and the areas are assigned the appropriate code from the list of area attribute codes, but the reservation type is not identified. Other surveys that do not conform to the rectangular system of surveys, such as tracts, donation land claims, and Indian allotments are collected as shown on the map. In a number of States special survey areas that do not meet the collection criteria for homestead entry surveys, donation land claims, tracts, U.S. surveys, Indian allotments, or land grants have been shown on the map. They are collected as PLSS areas, and assigned no additional codes, even though they may be numbered or lettered. Survey areas in Ohio are unique in that various reference systems and subdivision schemes were used and a mix of public and private surveys exist. See Appendix 3.11.A for more detailed information on these surveys. Line Attribute Codes Subdivision lines shown by symbols 502, 504, 508, 509 (A), 123.1, 123.2 (B), 523.1, 523.2, 523.12, 523.13 (C), or 2502.03, 2502.05, 2503.01, 2503.02 (D) are collected as unattributed lines. (On maps published before about 1940, subdivision lines were shown by black dotted lines; on those published between about 1940 and 1948, black solid lines were used.) In addition to depicted land lines, other lines that limit the land net must be digitized to complete closure of all polygons. Where survey lines have been dropped on the map because of coincidence with another linear feature, such as a road or boundary, an unattributed line is collected unless the overall pattern of the surrounding portrayed lines indicate the line is approximate. If a land line is dropped for a boundary that is labeled approximate or symbolized as indefinite, code the land line as approximate. Survey lines that have been dropped because of coincidence with other features are generally collected as straight lines connecting section corners, even if the feature they have been dropped for deviates from that straight line. Where survey lines are not shown on the map for reasons other than coincidence with another feature (most commonly in areas where there was insufficient evidence to map the survey lines, or in the vicinity of water bodies), the area is required to be closed off with a line when a section number is shown. A closure line (300 0203) is collected. The extent of old reservations, such as Indian, military, and lighthouse, shown on maps with the land grant or section line symbol and labeled, are collected as section lines where they form the limit of subdivisions of the rectangular system of surveys. Where these lines do not form the limit of a subdivision of a rectangular survey, they are not collected in any category. (Previously these lines were collected in the Boundaries category and coded as "Historical Line.") Single-Point Attribute Codes - There are no general principles that apply to the single-point attribute codes. General Purpose Attribute Codes - There are no general-purpose attribute codes. Descriptive Attribute Codes - The names of public land and private surveys in Ohio have been shown within the interior of the map and in margin notes. For areas where names cannot be derived from the origin of survey code, an additional descriptor code must be collected to identify the survey name. Parameter Attribute Codes - There are no general principles that apply to the parameter attribute codes. List of PLSS Attribute Codes - o Node attribute codes/300 0001 Found PLSS section corner/300 0002 Point on section line, no corner - Code Deleted/300 0003 Closing corner - Code Deleted/300 0004 Meander corner/ 300 0006 Special meander corner - Code Deleted/300 0007 Witness corner/300 0008 Witness point/300 0009 Angle point/300 0010 Amended monument/300 0011 300 0012 Found quarter-section corner/ 300 0014 Land grant or other special survey corner/300 0015 o Area attribute codes: 000 0000 Outside area/ 300 0101 Homestead entry survey/300 0102 Donation land claim 300 0103 Land grant 300 0104 Private extension of public land survey 300 0105 Area of public and private survey overlap 300 0106 Overlapping land grants 300 0108 Private survey in Ohio 300 0110 PLSS area 300 0111 Tract 300 0112 U.S. survey 300 0113 Indian allotment 300 0114 Area outside of the public domain 300 0198 Water o Line Attribute codes 300 0201 Approximate position 300 0202 Protracted position 300 0203 Closure line 300 0299 Processing line o Single-point attribute codes 300 0300 Location or mineral monument 300 0301 Isolated found section corner o General purpose attribute codes: There are no general purpose codes o Descriptive attribute codes 300 0600 Connecticut Western Reserve 300 0601 Virginia Military District 300 0602 Ohio Company Purchase 300 0603 Symmes Purchase 300 0604 French Grants 300 0605 Donation Tract 300 0606 Old Seven Ranges 300 0607 Congress Lands North of Old Seven Ranges 300 0608 Congress Lands East of Scioto River 300 0609 Between the Miamis, North of Symmes Purchase 300 0610 West of the Great Miami 300 0612 Refugee Lands 300 0625 Fraction one-half for land grant corner, monument or section number, or nonsection identifier o Parameter attribute codes 301 xyyy Section number 302 xyyy Township number north of baseline 303 xyyy Township number south of baseline 304 xyyy Range number east of principal meridian 305 xyyy Range number west of principal meridian 306 00xx Origin of survey 307 xyyy Identifier, nonsection 308 xxxx Land grant, location, or mineral monument number 3.11.2 Node Attribute Codes - 300 0001 Found PLSS section corner This code identifies a section corner shown by a double weight cross or "T" as in symbols 506(A), 523.5(C), 523.6(C), or 2502.07(D). Indicated corners, shown by a single-weight cross or "T" are not collected. Section corners are found at the extremity of a township section and are not labeled. 300 0003 Closing corner - This code is no longer used. See code 300 0001. 300 0004 Meander corner - This code identifies a corner shown by symbols 523(A), 523.7(C) or 300 0007 Witness corner - This code identifies a corner shown by symbols 523(A), 523.7(C), or 2502.09(D). Must be labeled "WC." 300 0008 Witness point - This code identifies a point shown by symbols 506, 507 (A); 523.5, 523.6 (C); or 2502.07, 2502.08 (D). Must be labeled "WP." 300 0009 Angle point - This code identifies a point shown by symbols 506, 507 (A); 523.5, 523.6 (C); or 2502.07, 2502.08 (D). Must be labeled "AP." 300 0010 Amended monument - This code identifies a monument shown by symbols 506, 507 (A); 523.5, 523.6 (C); or 2502.07, 2502.08 (D). Must be labeled "AM." 300 0012 Found quarter-section corner - This code identifies a quarter-section corner shown by a double-weight cross or "T" as in symbols 506(A), 523.5(C), or 2502.07(D). Indicated corners, shown by a single-weight cross or "T" are not collected. Quarter-section corners are found at the extremity of a quarter-section, theoretically located halfway (40 chains) between section corners. They are not labeled. 300 0013 Tract corner - This code is no longer used. See code 300 0014. 300 0014 Land grant or other special survey corner - This code identifies a corner shown by symbols 501(A), 523.11(C), or 2502.02(D). Used in conjunction with parameter code 308 to identify a land grant corner number, and descriptive code 300 0625 if the number contains the fraction one-half. 300 0040 Corner identified in the field - This code is no longer used, since only "found" corners are collected. 3.11.3 Area Attribute Codes - 000 0000 Outside area - This code is described in section 300 0100 Indian lands - This code is no longer used. If the area is an active Indian reservation, it is collected in the boundaries category. If the area is a historical reservation, the area is collected using the appropriate area code. 300 0101 Homestead entry survey This code identifies an area delineated by symbols 500(A), 123.5(B), 523.10(C), or 2502.01(D). Must be labeled "HES." Area will also contain an area survey number. Must be used in conjunction with parameter code 307 to identify the area survey number. 300 0102 Donation land claim This code identifies an area delineated by symbols 500(A), 123.5(B), 523.10(C), or 2502.01(D) in Arizona, Florida, New Mexico, Oregon, or Washington. Donation land claims are not labeled, but contain an area survey number. They may be wholly contained within a section or lie in more than one section. Must be used in conjunction with parameter codes 302-307 to identify the area township number, range number, origin of survey, and the area survey number. 300 0103 Land grant - This code identifies an area delineated by symbols 500(A), 123.5(B), 523.10(C), or 2502.01(D). Names are shown in black and centered within the grant. The word "grant" is omitted unless the entire quadrangle falls within the grant. Must be named and have a code that appears in Appendices 3.11.C and 3.11.D. Must be used in conjunction with parameter code 307 to identify land grant names. If land grants overlap, do not use this code. See area code 300 0106 to identify overlapping land grants. If a land grant is also a private extension of the public land survey, code 300 0104 is also assigned. 300 0104 Private extension of public land survey - This code identifies an area delineated by symbols 508, 509 (A); 523.12, 523.13 (C); or 2503.01, 2503.02 (D), except those private surveys in Ohio identified by the code 300 0108. Must be used in conjunction with parameter code 306. Used in conjunction with parameter codes 301-305, as appropriate. Used in conjunction with one of descriptive codes 300 0606 through 300 0610, if appropriate. If a private extension of the public land survey falls within a land grant, codes 300 0103 and parameter code 307 are also applied. 300 0105 Area of public and private survey overlap - This code identifies an area where private surveys (300 0104) overlap the public land surveys (300 0110). Must be used in conjunction with parameter code 306. Used in conjunction with parameter codes 301-305, as appropriate. If the designations of the public and private surveys do not agree, use two sets of parameter codes in the following order: area code, 301-306, 301-306. Used in conjunction with one of descriptive codes 300 0606 through 300 0610, if appropriate. 300 0106 Overlapping land grants - This code identifies an area where land grants overlap because of survey error or disputed claims. The land grant code (300 0103) is not used. Each of the land grant names is collected using parameter code 307. 300 0107 Military reservation - This code is no longer used. Reservations are collected in the Boundaries category. 300 0108 Private survey in Ohio - This code identifies the following private surveys in Ohio: the Connecticut Western Reserve, Virginia Military District, Ohio Company Purchase, Symmes Purchase, French Grants, and Donation Tract. Must be used in conjunction with parameter code 306. Used in conjunction with parameter codes 301-305, as appropriate. Must be used in conjunction with one of the descriptive codes 300 0600 through 300 0605. 300 0109 Other reservation - This code is no longer used. Reservations are collected in the Boundaries category. 300 0110 PLSS area - This code identifies an area delineated by symbols 502, 503, 504, 505 (A), 123.1, 123.2 (B), 523.1, 523.2, 523.3, 523.4 (C), or 2502.03, 2502.04, 2502.05, 2503.06 (D). This code also identifies arpent sections in Louisiana, delineated by symbols 500(A), 123.5(B), 523.10(C), or 2502.01(D). An area that does not contain land lines and to which no other area code applies, (either because the area has not been surveyed or because there was not enough information to locate the lines) is also identified with this code. Except when used as described in the following paragraph, this code must be used in conjunction with parameter code 306. Used in conjunction with parameter codes 301-305, as appropriate. This code is also applied to any area delineated by symbols 500(A), 123.5(B), 523.10(C), or 2502.01(D), which does not meet the collection criteria for codes 300 0101 through 300 0103 or 300 0111 through 300 0113 (homestead entry survey, donation land claim, land grant, tract, U.S. survey, or Indian allotment). In these areas, this code is used alone, without any additional parameter codes, even though the area may be identified by a number or letter on the map. 300 0111 Tract - This code identifies an area delineated by symbols 500(A), 523.10(C), or 2502.01(D). Tracts are not labeled, but contain an area survey number. They lie in more than one section and are never wholly contained within a section. Must be used in conjunction with parameter codes 302-307 to identify the area township number, range number, origin of survey, and the area survey number. 300 0112 U.S. survey - This code identifies an area delineated by symbols 500(A), 523.10(C), or 2502.01(D). Must be labeled "U.S. Survey." Area will also contain an area survey number. Must be used in conjunction with parameter code 307 to identify the area survey number. 300 0113 Indian allotment - This code identifies an area shown by symbols 500(A), 523.10(C), or 2502.01(D). Must be labeled "Indian Allotment." Area will also contain an area survey number. Must be used in conjunction with parameter code 307 to identify the area survey number. 300 0114 Area outside of the public domain - This code identifies an area outside of the public domain. It is used wherever a portion of Canada, Mexico, or any State which is not part of the public domain is shown on a map of a public domain State. Cannot be used in conjunction with any parameter codes. 300 0198 Water - This code identifies an area of water (which may include some adjacent land areas) across which the land net cannot be extended with closure lines. The area is generally bounded by closure lines that close off the sections on either side of the water body. Cannot be used in conjunction with any parameter codes. 300 0199 Unsurveyed area - This code is no longer used. See code 300 0110 for unsurveyed PLSS areas. See code 300 0114 for areas outside of the public domain. 3.11.4 Line Attribute Codes 300 0201 Approximate position - This code identifies a line shown by symbols 503, 505 (A); 523.3, 523.4 (C); or 2502.04, 2503.06 (D). Land grant lines that are labeled "Approximate" are also assigned this code. When only a portion of a land grant line is labeled approximate, the entire segment between the nearest found grant monument on either side of the labeled portion of the line is assigned this code. 300 0202 Protracted position - This code identifies a line shown by symbols 123.3(B), 123.4(B), 523.16(C), or 523.17(C). Currently, on 1:24,000-scale maps, protracted lines are shown only in Alaska. On 1:100,000-scale maps, protracted lines may be show in any public land State. 300 0203 Closure line - This code identifies an arbitrary line digitized to separate two or more areas that must be assigned different sets of attribute codes. Closure lines are needed only if areas are still not closed off from one another after all the survey lines that have been dropped on the map because of coincidence with linear features have been collected, as described in section Why do unclosed areas appear on the map? - Survey lines may be missing on the map because there was insufficient evidence on the ground to complete the grid, because the survey lines were interrupted by a waterbody that was segregated from the public domain, or because the area was not surveyed. What areas need to be closed off? - Only those areas on the map that have a section number or areas with different township and range numbers, that are not completely enclosed by survey lines need to be closed off. On 1:100,000-scale maps, usually only sections 1, 6, 31, and 36 are labeled, so other sections may need to be closed off, even when no section number is shown. How should closure lines be used? - In closing off areas, the preferred approach is to assume a regular grid and to use closure lines to add any lines needed to approximate that regular grid. As noted above, it is not necessary to complete the entire grid; only those areas that must be assigned different sets of attribute codes must be closed off from one another. An area that has not been surveyed is collected as a single PLSS area (300 0110), with no code for section numbers. A large water body or portion of a water body with no section lines or section numbers is collected as Water (300 0198). If it is not possible to assume a regular grid, either because the map contains areas with different surveys that do not line up, or because there are not enough corners or portions of section lines to determine if the grid is regular, then the areas must be closed off. Generally the closure line is collected as a straight line connecting the end points of the depicted survey lines. In some cases, though, it may be desirable to add a few points to roughly approximate the extent of the section, as indicated by the position of the section number, or the shoreline, or both. Keep in mind that range lines may be offset when they cross township lines. Although it may at first glance appear as though the survey lines to the north and south of the interruption cannot be matched up with one another, often the regular grid can be assumed if this offset is taken into consideration. How should the regular grid be approximated? - The rectangular system called for sections to be 1 mile by 1 mile. Obviously, depending on the skill of the surveyor, the terrain, and other conditions, this may not have been achieved. However, by looking at the sections that are completed on the map, the location of the section numbers, isolated pieces of survey lines, and survey corners, the general grid can usually be determined. If you see an apparent section (a section number is present but not all of the surrounding survey lines are) complete the section by using the available information to create a square that is approximately 1 mile by 1 mile. It is not necessary to be exact when digitizing closure lines to approximate the grid. On USGS maps, the PLSS is shown as a reference grid, not to show ownership or parcel boundaries. 300 0204 Base line - This code is no longer used. The base line can be determined from the associated areas. 300 0299 Processing line - This code is described in section 3.11.5 Single-Point Attribute Codes - 300 0300 Location or mineral monument - This code identifies a monument shown by symbols 227(A), 512.106(C), or 2102.12(D). Used in conjunction with parameter code 308 to identify a monument number, and descriptive code 300 0625 if the number contains the fraction one-half. 300 0301 Isolated found section corner - This code identifies a corner shown by symbols 506(A), 523.5(C), or 2502.07(D). Must be located in an area where subdivision lines are omitted because of insufficient data. 300 0302 Witness corner (off survey line) - This code is no longer used. Witness corners both on and off survey lines are collected using code 300 0007. 3.11.6 General Purpose Attribute Codes - There are no general-purpose attribute codes. 3.11.7 Descriptive Attribute Codes - 300 0600 Connecticut Western Reserve - This code identifies the Connecticut Western Reserve in Ohio. Must be used in conjunction with area code 300 0108. 300 0601 Virginia Military District - This code identifies the Virginia Military District in Ohio. Must be used in conjunction with area code 300 0108. 300 0602 Ohio Company Purchase - This code identifies the Ohio Company Purchase in Ohio. Must be used in conjunction with area code 300 0108. 300 0603 Symmes Purchase - This code identifies the Symmes Purchase in Ohio. Must be used in conjunction with area code 300 0108. 300 0604 French Grants - This code identifies the French Grants in Ohio. Must be used in conjunction with area code 300 0108. 300 0605 Donation Tract - This code identifies the Donation Tract in Ohio. Must be used in conjunction with area code 300 0108. 300 0606 Old Seven Ranges - This code identifies the Old Seven Ranges in Ohio. Must be used in conjunction with area code 300 0104, 300 0105, or 300 0110. Must use parameter code 306 0035. 300 0607 Congress Lands North of Old Seven Ranges - This code identifies the Congress Lands North of Old Seven Ranges in Ohio. Must be used in conjunction with area code 300 0104, 300 0105, or 300 0110. Must use parameter code 306 0035. 300 0608 Congress Lands East of Scioto River - This code identifies the Congress Lands East of Scioto River in Ohio. Must be used in conjunction with area code 300 0104, 300 0105, or 300 0110. In Range 22W and Range 23W, must use parameter code 306 0039; otherwise must use parameter code 306 0035. Lands falling within the Congress Lands East of Scioto River and the Refugee Lands are further identified with descriptive code 300 0612. 300 0609 Between the Miamis, North of Symmes Purchase - This code identifies the Between the Miamis, North of Symmes Purchase in Ohio. Must be used in conjunction with area code 300 0104, 300 0105, or 300 0110. Must use parameter code 306 0036. 300 0610 West of the Great Miami - This code identifies the West of the Great Miami in Ohio. Must be used in conjunction with area code 300 0104, 300 0105, or 300 0110. Must use parameter code 306 0036. 300 0612 Refugee Lands - This code identifies the Refugee Lands within the Congress Lands East of the Scioto River in Ohio. Must be used in conjunction with descriptive code 300 0608. Must be used in conjunction with area code 300 0104, 300 0105, or 300 0110. In Township 5N, Range 22 W, must use parameter code 306 0039; otherwise must use parameter code 306 0035. 300 0625 Fraction one-half for land grant corner, monument or section number, or nonsection identifier This code represents that portion of a land grant corner, monument number, section number, or nonsection identifier that is the fraction one-half. For a fractional land grant corner, location monument, or mineral monument, must be used in conjunction with code 300 0014 or 300 0300, and parameter code 308. For a fractional section number or nonsection identifier, must be used in conjunction with parameter code 301 or 307. - This code is not used to identify fractional township or range numbers. (See parameter codes 302-305.) 3.11.8 Parameter Attribute Codes 301 xyyy Section number x = 0 for numeric section identifier 1 for numeric part of alphanumeric section identifier 2 for alphabetic part of alphanumeric section identifier yyy = Section number, flush right, or numeric code for alphabetic character, flush right: A = 01, B = 02, C = 03, D = 04, E = 05, F = 06, G = 07, H = 08, I = 09, J = 10, K = 11, L = 12, M = 13, N = 14, O = 15, P = 16, Q = 17, R = 18, S = 19, T = 20, U = 21, V = 22, W = 23, X =24, Y = 25, Z = 26 Examples: Section 36 - 301 0036 Section 101 - 301 0101 Section 23A - 301 1023, 301 2001 - This code represents the number of a township section collected for a PLSS Area, private extension of public land survey, or area of public and private survey overlap. If a section number is omitted from the published map because of insufficient space, the proper identifier can be derived from those of adjoining sections or by consulting the adjacent map. - This code is also used to capture the identifiers of irregular subdivisions of PLSS areas. These identifiers are typically numbers over 36. Also use code 300 0625 to identify that portion of a section number that is the fraction one-half. 302 xyyy Township number north of baseline 303 xyyy Township number south of baseline x = 0 for full township - 2 for 1/4 township - 4 for 1/2 township - 6 for 3/4 township yyy = township number, flush right Examples: Township 101 South - 301 0101 Township 23 1/2 North - 302 4023 - This code represents the designation for a row of a townships. Township numbers follow the label "T" and are normally placed in pairs straddling the exterior line of the township. They are found in the east and west margins or in the interior of the map if the township line does not extend to the neatline. Partial townships are labeled on the map as, for example, "T23 1/2N." In Symmes Purchase and Between the Miamis, North of Symmes Purchase, rows of townships are labeled "R." Use parameter code 302 to capture these range numbers as township numbers. 304 xyyy Range number east of principal meridian 305 xyyy Range number west of principal meridian x = 0 for full range - 2 for 1/4 range - 4 for 1/2 range - 6 for 3/4 range 8 for duplicate to north or east of the original township - 9 for triplicate to north or east of a duplicate township yyy = range number, flush right Examples: Range 5 East - 304 0005 Range 47 West, duplicate to north or east of the original township - 305 8047 - This code represents the designation for a column of townships. Range numbers follow the label "R" and are normally placed in pairs straddling the exterior line of the township. They are found in the north and south margins or in the interior of the map if the range line does not extend to the neatline. Partial ranges are labeled on the map as, for example, "R79 1/2E." In Symmes Purchase and Between the Miamis, North of Symmes Purchase, columns of townships are labeled "T." Use parameter code 304 to capture these township numbers as range numbers. The range number code can contain an identifier used to distinguish among identical sets of meridian, township, and range numbers, occurring most commonly at State boundaries. Table 3.11-1 contains a partial list of meridian, township, and range number duplicates ordered by State and meridian. In Table 3.11-1, the letter A is used to designate a duplicate, and the letter B a triplicate township identifier. 306 00xx Origin of survey xx = two-digit code from Appendix 3.11.B Examples: Boise Meridian - 306 0008 Ohio River - 306 0035 - This code represents the reference for a set of townships. The BLM map entitled "Principal Meridians and Base Lines" is used to locate the survey area and identify the name of the origin. Appendix 3.11.B is then used to identify the appropriate code for that origin. 306 0038 Ohio River Base This parameter code value is no longer used. See code 306 0035. - 306 0040 Second Scioto River This parameter code value is no longer used. See code 306 0039. - 306 0041 Third Scioto River This parameter code value is no longer used. See code 306 0039. - 306 0047 West of the Great Miami This parameter code value is no longer used. See code 300 0610. - 306 0070 Connecticut Western Reserve and Firelands This parameter code value is no longer used. See code 300 0600. - 306 0071 Virginia Military Survey This parameter code value is no longer used. See code 300 0601. - 306 0072 Ohio Company Purchase This parameter code value is no longer used. See code 300 0602. - 306 0073 Symmes Purchase This parameter code value is no longer used. See code 300 0603. - 307 xyyy Identifier, nonsection x = 0 for numeric identifier 1 for numeric part of alphanumeric section identifier 2 for alphabetic part of alphanumeric section identifier 3 for alphabetic identifier 4 for identifier of named grant in Arizona 5 for identifier of named grant in California 6 for identifier of named grant in Colorado 7 for identifier of named grant in New Mexico 8 for identifier of named grant in Florida For x = 0-3: yyy = number, flush right, or numeric code for alphabetic character, flush right: A = 01, B = 02, C = 03, D = 04, E = 05, F = 06, G = 07, H = 08, I = 09, J = 10, K = 11, L = 12, M = 13, N = 14, O = 15, P = 16, Q = 17, R = 18, S = 19, T = 20, U = 21, V = 22, W = 23, X =24, Y = 25, Z = 26 For x = 4-8 / yyy = three-digit code of the named grant as designated in Appendices 3.11.C and 3.11.D. Examples: Grant number 51 - 307 0051 Grant W - 307 2023 San Ignacio de la Canoa grant in Arizona - 307 4009 Pueblo of Santa Ana grant in New Mexico -307 7302 This code represents the area survey number for a homestead entry survey, donation land claim, tract, U.S. survey, or Indian allotment and the area survey name of a land grant. Also use code 300 0625 to identify that portion of an identifier that is the fraction one-half. 308 xxxx Land grant, location, or mineral monument number - xxxx = number of the monument - This code represents the monument number on a land grant corner, location monument or mineral monument. Used only in conjunction with code 300 0014 or 300 0300. Also use code 300 0625 to identify that portion of a monument number that is the fraction one-half. - U.S. Public Land Survey System Documentation

Public Law 480 (or P. L. 480) - P.L. 83-480 (July 10, 1954), also called Food for Peace, is the common name for food aid programs established by the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, which seeks to expand foreign markets for U.S. agricultural products, combat hunger, and encourage economic development in developing countries. Title I makes export credit available on concessional terms, for example, at low interest rates for up to 30 years. Donations for emergency food relief and nonemergency humanitarian assistance are provided under Title II. Title III authorizes a Food for Development program that provides government-to-government grant food assistance to least developed countries. The FAIR Act of 1996 extends the authority to enter into new P.L. 480 agreements through 2002.

Public Meeting - An announced meeting conducted by officials designed to facilitate participation in the decision-making process and to assist the public in gaining an informed view of a proposed project. Such a gathering may also be referred to as a Public Information Meeting.

Public Open Space - Open space conveyed or otherwise dedicated to a governmental or not-for-profit body for use by the public.

Public parking - Off road, public parking will be provided for up to approximately l2 cars per l,000 acres of National Forest System land in Management Areas. - USDA Forest Service

Public Parks / Open Space - Public areas designated for active and passive recreation, such as parks and athletic complexes, and public open space for the preservation of the scenic vistas and natural vegetation of the City. This Land Use Plan depicts only existing Public Parks/Open Space facilities; potential Public Parks/Open Space sites are illustrated in the Parks, Recreation, and Open Space Master Plan.

Public Participation - A procedure allowing citizens as individuals or interest groups to review proposed U.S. government procedures or information and offer suggestions, comments and criticism, and help identify the issues and concerns associated with federal land management.

Public Rangelands Improvement Act of 1978 (PRIA) - P.L. 95-514 (October 25, 1978) defines the current grazing fee formula and establishes rangeland monitoring and inventory procedures for Bureau of Land Management and Forest Service rangelands. The National Grasslands are exempt from PRIA. 43 U.S.C. 1901-1908. This Act establishes a national policy and commitment to improve the conditions on public rangelands, requires a national inventory and consistent federal management policies, and provides funds for range improvement projects.

Public Road - A road open to public travel that is under the jurisdiction of and maintained by a public authority such as States, counties and local communities.

Public/Semi-Public - Areas that are suitable for a wide range of public and private uses, such as government offices and facilities, public and private schools, churches, and related facilities (including parsonage and parochial schools), cemeteries, and Public Parks/Open Space uses in conjunction with these developments.

Public Transport - Such as bus, tram and train services. (UNESCO)

Public Transportation Service - Any public service designed to carry two or more passengers. Public transportation includes, but is not limited to, vanpools, taxis, local and express buses and minibuses, people movers, trolley buses and trains, subways, and commuter rail systems. Public transportation services may be provided by public, quasi-public, or private entities.

Public utility commissions - State agencies that regulate investor-owned utilities operating in the state. - Bioenergy Glossary

Public utility district (PUD) - A publicly owned energy producer or distributor. PUDs operate as special government districts under the authority of elected commissions. They are not regulated by public utility commissions. - Bioenergy Glossary

Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) - A federal law requiring a utility to buy the power produced by a qualifying facility at a price equal to that which the utility would otherwise pay if it were to build its own power plant or buy power from another source. - Bioenergy Glossary

Public Water System - A system providing piped water for public consumption. Such a system has at least fifteen service connections or regularly serves at least twenty-five individuals. (BLM)

Publicly Owned Treatment Works Permit (POTW) - A permit that regulates discharges to publicly owned sewage treatment plants. - Bioenergy Glossary

PUC - Public Utilities Commission

PUD - Planned Unit Development

PUD - Public Utility District

PUL - Predominantly Urban Landscape

Pulp - Pulverized or ground ore in solution.

Pulp Mill - A highly mechanized industrial plant that processes wood into wood fiber (pulp) which is used to make paper and paper products. This chemical process is very water and energy intensive. Papers produced by either mechanical or chemical processes require bleaching where traditionally chlorine-based products are used (after pressure from environmental campaigns and consumers some pulp mills use an oxygen-based bleaching process). The pollutants produced in chlorine-based bleaching processes include some of the most potent poisons known. (UNESCO)

PUM - Piling unmerchantable material (timber)

Pump Station - A human constructed structure that uses pumps to transfer water from one location to another. - EvergladesPlan glossary

Pungent - Sharp-pointed, prickly to touch. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)

Pupae - The stage between larval and adult where insects undergo extensive body transformations during dormancy or inactivity (diapause). - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary

Purchase of Agricultural Conservation Easements (PACE) - PACE programs pay farmers to keep their land available for agriculture. Landowners sell an easement to a government agency or private conservation organization that is responsible for preventing development. Landowners retain full ownership and use of their land for agricultural purposes. PACE is also known as purchase of development rights (PDR), and as agricultural preservation restrictions (APR) in Massachusetts. [Source: AFT Farmland Information Library, 1996]

Purchase of Development Rights (PDR) - A program under which a government agency buys "development rights," or a conservation easement that permits it to prohibit practices, uses and development of the land in violation of the terms of the development right document. The program does not give the government agency the right to develop the land. It simply permits it to extinguish those rights in return for appropriate compensation. Landowners retain full ownership and control of their land (also known as PACE or APR, see above). [Source: AFT Farmland Information Library, 1996]

Purchaser Road Credits - Credits granted to purchasers of timber in the national forests in exchange for the construction of permanent roads specified in the timber sale contract. The amount of the credits is the Forest Service's estimate of construction costs, and the credits can be used to pay for timber cut. Occasionally, when stumpage prices are at or near the base rates, some or all of the credits cannot be used, and are then termed ineffective road credits.

Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) - 1. A method of measuring the relative purchasing power of different countries' currencies over the same types of goods and services. Because goods and services may cost more in one country than in another, PPP allows us to make more accurate comparisons of standards of living across countries. PPP estimates use price comparisons of comparable items but since not all items can be matched exactly across countries and time, the estimates are not always "robust." (WB-UN) 2. The number of currency units required to buy goods equivalent to what can be bought with one unit of the currency of the base country or with one unit of the common currency of a group of countries. Also referred to as Purchasing Power Standard. The PPP may be calculated over all of GDP, but also at levels of aggregation, like capital formation. (UN)

Purpose of Aid - The DAC statistics on the purpose of aid cover three dimensions: the sector of destination, the form or type of aid, and the policy objective(s) of aid. Data are collected on individual commitments in the Creditor Reporting System (CRS), and in the form of annual commitment aggregates in the DAC Questionnaire. - Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) Glossary

PUSH - People United to Serve Humanity

PUSH - Pray Until Something Happens

Put - An option to sell a stock at an agreed upon price within a specified time. The owner can present his put to the contracting broker at any time within the option period and compel him to buy the stock.

PV - Permanent Vegetation

PVA - Population Viability Analysis

PVE - Photovoltaic Engineering

PVE - Protected Visual Environment

PVS - Potentially Vulnerable Species

PVS - Priority Vulnerable Species DOI/USFWS

PW - Permit Withdrawal

PW - Personal Watercraft

PWA - Permanent Wilderness Area

PWA - Proposed Wilderness Areas

PWBLF - Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum

PWC - Personal Watercraft (such as jet skis)

PWC - Pew Wilderness Center

PWCI - Prevention, Wellness and Change Incentives

PWD - Pumped Well Drain

PWDR - Priority wildlife-dependent recreation

PWH - Potential Wolf Habitat

PWIA - Personal Watercraft Industry Association

PWM - Prairie-Wetland Mosaic

PWRP - The Pennsylvania Wildlands Recovery Project http://www.wildpennsylvania.org/pwrp.htm

PWSAF - Pennsylvania Wildlands Science Advisory Forum

PWSL - Plant & Wildlife Species List

PYC - Protect the Yak Committee

PYPR - Protect Your Property Rights

Pyramiding - The use of increased buying power to increase ownership arising from price appreciation.

Pyrite - A common sulphide mineral, shiny and yellow in color and composed of sulphur and iron, sometimes known as "fool's gold".

Pyrrhotite - An iron sulphide, less common than pyrite, bronze in color and magnetic; some times is associated with nickel, in which case it may be mined as a nickel ore.

PZB - Planning and Zoning Board

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