S factor. See Slope-steepness factor. - National Resources Inventory
S wave - Shear, secondary, rotational, tangential, equivoluminal, distortional, transverse, or shake wave. These waves carry energy through the Earth in very complex patterns of transverse (crosswise) waves. These waves move more slowly than P waves, but in an earthquake they are usually bigger. S waves cannot travel through the outer core because these waves cannot exist in fluids, such as air, water or molten rock. - USGS Earthquake glossary
S&M - Survey and Manage
S&P - Standard and Poor's
SA - Scenic America
SA - Scenic Area
SA - Scientific Analysis
SA - Set-Aside
SA - Shared Allegiance
SA - Slated Agenda
SA - Slotting Allowance
SA - Snowmobiler's Association
SA - Specialized Agendas (UN)
SA - Specialized Audiences
SA - Spray Activity
SA - Statistical Area
SA - Stewardship Assets (DOI)
SA - Stock Assessment
SA - Stockgrowers Association
SA - Suitable Area
SA - Surface Area
SA - Sustainable Agriculture
SAAC - Snowmobile and ATV (all-terrain vehicle) Advisory Committee
SABMP - Selected Agricultural Best Management Practices
SAC - Scientific Advisory Committee
SAC - Southern Alleghenies Conservancy http://www.ctcnet.net/sac/
SAC - The Sporting Advisory Committee (SAC), appointed by the CWC -- Catskill Water Corporation -- works with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, the CWC, and, when requested, with local municipalities to provide input on city land uses. It has also provided comments on a plan the city is formulating which re-evaluates allowable recreational uses on watershed lands the city already owns.
SAC - State Association of Counties
SAC - Steering and Advisory Committees
SAC - Sustainable Agriculture Coalition
SACGT - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Genetic Testing
SACOG - The Sacramento Area Council of Governments (California)
Sacrifice Area/Site - In range management, a site allowed to be overgrazed to obtain efficient overall use of the management area. In cultural resource management, it may refer to a site intentionally sacrificed to extensive public use in order to preserve the larger cultural area.
SAD - Selective Advocacy Document
SAD - Supply And Demand
Saddle - A structural implement or connector. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Saddle Formation - Shaped like a saddle or anticline.
SAF - San Andreas Fault
SAF - Second Amendment Foundation
SAF - Society of American Foresters
SAFC - Southern Appalachian Forest Coalition
SAFE - Safe American Food for Everyone
SAFE - Serving America's Farmworkers Everywhere (this is NOT what it appears; this is 'sustainable' 'Global Village' stuff) http://www.ruralinc.org
SAFE - Student Association for Fire Ecology (A Student Chapter of The Association for Fire Ecology)
Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) - P.L. 93-523 (December 16, 1974) as amended, is the key federal law for protecting public water systems from harmful contaminants. First enacted in 1974, the Act, as amended, is administered by the EPA through regulatory programs that establish standards and treatment requirements for drinking water contaminants, control underground injection of wastes that might contaminate water supplies, and protect ground and surface water sources. Regulated public water systems under the Act are those that have at least 15 service connections or regularly serve 25 or more individuals. The 1996 amendments (P.L. 104-182) broadened the definition of 'public water system' to include systems that deliver water through pipes or 'other constructed conveyances,' and intended to include agricultural irrigation systems that convey water through open viaducts or ditches (unless the water is not used for 'residential uses', or unless alternative water is provided for drinking and cooking; or unless water for drinking, cooking, and bathing is treated). The 1996 amendments also require states to identify, to the extent practicable, origins of contaminants in areas providing source waters for public water systems to determine the susceptibility of systems to contamination.
Safe-site - The environment immediately surrounding a seed which is favourable to germination and establishment. Syn: microsite, microhabitat - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary
Safe Water - Water that is safe for drinking and bathing including treated surface water and untreated but uncontaminated water, such as from springs, sanitary wells, and protected boreholes. (WB-UN)
Safe Yield - The amount of ground water that can be withdrawn continually from an aquifer in an economical and legal manner without having any adverse effect on the ground water resource or on the surrounding environment.
Safeguarding - Safeguarding is used interchangeably with conservation, preservation and protection in the Convention and the Operational Guidelines. See Conservation, Preservation, Protection - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
Safer Pesticides - Pesticides designated as "safer" (or "reduced-risk") by EPA due to favorable characteristics affecting health or environmental risks, resistance management and integrated pest management. Safer pesticides may be conventional pesticides posing less risk or be biopesticides with unique modes of action, low use volume, lower toxicity, target species specificity or natural occurrence. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary
SAFETEA - The Safe, Accountable, Flexible and Efficient Transportation Equity Act of 2003, is the reauthorization of the national surface transportation law, TEA-21. - Federal Highway Administration, Department Of Transportation http://nepa.fhwa.dot.gov/ReNepa/ReNepa.nsf/9ba8442069238e44852568fe00708985/caee6fd9
cd5ea6b285256d260075b610/$FILE/Memorandum_Reauth_Rollout_5-12-03.doc (2-page memorandum, dated May 12, 2003)
SAFSTOR - A method of decommissioning in which the nuclear facility is placed and maintained in such condition that the nuclear facility can be safely stored and subsequently decontaminated to levels that permit release for unrestricted use. - Nuclear Regulatory Commission
SAG - Standards And Guidelines
SAGE - Serial Analysis of Gene Expression
SAGEMAP - This site is a portal for spatial data needed for research and management of sage grouse and shrubsteppe systems. http://sagemap.wr.usgs.gov/
SAI - Sustainable Agricultural Intensification
SAICM - Strategic Approach on International Chemicals Management (UNEP)
S & L - Savings and Loan
SA/LW - Small Arms and Light Weapons
SAL - Sub-Arctic Landscape
Salable Minerals - High volume, low value mineral resources including common varieties of rock, clay, decorative stone, sand, and gravel. (BLM)
Saleable Minerals - Minerals that may be sold under the Material Sale Act of 1947, as amended. Included are common varieties of sand, stone, gravel, and clay. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary 2. Common variety minerals on the public lands, such as sand and gravel, which are used mainly for construction and are disposed of by sales or special permits to local governments. See Common Variety Minerals and Uncommon Variety Minerals. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Salients - That portion of a fortification that projects towards the enemy. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Saline - Consisting of or containing salt. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)
Saline deposits - Precipitated salts or salt found in or on the soil surface that result in reduced vegetative production or in the elimination of crops and grasses on agricultural lands. - National Resources Inventory
Salinity - The amount of chemical salts (compounds that include Na, K, Mg, Ca) contained in a solution. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary 2. (Amount of) salt in water or soil. - UNEP Children's Glossary
Sally port - The protected entry way of a fortification. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
SALT - The Sandhills Area Land Trust
Salt flats - Undrained areas in closed basins in arid regions. In these areas, 10 to 75 cm (4 to 30 in) of crystalline salt overlie stratified, very strongly saline sediment. The water table may be within 20 cm (8 in) of the surface at some period during the year. - National Resources Inventory
Salting - (1) Providing salt as a mineral supplement for animals. (2) Placing salt on the range in such a manner as to improve distribution of livestock grazing. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho
Salting - The act of introducing metals or minerals into a deposit or samples, resulting in false assays - done either by accident or with the intent of defrauding the public. (Author's note: salting may also apply to any business deal in which the balance of the deal is not what is shown or represented.)
Salvage Harvest of Timber - Intermediate harvests made to remove trees that are dead or in imminent danger of being killed by injurious agents such as insects.
Salvage logging - The harvest of dead, dying, damaged, or weak trees to prevent the spread of disease or insects and to reduce the risk of high intensity fire. - Bioenergy Glossary
Salvage Rider - Section 2001 in the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act of 1995 (P.L. 104-19, July 27, 1995) to expand salvage timber sales from July 27, 1995 through December 31, 1996, by exempting them from public challenges under environmental laws; also controversial because it reinstated numerous timber sales in Washington and Oregon that had been stopped to protect endangered and threatened species habitat.
Salvage Sales - Timber sales form national forests to remove dead, infested, damaged, or down trees and associated trees for stand improvement; controversial partly because there are no standards for the number or proportion of trees that must be dead, infested, damaged, or down and partly because the Forest Service retains at least some of the revenues to prepare and administer future salvage sales.
SAM - Situation Assessment Memorandum
SAM - Soviet Active Measures (deception campaigns worldwide)
SAM - Survey & Manage
SAM - Sustainable Asset Management
SAMI - Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative
SAMPAA - Science and Managment of Protected Areas Association
Sample - A small portion of rock or a mineral deposit, taken so that the metal content can be determined by assaying.
Sample point - The second-stage sample unit in the NRI two-stage sampling scheme. See also Primary sample unit. - National Resources Inventory
Sampling - Selecting a fractional but representative part of a mineral deposit for analysis.
Sampling frame - A list of sample units that: (a) includes all (100%) of the population of interest without duplication, (b) provides a clear cut means of identifying each sample unit, and (c) arranges these characteristics so that probability sampling can be done efficiently. -FAO UN Glossary
Sampling unit - Represents elements or groups of elements of the universe under study, which can be selected in the sample. There may be sampling units of different levels, the lowest level being the element under study, i.e., agricultural holding. -FAO UN Glossary
SAMS Coalition - Sierra Nevada Access Multiple Use Stewardship
SAMUC - Southern Appalachian Multiple-Use Council
SAN - Spirit And Nature
SAN - Sustainable Agriculture Network (USDA)
Sand - Sedimentary grains 2 -1/16 mm in diameter. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary
SANDAG - The San Diego Association of Governments (California)
Sandhills - Xeric and sub-xeric longleaf pine communities on deep sandy soils. Also, the ecoregion encompassing the fall-line sandhills. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf
Sand dunes - A Land cover/use subcategory under Barren land. A sand area with less than 5 percent vegetative cover. An accumulation of loose sand heaped by the wind, commonly found along low-lying seashores above high-tide level, more rarely on the border of large lakes or river valleys, as well as in various desert regions, where there is abundant dry surface sand during some part of the year. - National Resources Inventory
Sandstone - A sedimentary rock consisting of grains of sand cemented together.
Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures and Agreements - Measures to protect humans, animals, and plants from diseases, pests, or contaminants. The final act of the Uruguay Round of the Multilateral Trade Negotiations contains 'The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.' It applies to all sanitary (relating to animals) and phytosanitary (relating to plants) (SPS) measures that may have a direct or indirect impact on international trade. The SPS agreement includes a series of understandings (trade disciplines) on how SPS measures will be established and used by countries when they establish, revise, or apply their domestic laws and regulations. Countries agree to base their SPS standards on science, and as guidance for their actions, the agreement encourages countries to use standards set by international standard setting organizations. The SPS agreement seeks to ensure that SPS measures will not arbitrarily or unjustifiably discriminate against trade of certain other members nor be used to disguise trade restrictions. In this SPS agreement, countries maintain the sovereign right to provide the level of health protection they deem appropriate, but agree that this right will not be misused for protectionist purposes or result in unnecessary trade barriers. A rule of equivalency rather than equality applies to the use of SPS measures.
Sanitation - Maintaining clean, hygienic conditions that help prevent disease through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal. 'Access to sanitation' is a development indicator that refers to the percentage of the population with at least adequate excreta disposal facilities that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Suitable facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with sewerage. To be effective, all facilities must be correctly constructed and maintained. (WB-UN)
Sanitation - Pipes and treatment plants that drain sewage and refuse from houses. - UNEP Children's Glossary
Sanitation facilities - Basic sewerage and drainage systems that collect waste water and then clean and redistribute it. (WB-UN)
Sanitation Salvage - The removal of dead, damaged or susceptible trees primarily to prevent the spread of pests, pathogens or disease and promote forest health.
Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOPs) - Refers to the cleaning procedures that meat and poultry plants use, both before and during production, to prevent contamination of products. Site-specific SSOPs were required to be implemented in January 1997 by all slaughter and processing plants, under the comprehensive pathogen reduction regulations issued by USDA in July 1996.
Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad (1866) - The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a corporation was a PERSON, with all the rights of a person. Until then, the state legislatures could simply take a corporation that had done harm, revoke its charter and throw it out of the state. After the Santa Clara decision, corporations could also, for the first time, lobby legally and support candidates for public office in ways that had heretofore been illegal. This fed corporate influence on politics.
The Santiago Declaration - In February 1995 in Santiago, Chile, the original 10 Montreal Process countries endorsed a statement of political commitment known as the "Santiago Declaration," together with a comprehensive set of seven criteria and 67 indicators for the conservation and sustainable management of temperate and boreal forests for use by their respective policy-makers at the national level. Argentina and Uruguay have since endorsed the Santiago Declaration and joined the Montreal process. The Santiago Declaration is an important step to implementing the UNCED Forest Principles and Agenda 21, and to furthering the joint commitment made by tropical timber consumer countries in January 1994 to the goal of achieving sustainable management of their respective forests by the year 2000.
SAP - Set-Aside Program
SAP - State Acquisition Project
SAP - State Antidegradation Policy
Sapling - A loose term for a young tree more than a few feet tall and an inch or so in diameter that is typically growing vigorously.
Sapric soil material (muck) - The most highly decomposed of all organic soil material. Muck has the least amount of plant fiber, the highest bulk density, and the lowest water content at saturation of all organic soil material. - USDA
Sapwood - The outer, active layer of tissue in a tree, lying just inside the cambium. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf
Sapwood - The outer, light-colored wood of the tree trunk, which is more susceptible to attack by decay than the heartwood. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary
S&R - Search and Rescue
SAR - Suspicious Action Report (banks, Post Office, etc.)
SAR - Synthetic Aperture Radar (UN)
SARA - Species At Risk Act (Canada)
SARA - Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act
SARE - Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (USDA)
SAS - Second Amendment Sisters
SAS - Sustainable Agricultural Society
SASE - Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission
Sash - A moveable framework in which planes of glass are set, as in a window. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
SASHTO - The Southeastern Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials http://www.wvdot.com/sashto/default.asp
SAT - Scholastic Aptitude Test
SAT - Student Activist Training
SATA - Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Satellite imagery - Describes the images provided by satellites (SPOT, LANDSAT, etc.) and sometimes used for the cartographic preparation. -FAO UN Glossary
Saturated Flow - Movement of water through soil by gravity flow, as in irrigation or during a rainstorm.
Saturated Zone - The zone in a soil profile or geologic formation in which all pore spaces are filled with water.
SAV - Suburban Amenity Values (UN)
Savanna - Tropical grasslands with scattered trees or shrubs. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary
SAVE - Student Actions and Values for the Environment (Hawaii)
Savings - Income not used for current consumption. See also gross domestic saving rate and gross domestic investment rate. - WB
SAW - Significantly Altered Wetlands
Sawtimber - Trees containing at least one 12 foot sawlog or two non-contiguous eight foot logs, and meeting regional specifications for freedom from defect, that are nine inches in diameter at breast height or larger that can be made into lumber.
SB - Sediment Basin
SB - Shelterbelts
SB - A Supporting Business/Supporting Businesses
SBC - Santa Barbara (California) Channelkeeper
SBC - Seismic Building Code
SBC - Soviet Bloc Country
SBCCI - Southern Building Code Congress International (Standard Housing Code)
SBCWA - Simulated Biological and Chemical Warfare Agents
SBREFA - The Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act http://www.epa.gov/sbrefa/statute.htm
SBS - Science-Based Solutions
SBS - State-By-State
SBS - Subbasin Summary
SBSF - Small Business Survival Foundation
SBSP - Streambank and Shoreline Protection
SBSTTA - The Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Open-ended Inter-Sessional Meeting on the Multi-Year Programme of Work of the Conference of the Parties up to 2010 (UN)
SBSTTA - The Convention on Biological Diversity's The Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (UN)
SC - Safe Corridor
SC - Scenic Corridor
SC - Scoring Criteria
SC - Security Council
SC - Show Cause
SC - Sierra Club
SC - Social Change
SC - Social Consciousness
SC - Social Contract
SC - Species Conservation
SC - Sponsoring Committee
SC - Spray Content
SC - Statistical Correlation
SC - Strategic Commodity
SC - Stripcropping
SC - Study Circle
SC - Sustainable Community / Communities
SC - Synchronous Conferencing
SCA - Site Conservation Assessment
SCA - State Conservation Agencies
SCA - Student Conservation Association - 3-12 month internships (expenses paid & stipends) in national parks, forests, wildlife refuges, urban greenways, and wildlands managed by government and nonprofit organizations. "Changing lives through service to nature."
SCAA - Specialty Coffee Association of America
SCAB - System of Checks And Balances
Scab - A new piece of wood attached to an existing, deteriorated, or weakened member. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
SCAG - Southern California Association of Governments http://www.scag.ca.gov/
Scale - In ecosystem management, it refers to the degree of resolution at which ecosystems are observed and measured.
Scale - Refers to the geographic area and data resolution under examination in an assessment or planning effort. - BLM
Scaled sale - A type of timber sale contract that specifies measuring or scaling of the included timber after removal. Scaling determines the number of board feet or c-units to be paid for at contract rates. - Bioenergy Glossary
Scaling - The act of removing loose slabs of rock from the back and walls of an underground opening, usually done with a hand-held scaling bar or with a boom-mounted scaling hammer. A method for Forest Service personnel, or an independent third party, to measure the volume of timber actually removed as a result of a timber sale. Scaled sales are a timber sales that use scaling for billing purchasers at the stumpage price for the timber cut.
SCANS - Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (UN)
SCANS - The Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (established in 1990 by U.S. Department of Labor and then-Secretary of Labor Elizabeth Dole to determine the skills that young people need to succeed in the world of work). U.S. Department of Labor Employment & Training Association http://wdr.doleta.gov/SCANS/
Scarification - Mechanical removal of competing vegetation or interfering debris prior to planting. (BLM)
Scarify - To break the surface of the soil with a narrow bladed instrument. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Scarp - Wall in field fortification, the wall closest to the defenders in a ditch built as an obstruction. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Scarp - An escarpment, cliff or steep slope along the margin of a plateau, mesa or terrace.
SCB - Society for Conservation Biology (Reed Noss, co-author of The Wildlands Project)
SCB - Society for Conservation Biology http://conbio.net/scb/
SCB - Southeast Conservation Buffer Campaign
SCBI - Society for Conservation Biology International
SCC - Service to the Citizens Conference (Richmond, Virginia, June, 1993)
SCC - State Conservation Commission
SCC - Sustainable Cities and Communities
SCCCL - South Carolina Coastal Conservation League
SCCM (Mercosur) - Southern Cone Common Market (UN)
SCCRTC - The Santa Cruz County Regional Transportation Commission (California)
SCD - Sustainable Community Development
Scene - A section of the landscape which is viewed.
Scene-setter - Buildings that strictly add to the aesthestics of the park as features of the cultural landscape without any operational function. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/
Scenario - A complete and workable set of resource management zones, objectives and strategies for the planning area.
Scenario - A complete and workable set of resource management zones, objectives and strategies for the planning area which represent one potential option for analysis purposes.
Scenario Planning - Planning conducted through the development, assessment, and iterative refinement of multiple alternative management scenarios. Each scenario represents a package of activities and policies, usually developed along a theme.
Scenery - General appearance of a place, general appearance of a landscape, or features of a landscape. - FS
Scenery Management - The art and science of arranging, planning, and designing landscape attributes relative to the appearance of places and expanses in the outdoor settings. - FS
Scenic Byway - A national and/or state designation of a road or highway that offers an enjoyable and relaxing experience for travelers and possesses scenic, historic, cultural, natural, archeological, and recreational features. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/
Scenic Byway - A road that has been designated through legislation or other official declaration as special for its scenic value. The road can be classified as a parkway, greenway, trail, heritage highway, drive, road, byways or backway. Portions of scenic byways may pass through non-scenic commercial and industrial areas, or through comprehensively zoned urban cities. States and localities have the right to determine whether they want to place billboards in these non-scenic commercial and industrial portions of designated scenic byways. (SignValue.com definition) 2. Typically secondary roads having significant cultural, historic, scenic, geological, or natural features. They often include vistas, rest areas, and interpretive sites in harmony with the scenic characteristics of the road. (definition given by the Campaign for Reliable Transportation) NPS - DOI
Scenic Corridor - A publicly accessible right-of-way and the views that can be seen from the right-of-way of expanses of water, farmland, woodlands, coastal wetlands, or other scenic vistas.
Scenic Corridor - The visible land area from a highway right-of-way where scenic design standards are applied.
Scenic Highway - Any public road on the State Highway System that is so designated by the Secretary pursuant to State Statutes. These roadways offer travelers views of cultural, historical, archeological, recreational, natural or scenic resources and provide a relaxed recreational and educational experience. The intrinsic resources of the corridor must be considered to be of significant value by the surrounding communities. The corridor often includes vistas, rest areas and other amenities in harmony with the scenic character of the road. - Scenic Byways Program Glossary
Scenic Highway/Route - A road which, in addition to its transportation function, provides opportunities for enjoyment of natural and manmade scenic resources where esthetic values are protected and enhanced.
Scenic Highways Coordinator (SHC) - A person who has been appointed to implement the Scenic Highways Program. - Scenic Byways Program Glossary
Scenic Highways Program (SHP) - The process and criteria that define a system of public roads on the State Highway System that are officially designated by the Secretary as Scenic Highways. It may also include public roads that are part of the National Scenic Byways Program. The SHP is voluntary and grassroots in nature and there are no penalties attached for local general purpose governments not participating in the program. - Scenic Byways Program Glossary
Scenic Integrity - State of naturalness or, conversely, the state of disturbance created by human activities or alteration. Integrity is stated in degrees of deviation from the existing landscape character in a national forest. - FS Scenic Integrity Objective - 1. Very High - The Valued landscape character "is" intact with only subtle if any deviations. Allows for ecological change only. The existing landscape character and sense of place is expressed at the highest possible level. 2. High - Landscapes where the valued landscape character "appears" intact. Deviations may be present but must repeat the form, line color, texture, and pattern common to the landscape character so completely, and at such scale, that they are not evident. For example, clearings created by timber harvest must be similar in size and shape to natural openings in the landscape being viewed so that, when ground cover has become established, the clearing looks completely natural. 3. Moderate - Noticeable deviations must remain visually subordinate to the landscape character being viewed. For example, clearings created by timber harvest are evident, but the natural character of the landscape is still the primary influence of the view. 4. Low - Deviations dominate the landscape character being viewed. However, activities, structures, and roads borrow from the form, line, color, texture and scale found in the landscape character being viewed that they are compatible with the surroundings. - FS
Scenic Integrity Objective - Scenic Integrity Objectives (SIO) is the objectives established in a Forest Plan that define the acceptable degrees of deviation from a landscape character that may occur. - FS
Scenic Quality - The essential attributes of landscape that when viewed by people, elicit psychological and physiological benefits to individuals and, therefore, the society in general. - FS 2. The total impression made by components of a natural or manmade landscape which provide an attractive and memorable visual experience to the viewer; includes natural land forms, water features, rock outcroppings, trees and other vegetation and human settlements, buildings, and structures of interest.
Scenic Quality - The relative worth of a landscape from a visual perception point of view which is used in determining the Visual Resource Management Classification. (BLM)
Scenic Resource - Attributes, characteristics, and features of landscapes that provide varying responses from, and varying degrees of benefits to, humans. - FS
Scenic Resources - A combination of natural and manmade features that give remarkable character to the visual landscape. These resources are striking in appearance and provide a pleasing and memorable experience to those who view them. NPS - DOI
Scenic River - See Wild and Scenic River System. (BLM)
SCF - Student Cumulative Folder
SCGACC - The Southern California Geographic Area Coordination Center
SCGS - South Coast Geological Society
Schedule of appraisals - Part 34, Section 6 - The Secretary shall make "fair market value appraisals" of areas administered by the Service within five years after October 17, 1978, beginning with areas established earliest....Once appraised, areas shall be reappraised on a schedule of at least once every five years. (USFWS-DOI)
Schist - A foliated metamorphic rock the grains of which have a roughly parallel arrangement; generally developed by shearing.
Schist - Medium to coarse-grained metamorphic rock composed of parallel layers, which are often waxy or flaky. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)
SCHM - Savory Center for Holistic Management
Schools To Work Program - This program gives practical work experience to secondary students and it has provided networking with community businesses and industry. - NEA
SCI - Significant cumulative impacts
Science Advisory Board - A group of independent scientists selected by the Administrator of EPA to advise on the scientific and technical aspects of environmental problems and issues and who, at the request of the Administrator, review the scientific aspects of any reports or other written products prepared by the agency. Congress established the Board when it enacted the Environmental Research, Development, and Demonstration Authorization Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-477).
Scientific Advisory Panel - Formally known as the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel, this group of independent scientists was authorized by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. Its purpose is to provide scientific advice to EPA on pesticides and pesticide-related issues.
Scientist - An individual whose combination of academic training and professional field experience in the natural region qualifies him/her to identify and comparatively evaluate natural areas at the regional or national level. - NPS
Scintillation Counter - An instrument used to detect and measure radioactivity by detecting gamma rays; more sensitive than a Geiger counter.
SCL - Strawman Criteria List
SCLC - Sierra Cascade Logging Conference
SCLC - Southern Christian Leadership Conference
SCLDF - Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund
SCLTN - South Carolina Land Trust Network
SCMGOL - State-Compiled Mandatory Gun-Ownership Lists
SCO - Stream Corridor Ordinance
SCOPE - Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (ICSU)
SCOPE - Scientific Committee On Problems of the Environment http://www.icsu-scope.org/
Scope - Scope consists of the range of actions, alternatives, and impacts the USFS determines will be considered in an environmental document (EA or EIS). Establishes the breadth of issues to be covered. 2. Scope (universe) - The scope of a classification is the coverage or sphere of what is to be observed. It is the total membership or population of a defined set of people, objects, or events. (UN)
Scoping - An information collection process by which all relevant issues and concerns, as well as alternatives to a proposed federal action, are collected. This process includes the review of all relevant planning and management documents, consultation and discussion with interested agencies and organizations, and public input. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/ 2. The identification of major issues and impact topics. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the National Park Service to consult early in the planning process with everyone potentially interested in the outcome of a planning decision to help identify the full range of issues and potential impacts of a plan. (DOI/NPS)
Scoping - A first step in the NEPA process and in the river planning process. Scoping is a means of identifying issues and concerns, their significance, and the range of alternatives. - Bioenergy Glossary
Scoping - The procedures by which the various Department of Interior agencies determine the extent of analysis necessary for a proposed action, i.e. the range of actions, alternative, and impacts to be addressed, identification of significant issues related to a proposed action, and establishing the depth of environmental analysis, data, and task assignment. A process for determining the scope of issues to be addressed by an Environmental Impact Statement and for identifying the significant issues. Involved in the scoping process are Federal, state and local agencies; private organizations; and individuals. The ongoing process to determine public opinion, receive comments and suggestions, and determine issues during the environmental analysis process. It may involve public meetings, telephone conversations, or letters.
SCORP - Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan
SCP - Second Coming Project
SCP - Sound Conservation Practices
SCP - Sustainable Cleveland Partnership
SCP - Sustainable Culture Philosophies
SCR - The Southern Cone Region: Argentina, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay. (UN) http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/susg/susgs/samsouthcone.html
SCR - Stream Corridor Restoration http://www.usda.gov/stream_restoration/newgra.html
SCR - Submerged Cultural Resources
Scree - Any slope covered with loose rock fragments.
Scree - Accumulation of rocky debris lying on a slope or at the base of a hill. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)
Scribner Short Log - A log measurement rule constructed from diagrams which shows the number of 1-inch boards that can be drawn in a circle representing the small end of a 16-foot-long log, assumes a 1/4-inch saw kerf groove, makes a liberal allowance for slabs, and disregards log taper. (BLM)
SCRKBA - Students Committee for the Right to Keep and Bear Arms
SCRT - Stream Corridor Restoration Technology http://www.usda.gov/stream_restoration/newgra.html
Scrub - A community dominated by pinewoods with a thick understory of oaks and saw palmetto, and which occupies well-drained, nutrient-poor sandy soils. - EvergladesPlan glossary
SCWP - The South Coast Wildlands Project (California) Rich Hunter, Talon Associates, Bodega CA 94922 http://www.werc.usgs.gov/socal/abstra.html#hunter
SCS - Soil Conservation Service (now known as the Natural Resources Conservation Service)
SCS - Special Collection Service
SCS - Stream Channel Stabilization
SCS - Student Climate Study
SCT - Strategic Computing and Telecommunications
SCWP - The South Coast Wildlands Project (California)
SD - Salt Dome (salt deposit) http://www.solutionmining.org/Introduction%20to%20Solution%20Mining/Salt.htm
SD - Scheelite Deposit (tungsten)
SD - Setback Distance
SD - Simultaneous Delivery
SD - Spin Doctor
SD - Spring Development
SD - Stable Disagreement (also known as Consensus)
SD - standard deviation
SD - Surface Drainage
SD - Sustainable Development
SDA - Soap and Detergent Association
SDA - Subdivision Act
SDC -Swiss Development Corporation (IUCN)
SDC - The Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (provides 'financial assistance' to ICIMOD http://www.mtnforum.org)
SDCP - Sonoran Desert Conservation Plan
SDD - State Department Document
SDE - State Department of Education
SDF - Seth Demonstration Forest (Maryland)
SDI - Strategic Development and Implementation
SDI - Strategic Defense Initiative (Star Wars)
SDMG - State Division of Mines and Geology
SDMT - Specific Difficult Manual Tasks
SDR - Sustainable Development and Race
SDS - Students for a Democratic Society
SDTS - Spatial Data Transfer Standard
SDWA - Safe Drinking Water Act (1974)
SE - Safe Environment
SE - Sex Education
SE - Shelterbelt Establishment
SE - Simple Explanation
SE - Situational Ethics
SE - Social Equity
SE - Spirituality in Education
SE - State Endangered
SE - Straight Edge
SE - Subsidize and Expand
SE - Support and Expand
SE - Sustainable Economics
SEA - Significant Ecological Areas
SEA - Surfers' Environmental Alliance
SEA - Sustainability Education and Awareness
SEAC - Student Environmental Action Coalition
Seacoast fortification - The fortification network designed and emplaced to protect naval bases, seaports and other important coastal waters from the intrusion of hostile warships. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
SEA-EI - Southeast Asia Environmental Initiative
SEARCH - Special Education And Research for CHildren
SEARCH - Strategic Extraction and Analysis of Recent Credit History
Season-Long Grazing - Grazing which takes place throughout the growing season. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho
Season-long use (passive, continuous grazing) - The term season-long use or passive, continuous grazing means grazing throughout the growing period, with little or no effort to control the amount of distribution of livestock use in area/pasture/allotments. BLM-DOI
Season-Of-Use - The time of livestock grazing on a rangeland area. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary
Seasonal Utilization (relative) - Seasonal utilization is the amount of utilization that has occurred before the end of the growing season. BLM-DOI
Seaward Boundaries of States - The seaward boundary of each original coastal state is confirmed as a line three miles from its coast line or, in the case of the Great Lakes, to the international boundary. Subsequently admitted states may extend their boundaries to either three miles from their coastline or to international boundaries in the Great Lakes or any other body of water traversed by such boundaries. States may claim these boundaries without prejudice to any claim that the boundaries extend beyond that point. § 1312. - Submerged Lands Act
SEC - Securities and Exchange Commission
SEC - Soil Erosion Control
SEC - Southern Environmental Center http://www.bsc.edu/sec/ecoscape/default.html
SEC - Southwest Environmental Center
SEC - Sustainability Education and Communication
Second-foot - A unit of water measure equal to one cubic foot per second, or 448.83 gallons per minute.
Second-foot - Same as cfs. This term is no longer used in published reports of the U.S. Geological Survey. - USGS
Second Growth - Forest growth that was established after some kind of interference with the previous forest crop, such as cutting, fire, or insect attack.
Second growth - A second generation of timber of merchantable age. - Bioenergy Glossary
Second system of American seacoast fortification - Open batteries and masonry-faced forts constructed by the United States to protect strategic points on the Atlantic seaboard; predominantly prior to the War of 1812. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Secondary - An alteration of an original formation or deposit.
Secondary cavity nester - Species that inhabit cavities they did not create. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf
Secondary core population - A population identified in recovery criteria that will hold at least 250 potential breeding groups at the time of and after delisting. Defined by biological boundaries. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf
Secondary Enrichment - Enrichment of a vein or mineral deposit by minerals that have been taken into solution from one part of the vein or adjacent rocks and re-deposited in another.
Secondary Nutrient - The nutrient Ca, Mg, and S used in large amounts by plants but less often deficient than the primary nutrients N, P, and K.
Secondary Pollutant - A pollutant that is formed by a chemical or photochemical reaction in the atmosphere rather than emitted from an identifiable source. See Primary Pollutant. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Secondary Porosity - The porosity developed in a rock formation after its deposition or emplacement, either through the natural processes of dissolution or stress distortion, or artificially through acidization or the mechanical injection of coarse sand. See Porosity and Primary Porosity. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Secondary radiation - Radiation that originates as the result of absorption of other radiation in matter. It may be either electromagnetic or particulate in nature. - Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Secondary Range - Range which receives light or incidental use by livestock when management is limited.
Secondary succession - The progression of plant communities following disturbances such as fire, windthrow and timber harvesting. - Bioenergy Glossary
Secondary Travelways and use areas - Locally important locations associated with all types of use including recreation and tourism. - FS
Section - 640 acres of land.
Section 15 lands - Public lands outside a grazing district administered by Bureau of Land Management under Section 15 of the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934. The BLM authorizes livestock grazing on these lands by issuing leases private parties.
Section 22 - A provision of permanent agricultural law (Agricultural Adjustment Act Amendment of 1935) that allows the President to impose import fees or import quotas to prevent imports from non-WTO member countries from undermining the price support and supply control objectives of domestic farm programs. Legislation implementing NAFTA and the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture exempts NAFTA partners and WTO member countries from Section 22 quotas and fees. Under both trade agreements, the United States converted then-in-effect Section 22 restrictions into tariff-rate quotas. This effectively eliminates Section 22 as a tool to shield domestic price support operations.
Section 201 - A section of the Trade Act of 1974 that permits the President to grant temporary import relief, by raising import duties or imposing non-tariff barriers on goods entering the United States that injure or threaten to injure domestic industries producing like goods. This provision is the analog of GATT Article 19, which allows GATT contracting parties to provide relief from injurious competition when temporary protection will enable the domestic industry to make adjustments to meet the competition.
Section 301 - A section of the Trade Act of 1974 that authorizes the President to take all appropriate action, including retaliation, to obtain the removal of any act, policy, or practice of a foreign government which violates an international trade agreement or is unjustified, unreasonable, or discriminatory, and which burdens or restricts U.S. commerce.
Section 404 - A provision of the Clean Water Act establishing a program regulating the discharge of dredge or fill material into the nation's waters. Permits for individual dredge or fill activities are issued by the Army Corps of Engineers, subject to guidelines prepared by EPA. Primarily because this program can impact economic development by restricting the filling of wetlands, it has been controversial. It applies to agricultural, as well as non-agricultural lands. However, normal farming operations, silviculture, and ranching activities--such as plowing, cultivating, and minor drainage, and the construction and maintenance of farm and stock ponds, irrigation and drainage ditches, and farm and forest roads--are exempted by law from the permit requirements of this program. In addition, Section 404 authorizes 'general permits' for certain activities, including several agricultural ones, so that individual landowners need not apply for a permit. For example, there are general permits for cranberry bogs and for rice culture.
Section 524 Loans - Land acquisition and development loans authorized under Section 524 of the Housing Act of 1949. Nonprofit organizations and Indian tribes may obtain loans from the Rural Housing Service to purchase and develop land that is to be subdivided into building sites for housing low- and moderate-income families. The loans are made for a 2-year period. Sites financed through Section 524 have no restrictions on the methods by which the homes are financed or constructed. The interest rate on Section 524 site loans is the Treasury cost of funds.
Section 533 Grants - A USDA rural housing rehabilitation program authorized under Section 533 of the Housing Act of 1949. The Rural Housing Service is authorized to make grants to capable organizations for (1) rehabilitating single family housing in rural areas which is owned by low- and very low-income families, (2) rehabilitating rural rental properties, and (3) rehabilitating rural cooperative housing structured to provide affordable housing to low- and very low-income occupants. The homes must be located in rural areas and be in need of housing preservation assistance. Assisted families must meet the income restrictions (income of 80% or less of the median income for the area) and must have occupied the property for at least one year prior to receiving assistance. Occupants of leased homes may be eligible for assistance if (1) the un-expired portion of the lease extends for 5 years or more, and (2) the lease permits the occupant to make modifications to the structure and precludes the owner from increasing the rent because of the modifications.
Secretariat - Article 14 of the Convention notes that the World Heritage Committee "shall be assisted by a Secretariat appointed by the Director-General" of UNESCO. Since 1992 the World Heritage Centre, located at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris, France, has performed the role of the Secretariat to the World Heritage Committee and its Bureau. The Secretariat is responsible for the daily administrative and technical management of the Convention. The World Heritage Centre prepares the documentation for the Committee and its Bureau and has the responsibility for the implementation of their decisions. - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
Secretary - The term ''Secretary'' means, except as otherwise herein provided, the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Commerce as program responsibilities are vested pursuant to the provisions of Reorganization Plan Numbered 4 of 1970; except that with respect to the enforcement of the provisions of this chapter and the Convention which pertain to the importation or exportation of terrestrial plants, the term also means the Secretary of Agriculture. - ESA
Section - A one square mile block of land containing 640 acres or one thirty-sixth of a township. - Cadastral Data glossary
Section 4(f) - Enacted as a portion of the Federal Department of Transportation Act of 1966, Section 4(f) declares that a special effort be made to preserve the natural beauty of the countryside, public park and recreation lands, wildlife and waterfowl refuges, and historic sites. The use of these sites for a transportation project will not be approved unless it is determined that there is no other prudent or feasible alternative.
Section 5(d)(1) of the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act - Section of the Act that requires all Federal agencies to consider potential national wild, scenic, and recreational river areas in all planning for the use and development of water and related land resources. This study is a 5(d)(1) study, which means it is agency-initiated rather than Congressionally initiated and has slightly different procedural aspects than the latter. - FS
Section 6(f) - A provision in the Federal Land and Water Conservation Fund Act that protects properties developed or enhanced using federal funding supplied to states or municipalities under the Act. Proposed transportation projects which effect such lands require a study and an analysis of alternatives to serve as the basis for a Section 6(f) finding by the U.S. Department of the Interior. Specific state legislation for any proposed land transfer is also required in order to implement a Section 6(f) action.
Section 7 Consultation - The requirement of Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act that all federal agencies consult with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the National Marine Fisheries Service if a proposed action might affect a federally listed species or its critical habitat. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Section106 Compliance - The requirement of Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act that any project funded, licensed, permitted, or assisted by the Federal Government be reviewed for impacts to significant historic properties and that the State Historic Preservation Officer and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation be allowed to comment on a project. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Section 202 Wilderness Study Area - A Wilderness Study Area under study through the authority of Section 202 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. This requires recurrent land use planning by the Bureau of Land Management. - BLM
Section 319 - Clean Water Act Section 319(h) funds are provided only to designated state and tribal agencies to implement their approved nonpoint source management programs. State and tribal nonpoint source programs include a variety of components, including technical assistance, financial assistance, education, training, technology transfer, demonstration projects, and regulatory programs. Each year, EPA awards Section 319(h) funds to states in accordance with a state-by-state allocation formula that EPA has developed in consultation with the states. In accordance with guidance issued by EPA under Section 319 of the Clean Water Act, Section 319(h) funding decisions are made by the states. States submit their proposed funding plans to EPA, and, if it is consistent with grant eligibility requirements and procedures, EPA then awards the funds requested by the states.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Office of the Secretary. Section 3 lands - Public lands within a grazing district administered by the Bureau of Land Management under Section 3 of the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934. BLM authorizes livestock grazing on these lands by issuing permits to permittees. Section 3 lands make up the vast majority of BLM-administered lands.
Sediment - Any material carried in suspension by water, which will ultimately settle to the bottom. Sediment has two main sources; from the channel itself, and from upslope areas.
Sediment - Fragmental material that originates from weathering of rocks and is transported by, suspended in, or deposited by water or air or is accumulated in beds by other natural agencies. (Colby, Hembree, and Jochens, 1953, p. 24.) - USGS
Sediment discharge - The rate at which dry weight of sediment passes a section of a stream or is the quantity of sediment, as measured by dry weight, or by volume, that is discharged in a given time. (Colby, Hembree, and Jochens, 1953, p. 24.) - USGS
Sediment Yield - The amount of sediment produced in or removed from a watershed over a specified period, usually expressed as tons, acre-feet, or cubic yards of sediment per unit of drainage area per year. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Sediment Yield - The amount of sediment removed from a watershed over a specified period of time and area, usually expressed as tons, acre-feet, or cubic yards of sediment per unit of drainage area per year.
Sedimentary - Formed by the deposition of eroded material. Pertaining to sediments laid down by rivers and streams.
Sedimentary - Descriptive term for rocks formed of sediment. This includes clastic rocks such as conglomerate, sandstone, and shale formed from fragments of other rocks transported by the action of wind or water from their source. The term also includes rocks formed by inorganic precipitation from solution such as gypsum and limestone, or from secretions from living organisms as in the case of some limestone. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary
Sedimentary Rock - Rock composed of particles deposited from suspension in water. Some wind-deposited sand is consolidated into sandstone.
Sedimentary Rock - Rock formed from sediments or from transported fragments natural or of geologic material deposited in water.
Sedimentary Rocks - Secondary rocks formed from material derived from other rocks and laid down under water. Examples are lime stone, shale and sandstone.
Sedimentation - The process or action of depositing sediment. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs. 2. The settling of particulate matter in water related to particle size, water velocity, and water flow. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary
Sedimentological - Refers to the study of sedimentary rocks (sedimentology) and the processes by which they are formed. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary
Sediments - Particulate material, including soil, sand, and minerals, transported and deposited by water or wind (see erosion). Waterborne sediments cloud the water diminishing sunlight available to aquatic plants; sediments deposited in reservoirs, rivers, and harbors destroy fish and wildlife habitat and may fill shipping channels. Farming, mining, and building and construction activities that expose soil to wind and rain are major sources of sediments.
Seed Bank - A facility used for the preservation and dissemination of seed, particularly varieties that are not in commercial use and that may be threatened with extinction. The USDA administers the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System.
Seedbank - A facility designed for the ex situ conservation of individual plan varieties through seed preservation and storage. - UNDP/WRI
Seedbank - Residual seeds, tubers, or propagules in or on the soil.
Seed Orchard - A plantation of clones or seedlings from selected trees; isolated to reduce pollination from outside sources, weeded of undesirables, and cultured for early and abundant production of seed. (BLM)
Seed Tree - A tree selected as a natural seed source within a shelterwood or seed tree harvest cut; sometimes also reserved for seed collection.
Seed Tree Cutting Method - An even-aged reproductive cutting method in which all mature timber from an area is harvested in one entry except for a small number of trees left as a seed source for the harvested area. (BLM)
Seed Tree Harvest - An evenaged regeneration harvest of a portion of the mature timber from an area, except for a small number of seed bearing trees left singly or in small groups for regeneration of a stand. Removal of the mature timber crop from an area in one cut, except for a certain number of seed bearers.
Seed tree system - An even-aged silvicultural system in which selected trees (seed trees) are left standing after the initial harvest to provide a seed source for natural regeneration. Seed trees can be left uniformly distributed or in small groups. Although regeneration is generally secured naturally, it may be augmented by planting. Seed trees are often removed once regeneration is established, or may be left as reserves. - Biodiversity Guidebook Glossary
Seedlings and Saplings - Non-commercial size young trees.
Seepage - The infiltration and percolation of surface water from overland flow, ditches, channels, ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, or other surface water bodies.
SEEDS - Seek Education, Explore, DiScover
Seed-tree - A method of timber regeneration in which most trees in a site are cut, and tree seedlings become established under remnant large trees
Seep - Wet areas, normally not flowing, arising from an underground water source. - BLM
Seepage lakes - Lakes having an inlet or an outlet but not both; primary water inputs are precipitation and groundwater. - Shoreland Mgmt. Glossary
Seen Area - The total landscape area observed based upon landform screening. Seen-areas may be divided into zones of immediate foreground, foreground, middleground, and background. Some landscapes are seldom seen by the public. - FS
SEF - School Endowment Fund (Idaho)
SEF - Socio-Economic Factor(s)
Segmentation - Relates to the splitting/separation of topics. Once the scope/coverage of a classification has been defined (e.g. age, language, industry), breakdowns (e.g. beginning from the top) are made, based on similarity criteria, to form groups of elementary blocks or topics and different categories or levels. (UN)
Segregation - Any act such as a withdrawal or exchange that suspends the operation of the general public land laws. See Withdrawal. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
SEHB - Spiritually Endowed Human Being
SEI - Steel Exchange India
Seiche - A free or standing wave oscillation of the surface of water in an enclosed basin that is initiated by local atmospheric changes, tidal currents, or earthquakes. Similar to water sloshing in a bathtub. - USGS Earthquake glossary 2.The free oscillation of the bulk of water in a lake and the motion caused by it on the surface of the lake. (Bergsten, 1926, p. 1.) - USGS
SEIS - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement
Seismic - Of or having to do with earthquakes. - USGS Earthquake glossary
Seismic belt - An elongated earthquake zone, for example, circum-Pacific, Mediterranean, Rocky Mountain. About 60% of the world's earthquakes occur in the circum-Pacific seismic belt. - USGS Earthquake glossary
Seismic category - A term used to define structures, systems, and components that are designed and built to withstand the maximum potential earthquake stresses for the particular region where a nuclear plant is sited. - Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Seismic constant - In building codes dealing with earthquake hazards, an arbitrarily-set acceleration value (in units of gravity) that a building must withstand. - USGS Earthquake glossary
Seismic Prospecting - A geophysical method of prospecting, utilizing knowledge of the speed of reflected sound waves in rock.
Seismic Sea Wave - A tsunami generated by an undersea earthquake. - USGS Earthquake glossary
Seismic Zone - A region in which earthquakes are known to occur. - USGS Earthquake glossary
Seismicity - Earthquake activity. - USGS Earthquake glossary
Seismogram - A written record of an earthquake, recorded by a seismograph. - USGS Earthquake glossary
Seismograph - An instrument that records the motions of the Earth, especially earthquakes. - USGS Earthquake glossary
Seismograph Station - A site at which one or more seismographs are set up and routinely monitored. - USGS Earthquake glossary
Seismologist - A scientist who studies earthquakes. - USGS Earthquake glossary
Seismometry - The instrumental aspects of seismology. - USGS Earthquake glossary
SEIU - Service Employees International Union, a part of the AFL/CIO (could shut down Los Angeles to force amnesty law)
SEL - School Endowment Lands (Idaho)
SELC - Southern Environmental Law Center
Seldom-Seen - Areas of the landscape that are infrequently viewed by the public. - FS
Select Red Oaks - A group of several red oak species composed of cherrybark, Shumard, and northern red oaks. Other red oak species are included in the "other red oaks" group. - USDA/FS
Select White Oaks - A group of several white oak species composed of white, swamp chestnut, swamp white, chinkapin, Durand, and bur oaks. Other white oak species are included in the "other white oaks" group. - USDA/FS
Selection - Natural selection is the differential contribution of offspring to the next generation by various genetic types belonging to the same populations. Artificial selection is the intentional manipulation by man of the fitness of individuals in a population to produce a desired evolutionary response. - UNDP/WRI
Selection Cutting - A method of uneven-aged management involving the harvesting of single trees from stands (single-tree selection) or in groups (group selection) without harvesting the entire stand at any one time. (BLM)
Selection Harvest - The periodic removal of trees, usually at 10-20 year intervals, individually or in small groups, from an unevenaged forest in order to realize yield and establish regeneration or irregular constitution.
Seleniferous - Containing or yielding selenium. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)
Selenium - A non-metallic element that is found with sulfur in various ores; often selectively concentrated by certain legumes. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)
Self-Determination - Determination by the people of a territorial unit of their own political future without coercion from powers outside that region. - UN
Self-Determination - Determination by the people of a territorial unit of their own political future without coercion from powers outside that region. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary
Self-Help Land Development Loans - Section 523 loans are for acquiring and developing land that will be used for mutual self-help housing.
Self-potential - A technique, used in geophysical prospecting, which recognizes and measures the minute electric currents generated by sulphide deposits.
Sell-back - When Cuyahoga Valley [located in NE Ohio] was a National Recreation Area, this authority allowed the park to sell historic properties to non-federal parties with restrictive covenants (NPS 1994a). However, now that Cuyahoga Valley is a National Park, this authority is no longer valid, as national parks do not have sell-back authority. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/
SELP - Small Scale Energy Loan Program
SEMA - Specialty Equipment Market Association; organization is for multiple use. http://www.sema.org
SEMARNAT - Mexico's Secretariat of the Environment and Natural Resources
Semi-Autogenous Grinding (SAG) - A method of grinding rock into fine powder whereby the grinding media consist of larger chunks of rocks and steel balls.
Semi-Confined Aquifer - A condition where the movement of groundwater is restricted sufficiently to cause differences in head between different depth zones of the aquifer during periods of heavy pumping, but during periods of minimal pumping the water levels recover to a level coincident with the water table. - EvergladesPlan glossary
Semi-natural ecosystem - An ecosystem that has been altered by human actions, but which retains significant native elements. - IUCN
SEN - Sacred Earth Network
SENACA - Southeast Nebraska Alternative Crops Association
SENGA - Southeast Nebraska Grassland Association
Sense of Place - A sense of orientation and emotional attachment to the unique character, qualities, values, and spaces of a specific place. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/
Sensitive Lands - Any areas recognized in BLM land use or activity plans where BLM has determined that a Plan of Operations is required to provide detailed review of project effects on unique, irreplaceable, or outstanding historical, cultural, recreational, or natural resource values, such as threatened or endangered species or their critical habitat. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Sensitive Species - All species that are under status review, have small or declining populations, live in unique habitats, or need special management. Sensitive species include threatened, endangered, and proposed species as classified by the Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs. 2. Species not yet officially listed but that are undergoing status review for listing on the Fish and Wildlife Service official threatened and endangered list; species whose populations are small and widely dispersed or restricted to a few localities; and species whose numbers are declining so rapidly that official listing may be necessary. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary
Sensitive Species - Those species identified for which population viability is a concern as evidenced by significant current or predicted downward trends in population numbers or density, or habitat capability that would reduce a species' existing distribution. Plant or animal species which are susceptible to habitat changes or impacts from activities. The official designation is made by the USDA Forest Service at the Regional level and is not part of the designation of Threatened or Endangered Species made by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. Species that are under status review, have small or declining populations, or live in unique habitats. May also be any species needing special management practices. Sensitive species include threatened and endangered species as classified by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Sensitive Species - The USDA Forest Service defines sensitive species as those plant and animal species identified by a regional forester for which population viability is a concern, as evidenced by significant current or predicted downward trends in population numbers or density, or significant current or predicted downward trends in habitat capability that would reduce a species' existing distribution. Regional Foresters shall identify sensitive species occurring within the region. They shall examine the following sources as possible candidates for listing as sensitive species (Forest Service Manual Title 2600): 1. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or National Marine Fisheries Service candidates for federal listing (categories 1 and 2) under Federal Register Notice of Review. 2. State lists of endangered, threatened, rare, endemic, unique, or vanishing species, especially those listed as threatened under state law. 3. Other sources as appropriate in order to focus conservation management strategies and to avert the need for federal or state listing as a result of National Forest management activities. Regions 1, 2, 3, and 8 administer National Grasslands in the Great Plains. Each region has used different criteria for designating sensitive species. Region 1 | Region 2 | Region 3 | Region 8 Region 1 administers the following National Grasslands: Little Missouri National Grassland, Cedar River National Grassland, and Sheyenne River National Grassland, North Dakota; Grand River National Grassland, South Dakota. Region 1 identifies sensitive species using the following criteria: Animal Criteria: Total score of >18 or greater = sensitive species candidates. Abundance Extremely Rare (9 points). Less than 500 individuals within Region 1. Rare (6). 1,000 to 500 individuals in Region 1. Uncommon (3). 1,000 to 5,000 individuals in Region 1. Common (0). Over 5,000 individuals in Region 1. Distribution Endemic (6 points). Species only occurs within the Region. Disjunct (4). Population in Region is outside of primary range of species. Peripheral (2). Population in Region is on the edge of its primary range. Widespread (0). None of the above. Degree of Threat of Habitat Loss High (9 points). Habitat substantially threatened by human or natural disturbances. Moderate (6). Habitat moderately threatened by human or natural disturbances. None (0). Habitat not threatened. Population Impacts Species potentially impacted significantly by extrinsic factors such as predation, disease, direct exploitation (3 points). Species potentially moderately impacted by extrinsic factors such as predation, disease, direct exploitation (2). Species not impacted significantly by predation, disease, or direct exploitation (0). Specialized Habitat/Ecological Amplitude Narrow (3 points). Species is restricted to a unique or limited habitat or combination of habitats, and/or species has a high degree of habitat specificity. Intermediate (1). Species is restricted to a relatively unique habitat or combination of habitats, and/or species has a moderate degree of habitat specificity. Species is not restricted to unique habitats (0). Downward Population Trends Yes (6 points). Known or strongly suspected that species has suffered serious declines. Possible (3). Information lacking, but downward trend a possibility. No (0). No indication that species has suffered declines. Plant criteria. A total score of 15 or greater will nominate species for sensitive designation in this case. Abundance Extremely rare (9 points). Five or fewer known populations or an estimated total number of individuals of less than 1000 within Region 1. Rare (6). From 6-20 known populations or an estimated total number of individuals between 1000 and 3000 within Region 1. Uncommon (3). From 21-50 known populations or an estimated total number of individuals between 3000 and 10,000 within Region 1. Common to abundant (0 points). Greater than 50 known populations or more than 10,000 individuals within Region 1. Distribution Local endemic (6 points). Limited to one locale and/or occurs on only 1-2 National Forests or Grasslands. Regional endemic (4). Occurs on more than 2 National Forests or Grasslands. Disjunct (isolated) outlier (3). Occurs beyond the general perimeter of the range. Peripheral (2). At edge of range. Widespread (0). None of the above. Degree of threat or habitat loss High (9 points). Habitat directly threatened by habitat manipulation. Moderate (6). Habitat moderately threatened by habitat manipulation. Low (3). Habitat infrequently threatened by habitat manipulation. None (0). Habitat not currently threatened by habitat manipulation. NOTE: The "low" category was added during scoring of Montana plants because many species seemed to fall between 0 and 6 for this criterion. Specialized habitat/ecological amplitude Narrow (3 points). Species is restricted to a unique or limited habitat or combination of habitats, and/or species has a high degree of habitat specificity. Intermediate (1). Species is restricted to a relatively unique habitat or combination of habitats, and/or species has a moderate degree of habitat specificity. No (0). Species is not restricted to unique habitats. Downward trend Yes (3 points). Known or strongly suspected that species has suffered declines historically. Possible (1). Information lacking, but downward trend a possibility. No (0). No indication that species has suffered declines. Region 2 administers the following National Grasslands: Fort Pierre National Grassland and Buffalo Gap National Grassland, South Dakota; Oglala National Grassland and Sandhills units of the Nebraska National Forest, Nebraska; Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming; Pawnee National Grassland, Comanche National Grassland, Colorado; and Cimarron National Grassland, Kansas. Region 2 identification of sensitive species. The Regional Forester's sensitive species list contains taxa (species, subspecies and FWS or NMFS recognized varieties or stocks) when they meet one or more of the following three criteria: 1. The species is declining in numbers or occurrences, and evidence indicates it could be proposed for federal listing as threatened or endangered if action is not taken to reverse or stop the downward trend. 2. The species habitat is declining, and continued loss could result in population declines that lead to federal listing as threatened or endangered if action is not taken to reverse or stop the decline. 3. The species population or habitat is stable but limited. In addition to the above general criteria, the following ranking system shall be used to identify those species to be considered for designation as sensitive in Region 2. 4. Plant species: Taxa receiving ranks of 20 or greater, out of 38 possible points, should be given strong consideration for designation as sensitive. (Note: source of these criteria is: Marriot, H. et al. 1990. Potential sensitive plant species, USDA Forest Service, Region 2, Lakewood, CO.) Global rarity. 5 points: 5 or fewer known populations/sites worldwide 4 points: 6-20 known populations/sites worldwide 2 points: 21-50 known populations/sites worldwide 0 points: >50 known populations/sites worldwide Region-wide rarity. 5 points: 5 or fewer known populations/sites in Region 2 3 points: 6-20 known populations/sites in Region 2 1 point: 21-50 known populations/sites in Region 2 0 points: >50 known populations/sites in Region 2 Average number of individuals per population/site. 5 points: <1,000 3 points: 1,000-10,000 0 points: >10,000 Distribution 6 points: local endemic; total range <8,000 mi2 5 points: regional endemic; total range 8,000-200,000 mi2 4 points: disjunct; occurrences in R2 significantly beyond the main range of the taxon 2 points: peripheral; occurrences in R2 at the extreme edge of the main range of the taxon 0 points: occurrences in R2 part of widespread distribution Ecological amplitude 3 points: high degree of habitat specificity 1 point: moderate degree of habitat specificity 0 points: low degree of habitat specificity Habitat loss 9 points: habitat extensively threatened by management practices 6 points: habitat moderately threatened by management practices 3 points: habitat infrequently threatened by management practices 2 points: no information available concerning habitat threats 0 points: documented absence of habitat threats Downward trends 5 points: significant declines documented or strongly suspected 3 points: downward trends possible based on available information 1 point: no information available concerning population trends 0 points: documented evidence of downward trends 5. Animal species: due to the variety of animal species considered for designation, no single ranking system would adequately evaluate the full range of species (from butterflies to wolverine and trout). When evaluating a species for designation, consider the following as indicative of a potential for downward trends in population viability (Note: source of these evaluation parameters is Finch 1990). a. Species with small, reproductively isolated populations, disjunct distribution, or limited ability to disperse to new areas. b. Species that are dependent on specific habitat features (e.g., tree cavities, specialized densities, old-growth forest) for breeding, feeding, or survival. c. Species that are restricted to one or a few habitats. d. Species that are obligated to habitats that are uncommon or rare, or declining in abundance. e. Species that reside in habitats that are vulnerable to, or slow to recover from, disturbance. f. Species whose productivity or population levels have been, or are suspected to be, impacted by human activities, specific land management practices, or natural catastrophic events. g. Species that are declining as a result of hybridization or competition from introduced species. Region 3 (Kiowa National Grassland, New Mexico; Rita Blanca National Grassland, Oklahoma and Texas, Black Kettle National Grassland, Oklahoma; McClelland Creek National Grassland, Texas) sensitive species are drawn from federal candidate species known to occur on National Forest system lands -- state or The Nature Conservancy/Natural Heritage Program listed species known to occur on USFS lands where viability issues related to USFS management can be demonstrated; other species (plants etc.) Known to occur on USFS lands where viability issues related to USFS management can be demonstrated. Region 8 (Caddo National Grassland and Lyndon B. Johnson National Grasslands, Texas) sensitive species include plant and animal species, subspecies, populations or stocks (recognized by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service) including vertebrates, invertebrates, vascular plants, bryophytes, fungi, and lichens known or likely to occur on National Forest system lands for which there is a concern about range wide imperilment. Range wide imperilment concerns are based on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service candidate listings, Natural Heritage Program rankings and element records. Species are sensitive species if their status is any one of the following: federal candidate species; or The Nature Conservancy/Natural Heritage Program ranks of G1, 2, 3, H; T1, 2, 3; or N1, 2, 3 (this includes species ranked G3 or T3, but does not include species ranked G3G4, G3G5. T3T4, or T3T5). http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/nebraska/gpng/sensitive.html
Sensitivity Analysis - A process of examining specific trade-offs that would result from making changes in single elements of a plan alternative. (BLM)
Sensitivity analysis - Assessment of the response of some factors as a result of changes in others. - WB
Sensitivity Analysis - Analysis of how sensitive outcomes are to changes in the assumptions. The assumptions that deserve the most attention should depend largely on the dominant benefit and cost elements and the areas of greatest uncertainty of the program or process being analyzed. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm
Sensitivity Levels - Measures (e.g., high, medium, and low) of public concern for the maintenance of scenic quality. (BLM)
SEP - Single Entry Point
SEPA - State Environmental Policy Act
SEPP - The Science & Environmental Policy Project (good guys!)
Septarian Nodules - A type of concretion in sedimentary rocks consisting of an irregular polygonal system of internal cracks, which are most always occupied by calcite or other minerals. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary
Septic System - An on-site system designed to treat and dispose of domestic sewage from a residence or business not connected to a sewer line. A typical septic system consists of a tank that receives waste and holds it while bacteria decompose solids, and a system of tile lines or a pit for disposal of the liquid effluent. The sludge that remains in the tank after decomposition of the solids must be pumped out periodically. By using the assimilative capacity of the land, a properly operating septic system has minimal impact but an improperly functioning system can be a source of nitrogen pollution and of groundwater contamination.
SEQR - State Environmental Quality Review
SEQRA - State Environmental Quality Review Act
SEQUA - State Environmental Quality Review Act
Sequum - A sequence consisting of an illuvial horizon and the overlying eluvial horizon. (See Eluviation.) - USDA
SER - Significant Emission Rates
SER - Society for Ecological Restoration International http://www.ser.org/
SER - Sound Economic Renewal
Seral - A biotic community which is a development, transitory stage in ecological succession. The stage of succession of a plant or animal community that is transitional. If left alone, the seral stage will give way to another plant or animal community that represents a further stage of succession. Pertaining to the successional stages of biotic communities.
Seral (Successional) Community - One of a series of biotic communities that follow one another in time on any given ecological site.
Seral Stages - The developmental stages of an ecological succession. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho
Seral Stages - The series of relatively transitory plant communities that develop during ecological succession from bare ground to the climax stage. There are five stages: Early Seral Stage - The period from disturbance to crown closure of conifer stands, usually occurring from 0-15 years. Grass, herbs, or brush are plentiful. Mid Seral Stage - The period in the life of a forest stand from crown closure to first merchantability. Usually ages 15 through 40. Due to stand density, brush, grass or herbs rapidly decrease in the stand. Hiding cover may be present. Late Seral Stage - The period in the life of a forest stand from first merchantability to culmination of mean annual increment. This is under a regime including commercial thinning, or to 100 years of age, depending on wildlife habitat needs. During this period, stand diversity is minimal, except that conifer mortality rates will be fairly rapid. Hiding and thermal cover may be present. Forage is minimal. Mature Seral Stage - The period in the life of a forest stand from culmination of mean annual increment to an old-growth stage or to 200 years. This is a time of gradually increasing stand diversity. Hiding cover, thermal cover, and some forage may be present. Old-Growth - This stage constitutes the potential plant community capable of existing on a site given the frequency of natural disturbance events. For forest communities, this stage exists from approximately age 200 until when stand replacement occurs and secondary succession begins again. Depending on fire frequency and intensity, old-growth forests may have different structures, species composition and age distributions. In forests with longer periods between natural disturbance, the forest structure will be more even-aged at late mature or early old growth stages. These definitions are used by BLM to separate age classes for analysis of impacts. (BLM)
SERC - State Environmental Research Center http://www.serconline.org "About SERC: The State Environmental Resource Center (SERC) researches state environmental policies and assembles information and tools to help legislators make important decisions on key environmental issues. SERC identifies the most innovating and effective state policies and exposes anti-environmental legislative trends. Through a comprehensive website, free weekly e-mail newsletter and direct access to knowledgeable staff members, SERC shares its findings with legislators, groups, and concerned citizens across the nation. SERC stays on top of pressing environmental issues involving children's health, clean energy, smart growth, clean air and water, wildlife, and wetlands. Included in this website are the tools necessary to implement great environmental ideas and policies in your state, including sample bills, talking points, clip packs, a fact packs, research, and other background information. SERC is a project of Defenders of Wildlife and the Natural Resources Defense Council. People and organizations that care about defending our environment make SERC possible. We would like to give special thanks to the following for their generous support: Turner Foundation, The Beldon Fund, The Bauman Foundation, Rampa and Tom Hormel."
SERF - Solar Energy Research Facility (Little Bay, New South Wales, Australia)
SERI - Solar Energy Research Institute
Serial nomination - See Serial property, series - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
Serial property - A serial property is a property nominated and/or inscribed in the World Heritage List as a series in accordance with Paragraphs 19 and 20 of the Operational Guidelines (UNESCO February 1996: 5-6). See Series - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
Serial site - See Serial property, Series - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
Series - A group of habitat types having the same climax tree species.
Series - A series of cultural or natural properties situated in different geographical locations may be proposed for inclusion in the World Heritage List in a single nomination provided they are related because they belong to:(i) the same historico-cultural group or (ii) the same type of property which is characteristic of the geographical zone (iii) the same geomorphological formation, the same biogeographic province, or the same ecosystem type and provided that it is the series as such, and not its components taken individually, which is of outstanding universal value (UNESCO February 1996: 6, Paragraph 19). See Serial property - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
SERP - Source Emission Reduction Plan
Serpentine - A greenish, metamorphic mineral consisting of magnesium silicate.
Services - Intangible goods that are often produced and consumed at the same time. An example is education: students consume a lesson- an educational service- at the same time a teacher produces it. The service sector of the economy includes hotels, restaurants, and wholesale and retail trade; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; community and social services (such as education and health care); and personal services. - WB
Severe Use - Utilization in excess of 80 percent. - BLM
Severity Funding - Funds provided to increase wildland fire suppression response capability necessitated by abnormal weather patterns, extended drought, or other events causing abnormal increase in the fire potential and/or danger. - FS
SESA - Social and Economics Statistics Administration
SET - Self Evident Thinking (Institute for Global Education)
Set-aside Program - A program (not used since the late 1970s) under which farmers are required to set aside a certain percentage of their total planted acreage and devote this land to approved conservation uses (such as grasses, legumes, and small grain which is not allowed to mature) in order to be eligible for non-recourse loans and deficiency payments. Set-aside acreage is based on the number of acres a farmer actually plants in the program year as opposed to being based on prior crop years. The authority for set-aside was eliminated by the FAIR Act of 1996.
Setback - (also known as "building line") - The minimum distances, measured from the property line to the interior of the lot, for locating the front, rear, or outside walls of a building. Setbacks vary by zoning district. May also be the distance from a watercourse, taking the form of a buffer, to protect the natural features of the stream.
SEU - Special Exception Use
SEUALG - SouthEastern Utah Association of Local Governments
SEVIS - Student and Exchange Visitor Information System
SEVP - Student and Exchange Visitor Program
Sewage - Refuse liquids or waste matter carried off by sewers. (WB-UN)
Sewerage - A system of sewers or drainage pipes. (WB-UN)
Sewell building - A frame building clad with cement stucco applied over an expanded metal lath, and referred to by the name of the army engineer officer who developed the technique, John Sewell. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
SEWP - The Southeast Wildlands Project
SEWRPC - Southeast Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission
SF - Slotting Fee
SF - Slush Fund
SF - Socioeconomic Factor(s)
SFA - Southwest Forest Alliance
SFBAUP - San Francisco Bay Area Urban Program (California)
SFC - Small Farmer Commodities
SFC - Stimulants For Children
SFC - Sustainable Farming Connection
SFCI - Specialized Farm Credit Institutions (World Bank)
SFCSI - Special Foreign Currency Information Program
SFE - The South Florida Ecosystem, now known as SOFIA - South Florida Information Access http://sofia.usgs.gov/
SFERTF - South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Task Force. "The [Florida Conflict Resolution] Consortium's assistance during the six-year planning effort for the Everglades plan was indispensable and directly led to the unprecedented consensus agreement on the $8 billion plan which the Florida Legislature and Congress approved in 2000. The Consortium's neutrality, effectiveness and successes have been made possible by both the legislature's and FSU's support which collectively has enable the Consortium to leverage additional project funds, such as with the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Task Force." - Terrence "Rock" Salt, Executive Director, South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Task Force.
SFF - Supplementary Financing Facility
SFIC - Singapore Furniture Industries Council
SFOA - Swiss Futures and Options Association
SFRA - Southern Forest Resource Assessment Draft Report Glossary; a multiagency effort led by the USDA Forest Service's Southern Research Station and Southern Region - USDA/FS
SFS - Safe From Scrutiny
SFM - Sustainable Forest Management
SFVEWBP - The San Fernando Valley East-West Bike Path (California)
SFWMD - South Florida Water Management District
SFY - State Fiscal Year
SG - Smart Growth
SG - Societal Groups
SG - Solicitor General (also known as the Office of the Solicitor General). The major function of the Solicitor General's Office is to supervise and conduct government litigation in the United States Supreme Court. Virtually all such litigation is channeled through the Office of the Solicitor General and is actively conducted by the Office. The United States is involved in about two-thirds of all the cases the U.S. Supreme Court decides on the merits each year. The Solicitor General determines the cases in which Supreme Court review will be sought by the government and the positions the government will take before the Court. The Office's staff attorneys participate in preparing the petitions, briefs, and other papers filed by the government in its Supreme Court litigation. The Solicitor General personally assigns the oral argument of government cases in the Supreme Court. Those cases not argued by the Solicitor General personally are assigned either to an attorney in the Office or to another government attorney. The vast majority of government cases are argued by the Solicitor General or by one of the Office's other attorneys. Another function of the Office is to review all cases decided adversely to the government in the lower courts to determine whether they should be appealed and, if so, what position should be taken. The Solicitor General also determines whether the government will participate as an amicus curiae, or intervene, in cases in any appellate court. The current (2003) SG, Theodore B. Olson, has argued 32 cases before the Supreme Court of the United States: 14 while in private practice and 18 while serving in government, including constitutional and federal statutory cases involving copyright law, school vouchers, the Internet, the 2000 census, property rights, punitive damages, telecommunications, criminal law, immigration, federal securities regulation, the right to a jury trial, due process, voting rights, equal protection, the ex post facto clause, and the First Amendment. Before rejoining the Justice Department in 2001, he successfully represented presidential candidate George W. Bush and vice presidential candidate Dick Cheney in the Supreme Court Bush v. Gore cases involving the 2000 presidential election. http://www.usdoj.gov/osg/
SG - Specialty Growers
SG - Study Groups
SGA - Sea Grant Agent
SGA - Second Great Awakening
SGA - Smart Growth Agenda
SGB - Sustainable Green Building
SGBW - Shavuot Green Belt Walk
SGC - Short-term Guideline Concentrations
SGD - Scenic Greenways Districts
SGI - Sustainable Growth Initiative
SGLA - Sears Good Life Alliance
SGLM - Species Genetic Linkage Map
SGMA - Sea Grant Marine Agent
SGMA - Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association
SGN - State Government News http://www.csg.org/CSG/Products/state+government+news/default.htm
SGP - Special Grants Program (UN)
SGP - The Global Environment Facility's Small Grants Programme (UNDP)
SGP - Strong Growth Potential
SGS - Short Growing Season
SH - Safe Harbor
SH - Settlement House
SH - Shoreline Hardening
SH - Staging Habitat
SH - Stalking-Horse
SH - State Holdings
SHA - Safe Harbor Agreement
SHA - Safe Harbor Agreements (DOI/USFWS)
Shaft - A vertical or inclined excavation in rock for the purpose of providing access to an orebody. Usually equipped with a hoist at the top, which lowers and raises a conveyance for handling workers and materials. A vertical or inclined opening, serving and providing access to various levels in a mine.
Shale - Sedimentary rock formed by the consolidation of mud or silt.
Shallow Ecology - A term coined by Arnie Naess to describe those concerned from a human-centered perspective.
Shallow water areas - Bodies of surface water that have an average depth of less than 5 feet and are useful to wildlife. They can be naturally wet areas, or they can be created by dams or levees or by water-control devices in marshes or streams. Examples are muskrat marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, wildlife watering developments, beaver ponds, and other wildlife ponds. Major soil properties affecting shallow water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface stoniness, slope, and permeability. The availability of a dependable water supply is important if water areas are to be developed. - USDA
Shanty town - Unplanned urban slum village where very poor people live. Usually found on the edge of big cities. - UNEP Children's Glossary
SHARE - (Project SHARE) Salmon Habitat and River Enhancement
SHARE - Save Heritage and Rehabilitate the Environment
SHARE - Self-Help And Resource Exchange
SHARE - Shasta Alliance for Resources and the Environment
Sharecropper - A tenant who receives a share of the crops, livestock, or livestock products from the landowner, who in turn may extend credit to and supervises the tenant. The tenant generally supplies only labor.
SHARK - Showing Animals Respect and Kindness
SHARK - Station HRPT Archiving and Reprocessing Kernel (Software)
SHARK - Systems Helping At-Risk Kids
Shaugnessy Number - See U.S. EPA Pesticide Chemical (PC) Code
SHAZAM - Solomon, Hercules, Atlas, Zeus, Achilles and Mercury
SHCMP - Strategic Human Capital Management Plan (U.S. Department of the Interior) http://www.doi.gov/pfm/human_cap_plan/
Shear or Shearing - The deformation of rocks by lateral movement along innumerable parallel planes, generally resulting from pressure and producing such metamorphic structures as cleavage and schistosity.
Shear Strength - The maximum resistance of a soil to shearing stress. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Shear zone - A zone in which shearing has occurred on a large scale.
Sheave Wheel - A large grooved wheel in the top of a headframe over which the hoisting rope passes.
Sheepsfoot roller - A heavy steel roller with individual protruding cleats in a shape associated with that of the feet of sheep; used for soil compaction. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Sheet Erosion - The removal of a thin, relatively uniform layer of soil from the land surface caused by runoff.
Sheet Flow - Water movement as a broad front with shallow, uniform depth. - EvergladesPlan glossary
Sheet lead - Flat sheets of lead used for flashing. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Sheet metal - Flat, thin metal, usually steel or steel alloy. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Sheet and rill erosion - The removal of layers of soil from the land surface by the action of rainfall and runoff. It is the first stage in water erosion. - National Resources Inventory
Shell - A hollow projectile, filled with explosives, designed to exercise destructive force by explosive energy. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Shelterbelt - A plant barrier of trees, shrubs, or other approved perennial vegetation designed to reduce wind erosion.
Shelterwood - A cutting method used in a more or less mature stand, designed to establish a new crop under the protection of the old.
Shelterwood Cutting - A regeneration method under an even-aged silvicultural system. With this method a portion of the mature stand is retained as a source of seed and/or protection during the regeneration period. The retained trees are usually removed in one or more cuttings. In the irregular shelterwood variation of this method, the retained trees are usually not removed until the end of the next harvest rotation. (BLM)
Shelterwood Harvest - An evenaged regeneration harvest of a portion of the mature stand while retaining a portion of the stand as a source for seed and protection during the regeneration period.
Sherman Antitrust Act - In 1890, Congress passed the Sherman Act (26 Stat. 209 (1890) as amended, 15, U.S. C. Sections 1-7). This established the American public policy supporting competition in a free marketplace. The U.S. Supreme Court summarized this policy in the following statement, "Basic to the faith that a free economy best promotes the public weal is that goods must stand the cold test of competition; that the public, acting through the market's impersonal judgment, shall allocate the Nation's resources and thus direct the course its economic development will take." Major Provisions Of The Sherman Anti-Trust Act: Section One: "Every contract combination in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce among the several states, or with foreign nations, is declared to be illegal." In the view of the government, the agreement to restrain trade, in this sense, is the "contract." When individuals plan or "contract" to restrain trade, it is the "combination" referred to in the above quotation from the Act. Section Two: "Every person who shall monopolize, or attempt to monopolize, combine or conspire with any other person or persons to monopolize any part of the trade or commerce among the several states, or with foreign nations, shall be deemed guilty of a felony. " In Section One, it becomes evident that it takes two or more (combination) to restrain trade. In Section Two, it further becomes evident that it takes only one to monopolize.
Shifting control - See Control. - USGS
Shifting cultivation - A land utilization method; a particular piece of land is cultivated for some years and then abandoned for a period required to restore its fertility by natural vegetative growth; it is then cultivated again. The distinguishing feature of shifting cultivation is that neither organic fertilizers nor manure are used to retain soil fertility. -FAO UN Glossary
SHIM - Stream Habitat Improvement and Management
SHO - Sensitive habitat overlay (UN)
Shoot - A concentration of mineral values; that part of a vein or zone carrying values of ore grade.
Shoot - New growth. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)
Shoreline - The zone where lake and land meet. Shorelands are defined as the lands 1000 ft from the ordinary high water level. - Shoreland Mgmt. Glossary
Shoring - Supporting posts, beams, and auxiliary members placed against the side of a building or structure; especially supports placed obliquely. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Short rotation energy plantation - Plantings established and managed under short-rotation intensive culture practices. - Bioenergy Glossary
Short rotation intensive culture - Intensive management and harvesting at 2 to 10 year intervals of cycles of specially selected fast- growing hardwood species for the purpose of producing wood as an energy feedstock. - Bioenergy Glossary
Short Selling - The borrowing of stock from a broker in order to sell it in the hope that it may be purchased at a lower price later on.
Short Selling - Selling a security that the seller does not own but is committed to repurchasing eventually. Short selling is used to capitalize on an expected decline in a security's price. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Short-Term - A scope of activity or action including the present through not more than six years. 2. The period of time during which the Resource Management Plan (RMP) will be implemented; assumed to be ten years. (BLM)
Short Term - Used of Loans with a maturity of one year or less. - Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) Glossary 2. Lasting 14 days or less. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary
Short-term Agreement - These agreements are public-private partnerships that make federally-owned buildings and land available for non-governmental uses that are consistent with park goals and are granted for less than a five-year period on a renewable basis. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/
Short Ton - 2,000 lb avoirdupois.
Short Ton - 2,000 pounds. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Short woody plants - A General cover category consisting of short woody canopy cover of greater than 25 percent, while tall woody canopy cover is less than 25 percent. Short woody plants are less than 4 meters (about 13 feet) tall and often multi-stemmed, e.g., shrubs and seedlings. The distinction between tall (>4m) and short (<4m) is made according to current conditions, not potential. - National Resources Inventory
Shoshone (or "Newe") - Of the people.
Should (in place of Will) - Term used to protect a document or its author from legal liability.
Shoulder - The uppermost inclined surface at the top of a hillslope. The area comprises the transitional zone from the back slope to the summit of an upland. The surface is dominantly convex in profile and erosional in origin. - USDA
SHP - State Heritage Program(s) (work with The Nature Conservancy)
SHPITF - State Heritage Parks Interagency Task Force
SHPO - State Historic Preservation Officer
Shrink-swell - The shrinking of soil when dry and the swelling when wet. Shrinking and swelling can damage roads, dams, building foundations, and other structures. It can also damage plant roots. - USDA
Shrinkage Stoping - A stoping method which uses part of the broken ore as a working platform and as support for the walls of the stope.
Shuttering - Overlapping or sheet materials to shed water; shingling. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
SHWRD - Solid and Hazardous Waste Research Division (EPA)
SHWT - Seasonal High Water Table
SI - Satellite Imagery
SI - Satellite Imaging
SI - Search Institute
SI - The Sierra Institute, part of University of California Extension, Santa Cruz, is an academic field school providing environmental studies programs in ecology, natural history, nature philosophy, conservation biology, and related subjects. Spring courses include "Rewilding California: Ecology and Conservation," "Nature and Culture: Cultural Ecology and Environmental Issues," and "California Wilderness: Nature Philosophy and Religion." They are taught by faculty in the natural sciences, theology, environmental studies, environmental education, and environmental policy and management, among others. http://www.ucsc-extension.edu/sierra
SI - Shalom Institute
SI - Site Inspection
SI - Smithsonian Institution
SI - Sovereignty International
SI - Special Interest
SI - Speculative Inventory
SI - Spoil Islands (The Office of Coastal and Aquatic Managed Areas)
SI - Synthetic Interaction and Focused Activity (Hegelian Dialectic) http://www.rrz.uni-hamburg.de/psych-1ada/SOZ/docs/hafos/hafos_21.doc
SI - System International
SIA - Sky Island Alliance (partner in The Wildlands Project)
SIA - Social Impact Assessment
SIC - Significant Impact Concentrations
SICA-CCAD - Central American Integration System - Central American Commission for Environment and Development
SID - Society for International Development
Side slope - The slope bounding a drainageway and lying between the drainageway and the adjacent interfluve. A side slope is generally linear along the slope width, and overland flow is parallel down the slope. - USDA
Sidedress Fertilizer - Fertilizer that is applied in small quantities directly alongside plants/crops, rather than widely dispersed. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/
Siderite - Iron carbonite, which when pure, contains 48.2% iron; must be roasted to drive off carbon dioxide before it can be used in a blast furnace. (Roasted product is called sinter).
Sidewalk concrete - Concrete with a granolithic finish or with a finish of small stones imbedded in cement. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
SIDS - Small Island Developing States (UN)
SIECUS - Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States
SIEURASIA - Space Imaging Eurasia
SIF - Self-Inflicted Failure
SIG - Special Interest Group
Sight Distance - There are two viewshed issues of concern to trail users. First is the safety need for an unobstructed forward and rear view at all times. Following are the minimum acceptable sight distances: pedestrians, 50 linear feet each way; equestrians, 100 linear feet each way; bicyclists, 150 linear feet each way; snowmobilers, 400 linear feet each way.
Signal-to-noise ratio - The comparison between the amplitude of the seismic signal and the amplitude of noise caused by seismic unrest and (or) the seismic instruments. - USGS Earthquake glossary
Signature ad Referendum - A representative may sign a treaty "ad referendum", i.e., under the condition that the signature is confirmed by his state. In this case, the signature becomes definitive once the responsible organ confirms it. [Art.12 (2) (b), Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969] (UN)
Signature Subject to Ratification, Acceptance or Approval - Where the signature is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval, the signature does not establish the consent to be bound. However, it is a means of authentication and expresses the willingness of the signatory state to continue the treaty-making process. The signature qualifies the signatory state to proceed to ratification, acceptance or approval. It also creates an obligation to refrain, in good faith, from acts that would defeat the object and the purpose of the treaty. [Arts.10 and 18, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969] (UN)
Significance - The total economic activity in a region that is related to a refuge. Significance shows a refuge's role in the regional economy. The portion of this activity attributable to residents most likely would have occurred in the region anyway and so does not represent an incremental contribution to the regional economy. Contrast significance with impact. (USFWS-DOI)
Significance - Generally in American preservation efforts, defined through the four criteria (A, B, C, and D) of the National Register of Historic Places; summarized as significance associated with key historic events (A), the lives of important persons (B), established architectural or engineering merit (C), and, the potential to yield worthy new information in history or pre-history (D). - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Significant Viewscape - A field of view which has local or regional significance, often containing a site of significance within the range of view.
Significant - An effect that is analyzed in the context of the proposed action to determine the degree or magnitude of importance of the effect, either beneficial or adverse. The degree of significance can be related to other actions with individually insignificant but cumulatively significant impacts. - DOI/BLM
Significant Ecological Areas (SEA) - Areas identified as having significant natural elements.
Significant Ecological Areas Buffers - Areas adjacent to a SEA, which drain into the SEA and in which development may have significant impacts on the natural habitat of the SEA. The buffers are designed to add further protection of the biological resources in SEAs.
Signing, Sign - In human rights the first step in ratification of a treaty; to sign a Declaration, Convention, or one of the Covenants constitutes a promise to adhere to the principles in the document and to honor its spirit. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary
SIH - Substantial Irreparable Harm
SII - Structured Individual Interviews
SILC - State Independent Living Council
Silica - An oxide of silicon. (Quartz is a common example.)
Silica-sesquioxide ratio - The ratio of the number of molecules of silica to the number of molecules of alumina and iron oxide. The more highly weathered soils or their clay fractions in warm-temperate, humid regions, and especially those in the tropics, generally have a low ratio. - USDA
Silicate - A group of minerals in which the crystal lattice contains SiO4 (silicon-oxygen) tetrahedra either isolated or joined by one or more of the oxygen atoms to form groups, chains, sheets, or 3-D structures. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary
Siliceous - A rock containing an abundance of quartz.
Sill - A horizontal timber, block, or the like, serving as the foundation for a wall; the horizontal piece beneath a window, door, or other opening. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Sill - An intrusive sheet of igneous rock of roughly uniform thickness, generally extending over considerable lateral extent, that has been forced between the bedding planes of existing rock.
SILMC - The Seven Islands Land Management Company
Silt - Muddy deposits of fine sediment usually found on the bottoms of lakes. Sedimentary materials composed of fine or intermediate-sized mineral particles. A soil separate consisting of particles between 0.05 and 0.002 mm in equivalent diameter. 2. A soil textural class.
Silt - Sedimentary grains 1/16 - 1/256 mm in diameter. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary 2. As a soil separate, individual mineral particles that range in diameter from the upper limit of clay (0.002 millimeter) to the lower limit of very fine sand (0.05 millimeter). As a soil textural class, soil that is 80 percent or more silt and less than 12 percent clay. - USDA
Siltation - The process of depositing sand and mud on the bottom of a flowing river or stream.
Silting - The process whereby waterways become choked by mud and soil that has washed off the land through erosion. (WB-UN)
Siltstone - A very fine-grained, clastic rock composed predominantly of particles of silt grade. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary
Silviculture - A branch of forestry dealing with the development and care of forests.
Silvicultural Prescription - A professional plan for controlling the establishment, composition, constitution and growth of forests. (BLM)
Silvicultural System - A management process whereby forests are tended, harvested, and replaced, resulting in a forest of distinctive form. Systems are classified according to the method of carrying out the cuttings that remove the mature crop and provide for regeneration, and according to the type of forest thereby produced.
Silviculture - The art and science that promotes the growth of single trees and the forest as a biological unit.
Similar soils - Soils that share limits of diagnostic criteria, behave and perform in a similar manner, and have similar conservation needs or management requirements for the major land uses in the survey area. - USDA
Similarity Criteria - Refers to the criteria used to define categories in hierarchical classifications (e.g. the grouping of elementary building blocks). In ISCO-88 the main similarity criteria are the skill level and skill specialization needed to carry out the tasks and duties of the jobs. Skill level is the main criterion to delineate the most aggregate categories, while skill specialization is used to delineate the more detailed categories within the aggregate categories. (UN)
Simple - Unbranched or undivided; in leaves refers to condition in which leaves are not divided into leaflets. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)
Simulation - See role-play. (UNESCO)
Simulation Modeling - A computer program that replicates the operations of a business process and estimates rates at which outputs are produced and resources are consumed. Models test the consistency of the facts, logic, and assumptions used by planners to design a proposed business process, to compare alternative business processes, or to test the sensitivity of a process to changes in selected assumptions. Models help decisionmakers to assess the potential benefits, costs, and risks of alternative processes and strategies. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm
SINCH - Scientifically Identifying the Need for Critical Habitat, also known as The Scientifically Identifying the Need for Critical Habitat Act (pending legislation in 2003)
Single Jack - A light hammer used for drilling holes by hand.
Sink or Sinkhole - The cavities in bedrock that are open to the atmosphere. These usually result from the collapse of overlying soil or geologic material.
Sinkhole - A depression in the landscape where limestone has been dissolved. - USDA
Sinter - Fine particles of iron ore that have been treated by heat to produce blast furnace feed.
SIP - sectoral investment programme
SIP - State Implementation Plan (EPA)
SIP - State Implementation Plans
SIP - State Incentive Package (includes tax abatements, etc.)
SIP - Stewardship Incentives Program
SIP - The Symbiotic Intelligence Project
SIS - Special Interest Species (DOI/USFWS)
SISC - Senate Internal Security Committee
SITC - Standard International Trade Classification
Site Class - A measure of an area's relative capacity for producing timber or other vegetation. (BLM)
Site Fingerprinting - Fingerprinting places development away from environmentally sensitive areas (wetlands, steep slopes, etc.), future open spaces, tree save areas, future restoration areas, and temporary and permanent vegetative forest buffer zones. Ground disturbance is confined to areas where structures, roads, and rights of way will exist after construction is complete. - Smart Growth Green Development Glossary
Site Index - A measure of forest productivity expressed as the height of the tallest trees in a stand at an index age. (BLM)
Site Loans - Section 523 loans and Section 524 loans are for acquiring and developing land for low- and moderate- income rural residents.
Site Plan - An exhibit meeting the requirements of a Zoning Ordinance which is required to be submitted prior to the issuance of a building permit or with zoning change requests in certain zoning districts. A development plan of one or more lots on which is shown 1) the existing and proposed conditions of the lot, including but not necessarily limited to topography, vegetation, drainage, flood plains, marshes and waterways; 2) the location of all existing and proposed buildings, drives, parking spaces, walkways, means of ingress and egress, drainage facilities, utility services, landscaping, structures, signs, lighting and screening devices; and 3) any other information that may be reasonably required in order to make an informal determination pursuant to the local subdivision and site plan ordinance.
Site potential tree - A tree that has attained the average maximum height possible given site conditions where it occurs. - Bioenergy Glossary
Site Preparation - The general term for removing or treating unwanted vegetation, slash, roots, and stones from a site before regeneration. Naturally occurring wildfire, as well as prescribed fire can prepare a site for natural regeneration. Any action taken in conjunction with a reforestation effort (natural or artificial) to create an environment which is favorable for survival of suitable trees during the first growing season. This environment can be created by altering ground cover, soil or micro-site conditions, using biological, mechanical, or manual clearing, prescribed burns, herbicides or a combination of methods. (BLM)
Site Productivity - Production capability of specific areas of land.
Site steward program - A program designed to preserve cultural sites through the use of volunteers similar to a neighborhood watch program. - DOI/BLM
Sites - Sites are referred to as part of the definition of cultural heritage in Article 1 of the Convention (UNESCO 1972). Apart from this specific usage, the term site is not used in the Convention. The term site is used interchangeably with property in the Operational Guidelines (UNESCO February 1996). See Cultural heritage, Property - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
Site series - Sites capable of producing the same late seral or climax plant communities within a biogeoclimatic subzone or variant. - Biodiversity Guidebook Glossary
Size Class - One of the three intervals of tree stem diameters used to classify timber in the Forest Plan database. The size classes are: Seedling/Sapling (less than five inches in diameter); Pole Timber (five to seven inches in diameter); and Sawtimber (greater than seven inches in diameter).
Sites of Significance - Those areas which demonstrate some of or the following characteristics including an important emotional link for society, rareness, intactness, excellence of type, association with cultural or historical importance, reflecting a particular cultural, historical or social period, association with a significant historical personality or natural features which are ecologically or intrinsically important.
SITFUT - Future Satisfaction with Life Situation Index
SITLA - State Institutional Trust Land Administration
SITPAST - Past Satisfaction with Life Situation Index
SITPRES - Present Satisfaction with Life Situation Index
SITTOT - Total Satisfaction with Life Index
SIZTC - Special Interest Zone Tax Credit
SJS - San Juan Skyway (Southwest Colorado)
Skarn - A term used to describe the metamorphic rocks surrounding an igneous intrusive where it comes in contact with a limestone or dolomite rock formation.
Skid Trail - A pathway created by dragging logs to a landing (gathering point). (BLM)
Skidder - A self-propelled machine to transport harvested trees or logs from the stump area to the landing or work deck. - Bioenergy Glossary
Skidding - Hauling logs by sliding, not on wheels, from stump to a collection point.
Skimming - The diversion of water from a stream or conduit by a shallow overflow used to avoid diversion of sand, silt, or other debris carried as bottom load. - USGS
Skip - A self-dumping bucket used in a shaft for hoisting ore or rock.
Skyline Logging - A logging system used to remove timber from steep slopes. Logs are brought upslope on a suspended cable, or skyline. Since the weight of the log is completely or partially suspended by the cable, there is little disturbance to soil or other vegetation.
Skyline Yarding - A cable yarding system using one of the cables to support a carriage from which logs are suspended and then pulled to a landing. (BLM)
SL - Scenic Landscapes
SL - Soft Law
SL - Stewardship Lands (DOI)
SLA - Secretarial level authority
SLA - Softwood Lumber Agreement (1996 agreement between the U.S. and Canada)
SLAC - Stanford Linear Accelerator Center
Slag - The vitreous mass separated from the fused metals in the smelting process.
Slakifli-bar - A superficial, thin layer of gold-bearing sand and gravel that accumulated on the surface of river gravel deposits.
SLAPP - Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Participation
Slash - The process of blasting rock from the side of an underground opening to widen the opening. The residue left on the ground after timber cutting or other silvicultural operations and/or left after a storm, fire, girdling, poisoning, or other event. Slash includes unused logs, uprooted stumps, broken or uprooted stems, branches, bark, etc.
Slate - A metamorphic rock; the metamorphic equivalent of shale.
SLC - Sea Lamprey Control
SLC - Solar Living Center
SLC - State Lands Commission
SLD - State Library Division
SLF - Significant Landscape Feature
SLG - State and Local Government
Slickenside - The striated, polished surface of a fault caused by one wall rubbing against the other.
Slight Use - Indicates that 0 to 20 percent of current year's forage production has been eaten or destroyed by grazing animals. - BLM
Slip - Refers to displacement along a fault.
SLM - Sound Land Management
SLMA - Southeastern Lumber Manufacturers Association
SLO - State Land Office - DOI/NPS/BLM
Slope - An inclined entry to underground workings.
Slope - The inclination of the soil surface from the horizontal. Slope percent is the vertical distance divided by the horizontal distance, then multiplied by 100. - National Resources Inventory
Slope Failure - The downward and outward movement of rock or unconsolidated material as a unit or series of units. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Slope length - The distance from the point of origin of overland flow to the point where either the slope gradient decreases enough that deposition begins, or the runoff water enters a well-defined channel that may be part of a drainage network or a constructed channel. For the NRI, length of slope is taken through the sample point. - National Resources Inventory
Slope-length factor (L factor - USLE) - The ratio of soil loss from the field slope length to that from a 72.6-foot length under identical conditions. - National Resources Inventory
Slope Stability - The resistance of any slope to failure by sliding or collapsing. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Slope Stability - The ability of a slope of soil or rock materials to resist moving downhill. - Cornell Preservation Glossary
Slope-steepness factor (S factor - USLE) - The ratio of soil loss from the field slope gradient to that from a 9 percent slope under otherwise identical conditions. Used in Universal soil loss equation (USLE) calculations of sheet and rill erosion. - National Resources Inventory
Slough - A depression associated with swamps and marshlands as part of a bayou, inlet or backwater; contains areas of slightly deeper water and a slow current; can be thought of as the broad, shallow rivers of the Everglades. - EvergladesPlan glossary
Sloughing (soil) - The movement or partial collapse of an earthen slope. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
SLS - State and Local Subsidies
SLSDC - Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation
Sludge - Rock cuttings from a diamond drill hole, sometimes used for assaying.
Sluice Box (Sluice) - A long, inclined trough or launder containing in its bottom riffles that provide a lodging place for heavy minerals in ore concentration. The material to be concentrated is carried down through the sluices on a current of water. Sluice boxes are widely used in placer operations for concentrating such minerals as gold and platinum from stream gravels. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Slump - A landslide where the underlying rock masses tilt back as they slide from a cliff or escarpment.
SLUTP - The Sustainable Land Use Training Program (UN)
SM - Seed Money
SM - Seismic Monitor
SM - Silent Majority
SM - Social Marketing
SM - Stewardship and Management (Corps of Engineers) http://www.wes.army.mil/el/wetlands/pdfs/wlman87.pdf
SM - Stormwater Management
SM - Surface Management
SMA - Shoreline Management Act
SMA - Special Management Area (DOI/BLM)
SMA - Special Management Areas (USFWS) Biosphere Reserves. Research Natural Areas. Shorebird Reserves. Wetlands of International Importance. Wilderness. In addition to refuge status, the "special" status of lands within individual refuges may be recognized by additional designations, either legislative ... cont'd.
SMA - Specific Management Actions
SMA - Steel Manufacturers Association
SMA - Stormwater Management Authority
Small built-up areas - A Land cover/use category consisting of developed land units of 0.25 to 10 acres, which meet the definition of Urban and built-up areas. - National Resources Inventory
The Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA) - The Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA), Pub Law No. 104-121, was signed into law on March 29, 1996. SBREFA enacted a variety of provisions, including several amendments to the RFA. In short, SBREFA amended the RFA to require EPA to convene a small business advocacy review panel prior to proposing any rule that will have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. It also added a provision that allows small entities adversely affected by a final rule to challenge the agency's compliance with the RFA's requirements in court. http://www.epa.gov/sbrefa/statute.htm
Small Game - Birds and small animals normally hunted or trapped.
Small grains - Small grains include winter wheat, spring wheat, rye, triticale, spring oats, winter oats, spring barley and winter barley. - USDA
Small Scale Energy Loan Program: (SELP) - A low-cost loan and technical assistance program administered by the Oregon Department of Energy. - Bioenergy Glossary
Small streams - Perennial streams less than 1/8 mile (660 feet) wide. - National Resources Inventory
Small water bodies - Inland bodies of water with a water surface area of less than 40 acres. - National Resources Inventory
SMARA - State Mining and Reclamation Act
SMARA - Surface Mine and Reclamation Act (California)
Smart Growth - Smart growth means using comprehensive planning to guide, design, develop, revitalize and build communities for all that: have a unique sense of community and place; preserve and enhance valuable natural and cultural resources; equitably distribute the costs and benefits of development; expand the range of transportation, employment and housing choices in a fiscally responsible manner; value long-range, regional considerations of sustainability over short term incremental geographically isolated actions; and promote public health and healthy communities. Compact, transit accessible, pedestrian-oriented, mixed use development patterns and land reuse epitomize the application of the principles of smart growth.
In contrast to prevalent development practices, Smart Growth refocuses a larger share of regional growth within central cities, urbanized areas, inner suburbs, and areas that are already served by infrastructure. Smart Growth reduces the share of growth that occurs on newly urbanizing land, existing farmlands, and in environmentally sensitive areas. In areas with intense growth pressure, development in newly urbanizing areas should be planned and developed according to Smart Growth principles.
Core principles of Smart Growth include:
A. RECOGNITION THAT ALL LEVELS OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE NON-PROFIT AND PRIVATE SECTORS, PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN CREATING AND IMPLEMENTING POLICIES THAT SUPPORT SMART GROWTH. Every level of government - federal, state, regional, county, and local -- should identify policies and practices that are inconsistent with Smart Growth and develop new policies and practices that support Smart Growth. Local governments have long been the principal stewards of land and infrastructure resources through implementation of land use policies. Smart Growth respects that tradition, yet recognizes the important roles that federal and state governments play as leaders and partners in advancing Smart Growth principles at the local level.
B. STATE AND FEDERAL POLICIES AND PROGRAMS THAT SUPPORT URBAN INVESTMENT, COMPACT DEVELOPMENT, AND LAND CONSERVATION. State and federal policies and programs have contributed to urban sprawl and need to be re-examined and replaced with policies and programs that support Smart Growth, including cost effective, incentive-based investment programs that target growth-related expenditures to locally-designated areas.
C. PLANNING PROCESSES AND REGULATIONS AT MULTIPLE LEVELS THAT PROMOTE DIVERSITY, EQUITY AND SMART GROWTH PRINCIPLES. All planning processes, as well as the distribution of resources, must be equitable. A diversity of voices must be included in community planning and implementation.
D. INCREASED CITIZEN PARTICIPATION IN ALL ASPECTS OF THE PLANNING PROCESS AND AT EVERY LEVEL OF GOVERNMENT. Appropriate citizen participation ensures that planning outcomes are equitable and based on collective decision-making. Planning processes must involve comprehensive strategies that engage meaningful citizen participation and find common ground for decision-making.
E. A BALANCED, MULTI-MODAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM THAT PLANS FOR INCREASED TRANSPORTATION CHOICE. Land use and transportation planning must be integrated to accommodate the automobile and to provide increased transportation choices, such as mass transit, bicycles, and walking. Development must be pedestrian-friendly. All forms of transportation must be reliable, efficient and user-friendly, allowing full access by all segments of the population to housing, employment, education, and human and community services.
F. A REGIONAL VIEW OF COMMUNITY. Smart Growth recognizes the interdependence of neighborhoods and municipalities in a metropolitan region and promotes balanced, integrated regional development achieved through regional planning processes.
G. ONE SIZE DOESN'T FIT ALL - A WIDE VARIETY OF APPROACHES TO ACCOMPLISH SMART GROWTH. Customs, politics, laws, natural conditions, and other factors vary from state to state and from region to region. Each region must develop its own approach to problem solving and planning while involving the public, private and non-profit sectors. In some areas, this may require a significant change in perspective and culture, but such changes are necessary and beneficial in obtaining the results that Smart Growth aims to achieve.
H. EFFICIENT USE OF LAND AND INFRASTRUCTURE. High-density development, infill development, redevelopment, and the adaptive re-use of existing buildings result in efficient utilization of land resources and more compact urban areas. Efficient use of public and private infrastructure starts with creating neighborhoods that maximize the use of existing infrastructure. In areas of new growth, roads, sewers, water lines, schools and other infrastructure should be planned as part of comprehensive growth and investment strategies. Regional cooperation is required for large infrastructure investments to avoid inefficiency and redundancy.
I. CENTRAL CITY VITALITY. Every level of government should identify ways to reinvest in existing urban centers, to re-use former industrial sites, to adapt older buildings for new development, and to bring new development to older, low-income and disadvantaged neighborhoods.
J. VITAL SMALL TOWNS AND RURAL AREAS. APA recognizes that inefficient land use and low-density development is not confined to urban and suburban areas, but also occurs around villages and small towns. Many once thriving main streets are checkered with abandoned storefronts while a strip of new commercial activity springs up on the edge of town together with housing and public facilities. Programs and policies need to support investment to improve the economic health of small town downtowns, and rural community centers. The high cost of providing basic infrastructure and services in rural communities demands efficient use of existing facilities, and compact development. Housing choices in rural areas need to take into account changing needs resulting from shifting demographics, the cost of providing services and infrastructure, the cost of services and infrastructure capacity, and must address upgrading of existing housing as an alternative or complement to new development. Smart Growth is critically important in rural and small town economic development initiatives because the limited availability of public funding means each dollar must accomplish more.
K. A GREATER MIX OF USES AND HOUSING CHOICES IN NEIGHBORHOODS AND COMMUNITIES FOCUSED AROUND HUMAN-SCALE, MIXED-USE CENTERS ACCESSIBLE BY MULTIPLE TRANSPORTATION MODES. Mixed-use developments include quality housing, varied by type and price, integrated with shopping, schools, community facilities and jobs. Human-scale design, compatible with the existing urban context, and quality construction contribute to successful compact, mixed-use development and also promote privacy, safety, visual coherency and compatibility among uses and users.
L. CONSERVATION AND ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND CULTURAL RESOURCES. Biodiversity, green infrastructure, and green architecture are integral to Smart Growth. Smart Growth protects the natural processes that sustain life; preserves agricultural land, wildlife habitat, natural landmarks and cultural resources; integrates biodiversity, ecological systems and natural open space (green infrastructure) into the fabric of development; encourages innovative storm water management; is less consumptive and more protective of natural resources; maintains or improves air quality, and enhances water quality and quantity for future generations. Energy conservation is a major benefit and result of Smart Growth, helping to create more sustainable development and allow people to meet current needs without compromising the needs of future generations. Green architecture incorporates environmental protection and reduced natural resource consumption into the design and construction of buildings, also enhancing the comfort and health of the occupants.
M. CREATION OR PRESERVATION OF A "SENSE OF PLACE". A "sense of place" results when design and development protect and incorporate the distinctive character of a community and the particular place in which it is located. Geography, natural features, climate, culture, historical resources, and ecology each contribute to the distinctive character of a region. - American Planning Association (the entire Policy Guide for implementing Smart Growth may be viewed at: http://www.planning.org/policyguides/smartgrowth.htm
SMC - Significant Monitoring Concentrations
SMC - Society of Marine Consultants
SMCS - Specific Mineral Commodity Studies
SMD - Sustainable Mountain Development (FAO-UN)
SME - Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, Inc.
Smelting - Reducing metallic ores in a furnace.
SMF - Sustainable Marine Fisheries
SMI - State Mine Inspector
Smith-Lever Act of 1914 - P.L. 63-95 (May 8, 1914) authorized and provided initial funding for states to establish an educational outreach arm to 'extend' the results of research programs at the land grant colleges of agriculture and their affiliated state agricultural experiment stations to all citizens who might benefit from them. In 1962 Congress amended the act to establish a formula for distributing federal funds to states for agricultural extension programs. The formula provides for each state to receive what it received in 1962 as a base. Funds appropriated in excess of the 1962 level are allocated as follows: 4% of funds go to the federal component of the Cooperative Extension System (now part of the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service of USDA); of the remainder, 20% is allocated to each state equally; and 80% is allocated on the basis of a state's share of the U.S. rural and farm populations. On average, Smith-Lever formula funds account for about 30% of a state's total funding for extension programs.
SMO - Statutory Marketing Organizations
SMOD - Significant Mineral Occurrences or Deposits
Smoke Management - Conducting a prescribed fire under suitable fuel moisture and meteorological conditions with firing techniques that keep smoke impact on the environment within designated limits. (BLM)
Smoke Management Program - A program designed to ensure that smoke impacts on air quality from agricultural or forestry burning operations are minimized; that impacts do not exceed, or significantly contribute to, violations of air quality standards or visibility protection guidelines; and that necessary open burning can be accomplished to achieve land management goals. (BLM)
Smoke Sensitive Area - An area identified by the Oregon Smoke Management Plan that may be negatively affected by smoke but is not classified as a designated area. (BLM)
Smokestack industry - An old-type industry identified by tall smoking chimneys. - UNEP Children's Glossary
SMRE - Small and Medium Rural Enterprises (USAID)
SMSA - Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area
SMWA - Sheep Mountain Wilderness Area (location of scheelite/tungsten deposits)
SN - Second Nature
SN - Sovereign Nation
SN - Sterile Nationalism (Club Of Rome)
SNA - Sierra Nevada Alliance
SNA - State Natural Area(s)
SNA - System of National Accounts (UN)
SNA - Systems Network Architecture
Snag - A standing dead which may have characteristics of benefit to some cavity nesting wildlife species. Snags are important as habitat for a variety of wildlife species and their prey. 2. Any standing dead, partially dead, or defective (cull) tree at least ten inches in diameter at breast height (dbh) and at least six feet tall. A hard snag is composed primarily of sound wood, generally merchantable. A soft snag is composed primarily of wood in advanced stages of decay and deterioration, generally not merchantable. (BLM)
Snag Dependent Species - Birds and animals dependent on snags for nesting, roosting, or foraging habitat. (BLM)
SNEDs - Snake excluder devices. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf
SNEP - Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project
SNF - Second Nature First "Second Nature First is the 100th Columbus (Ohio) -area EcoTeam. EcoTeam is an international program that fosters citizens' choosing Earth-friendly lifestyles. Supported by the United Nations Environment Programme. An EcoTeam website, empowering Individuals to Create Sustainable Lifestyles & Livable Neighborhoods. EcoTeams are small neighborhood groups, usually 4-6 households. Families gather over a four-month period to learn ways in which they can reduce their impact on the Earth. Team members encourage one another in making choices and sticking to them, and neighborly ties are strengthened in the process." (Note: In perusing their website, there were nowhere near 100 'EcoTeams' listed.)
SNF - Sierra Nevada Framework (pertaining to California ranching)
SNFPA - Sierra Nevada Forest Plan Amendment, This notice EIS No. 030263, DRAFT SUPPLEMENT, AFS, CA, NV, Sierra Nevada Forest Plan Amendment, new information on a range of alternatives for amending land and resource management plans, Modoc, Lasser, Plumas, Tahoe, Eldorado, Stanislaus, Sequoia, Sierra, Inyo and Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forests, and the Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit, several counties, CA and NV, comment period ends: September 12, 2003, contact: Kathleen Morse (907) 562-8822. firstname.lastname@example.org appeared in the June 13, 2003 Federal Register under the Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability. Not a lot of information for a NEPA document that: Does not include an economic impact study. Under the Socio-Econimic concerns in the Draft EIS, the BF of timber to be produced under each alternative is provided. Also, that grazing will be reduced under ALL alternatives. It also refers to mining, roads, air quality, recreation and then a paragraph that says nothing but titled socioeconomic. Has a new FS term for species -- now we have 'focal species.' This, along with Forest Service Sensitive Species, Management Indicator Species, begs the question: WHERE DOES THE FOREST SERVICE GET THE STATUTORY AUTHORITY FOR THEIR VERY OWN ENDANGERED SPECIES PROGRAM, a program that the public apparently has no input into. http://www.fs.fed.us/r5/snfpa/
SNFPC - Sierra Nevada Forest Protection Campaign
S.975 - See The Community Character Act of 2001.
S.990 - See The American Wildlife Enhancement Act of 2001.
SNM - Stability Not Mobility (LOTS)
Snow - A form of precipitation composed of ice crystals. - USGS
Snow course - A line or series of connecting lines along which snow samples are taken at regularly spaced points. (U.S. Dept. Agriculture, Soil Conserv. Service and Nevada State Engineer, 1948, p. 2.) - USGS
Snow density - Ratio between the volume of melt water derived from a sample of snow and the initial volume of the sample. This is numerically equal to the specific gravity of the snow. (Linsley, Kohler, and Paulhus, 1949, p. 127.) - USGS
Snowline - The general altitude to which the continuous snow cover of high mountains retreats in summer, chiefly controlled by the depth of the winter snowfall and by the temperature of the summer. - USGS
Snowline, temporary - A line sometimes drawn on a weather map during the winter showing the southern limit of the snow cover. - USGS
Snowmobile - Motorized sled used for traveling on snow.
Snow, quality of - The ratio of heat of melting of snow, in calories per gram to the 80 calories per gram for melting pure ice at 0 degrees C. (Bernard and Wilson, 1941, p., 178-179.) (See also Wilson, 1942b, p. 553-556.) Percentage by weight which is ice (Linsley, Kohler, and Paulhus, 1949, p. 129). - USGS
SNPLMA - Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act (1998)
SNPSF - State of Nevada Permanent School Fund
SNS - Socialist Nation-State
SNS - Sovereign Nation-State
SNS - Sovereign Nation Status
SNWA - Southern Nevada Water Authority
SO - Sexual Orientation
SO - Solar Occlusion
SOARING - Smart Online Access to Records in Government
SOB - State-Owned Banks (BIS)
SOBAC - Save Our Bays Air and Canals (Florida, 'environmental group' that's opposed to desalinization plants/facilities)
SOC - The Save Orick Committee
SOC - Species Of Concern
SOC - State Of Confusion
SOCF - Shell Oil Company Foundation
SOFAR - Save Our Forests and Ranchlands (extreme environmental group, San Diego County, California) (UN)
Social indicators - Indicators of the well-being, educational status etc. of a society. - UNEP Children's Glossary
Social Justice - The concept that all people should have equal access to services and goods produced in a community. It includes ideas of environmental health; gender, religious, sexual, racial, and ethnic equality. (UNESCO)
Social Services - Services generally provided by the government that help improve people's standard of living; examples are public hospitals and clinics, good roads, clean water supply, garbage collection, electricity, and telecommunications. (WB-UN)
Social science - The study of society and of individual relationships in and to society, generally including one or more of the academic disciplines of sociology, economics, political science, geography, history, anthropology, and psychology. - BLM
Socialism - Government ownership of the sources of production.
The Society for Organizational Learning (formerly the Organizational Learning Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)) (SOL) - A major locus of research and application. A Learning Organization.
SOD - Spread Of Disease
SOD - Stewards of the Darby
SOD - SubOptimal Decisions
Sodbuster - A program created by Title 12 of the Food Security Act of 1985 designed to discourage the plowing up of erosion-prone grasslands for use as cropland. If such highly erodible land is used for crop production without proper conservation measures as laid out in a conservation plan, a producer may lose eligibility to participate in USDA farm programs. Sodbuster provisions remain in effect under the FAIR Act of 1996.
Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) - A value representing the relative hazard of irrigation water because of a high sodium content relative to its calcium plus magnesium content.
Sodium cyanide - A chemical used in the mill of gold ores to dissolve gold and silver.
SOE - State Of the Environment
SOE - State Office of Education
SOE - Synchronous Online Environments
SOFA - Save Our Forest Association
SOFA - State OF the Art
SOFIA - South Florida Information Access (formerly known as the South Florida Ecosystem) http://sofia.usgs.gov/
Softwater lakes - Lakes with low buffering capacity (alkalinity) that are most sensitive to acid deposition inputs. - Shoreland Mgmt. Glossary
Soil - The unconsolidated mineral and organic material on the immediate surface of the Earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants. 2. The unconsolidated mineral matter on the surface of the Earth that has been subjected to and influenced by genetic and environmental factors of parent material, climate, macro- and microorganisms, and topography, all acting over a period of time and producing a product, soil, that differs from the material from which it is derived in many physical, chemical, biological, and morphological properties and characteristics. 2. In the United States, about 70,000 kinds of soil are recognized in the nationwide system of classification. Each has a unique set of characteristics and a potential for use. These characteristics are important in designing a conservation plan to protect the soil from erosion if it is being cultivated. The Natural Resources Conservation Service is responsible for mapping the United States by soil type, through the Soil Survey Program.
Soil Aeration - The process by which air in the soil is replaced by air in the atmosphere. Poorly aerated soils usually contain a much higher percentage of carbon dioxide and a correspondingly lower percentage of oxygen than the atmosphere above the soil.
Soil Associations - (a) A group of defined and named taxonomic soil units occurring together in an individual and characteristic pattern over a geographic region, comparable to plant associations in many ways. (b) A soil-mapping unit in which two or more defined taxonomic units occurring together in a characteristic pattern are combined because of map scale or intermixing of taxonomic units. - BLM
Soil Bank Act - Title I of the Agricultural Act of 1956 (P.L. 84-540), designated the Soil Bank Act, created the Acreage Reserve Program to retire land producing basic commodities under an annual agreement from 1956 through 1959, and the Conservation Reserve Program, to retire agricultural land under contracts of 3, 5, or 10 years. The Soil Bank Act was repealed by Section 601 of the Food and Agriculture Act of 1965 (P.L. 89-321). Nevertheless, this early Conservation Reserve served as the model for the current Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), which was enacted in the Food Security Act of 1985.
Soil Bank Program - A federal program of the late 1950s and early 1960s that paid farmers to retire land from production for 10 years; the predecessor to today's Conservation Reserve Program. Some elements in the CRP, such as a limit on CRP acres per county, were a response to the Soil Bank experience.
Soil Bioengineering - The integrated use of live vegetative cuttings, independently or in combination with engineering structures, to support earth masses, prevent shallow slope failure, and reduce erosion.
Soil Compaction - The reduction of soil volume. For instance, the weight of heavy equipment on soils can compact the soil and thereby change it in some ways, such as its ability to absorb water. The most prevalent of all soil constraints on shade and street tree growth. Every place where humans and machines exist, and the infrastructures that support them are built, soil compaction will be present. There are few soil areas without some form or extent of soil compaction. Soil compaction is a fact of life for trees and tree managers. Unfortunately, prevention and correction procedures are not readily used nor recognized for their value. Soil compaction is a major tree-limiting feature of community forest managers and arborists.
Soil Conditioner - An organic material like humus or compost that helps soil absorb water, build a bacterial community, and take up mineral nutrients.
Soil Conservation District - A legal subdivision of state government, with a locally elected governing body, responsible for developing and carrying out a program of soil and water conservation within a geographic boundary, usually coinciding with county lines. The nearly 3,000 districts in the United States have varying names -- soil conservation districts, soil and water conservation districts, natural resources districts, resource districts, resource conservation districts.
Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act of 1936 - P.L. 74-46 (February 26, 1936) was designed to support farm income by making soil-conservation and soil-building payments to participating farmers. This design overcame the unconstitutional taxes on processors in the support program authorized by the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933. The 1936 Act supported farm income and reduced surpluses by paying farmers for shifting from crops in excess supply (soil depleting crops) to soil building crops like legumes and grasses. This law, as amended, continues to serve as the enabling authority for a number of activities and programs carried out by the Natural Resources Conservation Service.
Soil Conservation Service (SCS) - Replaced by a new USDA agency, the Natural Resource Conservation Service after USDA reorganization in 1994. Responsibilities include carrying out technical assistance programs in cooperation with soil conservation districts to improve and conserve soil and water resources, and operating related programs such as the national soil survey and the natural resources inventory.
Soil Consistence - See Consistence, soil
Soil Depth - Lower boundary in inches. Very shallow 12 Shallow 12 SQ 20 Moderately deep 20 SQ 36 Deep 36 SQ 40 Very deep 40 - BLM
Soil Displacement - The removal and horizontal movement of soil from one place to another by mechanical forces such as a blade. (BLM)
Soil erodibility factor (K factor - USLE) - An erodibility factor which quantifies the susceptibility of soil particles to detachment and movement by water. This factor is used in the Universal soil loss equation (USLE) to calculate soil loss by water. - National Resources Inventory
Soil erodibility index (I factor - WEQ) - The potential soil loss, in tons per acre per year, from a wide, level, unsheltered, isolated field with a bare, smooth, loose, and noncrusted surface, under climatic conditions like those in the vicinity of Garden City, Kansas. - National Resources Inventory
Soil Genesis - Formation of the soil with special reference to the processes or soil-forming factors responsible for the development of the solum or true soil from the unconsolidated parent material. Synonyms: pedogenesis, soil formation.
Soil grouting - Injection of lime or cement into soil for stability. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Soil Horizon - A layer of soil developed in response to localized chemical and physical processes resulting from the activities of soil organisms, addition of organic matter, precipitation, and water percolation through the layer. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary
Soil Horizon - A layer of soil or soil material roughly parallel to the land surface and differing from adjacent, genetically related layers in physical, chemical, and biological properties or characteristics, such as color, structure, texture, consistence and degree of acidity or alkalinity.
Soil loss tolerance factor (T factor - USLE) - The maximum rate of annual soil loss that will permit crop productivity to be sustained economically and indefinitely on a given soil. - National Resources Inventory
Soil Loss Tolerance ('T' value) - For a specific soil, the maximum average annual soil loss expressed as tons per acre per year that will permit current production levels to be maintained economically and indefinitely. T values range from 2 to 5 tons per acre per year. According to the 1992 national resources inventory, about 63 million acres of highly erodible cropland are still eroding at more than their 'T' value, including 21 million acres that are still eroding at three times 'T'.
Soil Moisture - The water content stored in soil.
Soil Moisture (Soil water) - Water diffused in the soil, the upper part of the zone of aeration from which water is discharged by the transpiration of plants or by soil evaporation. See Field-moisture capacity and Field-moisture deficiency. - USGS
Soil moisture zone -- Depth of soil from which plant roots extract water.
Soil pH - A numerical measure of the acidity of hydrogen ion activity of a soil. Exactly, the negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion activity of a soil.
Soil Productivity - The capacity of a soil to produce a specific crop. Productivity depends on adequate moisture and soil nutrients, as well as favorable climate.
Soil Profile - A vertical section of the soil from the surface through all its horizons.
Soil Profile - A succession of soil zones or horizons beginning at the surface that have been developed through normal soil-forming processes. - BLM
Soil Puddling - A physical change in soil properties due to shearing forces that alter soil structure and porosity. Puddling occurs when the soil is at or near liquid limit.
Soil Quality (health) - Soil quality includes consideration of measures related to both productivity for crops and environmental factors.
Soil Quick Test - Simple, routine analysis on soils, usually to measure pH, soluble salts, and nutritional status.
Soil Regime - The layer of soil or growth media roughly parallel to the land surface upon which plants and their roots will penetrate and grow. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Soil Separates - Mineral particles, less than 2.0 mm in equivalent diameter, ranging between specified size limits.
Soil Series - A group of soils having horizons (or layers) similar in characteristics and arrangement in the soil profile, except for the texture of the surface portion. They are given proper names from place names within the areas where they occur. Thus, Norfolk, Miami, and Houston are names of some well-known soil series.
Soil Solarization - Fumigating and warming soil by covering it with black plastic. This is an alternative pest control technique being investigated as an alternative to the use of methyl bromide (a chemical fumigant use in Florida tomato production and for other specialty crops and will be phased out of use because of its ozone depleting effects.
Soil Sterilant - A chemical that temporarily or permanently prevents the growth of all plants and animals, depending on the chemical. Soil sterilants must be registered as pesticides.
Soil Structure - The physical constitution of soil material as expressed by size, shape, and the degree of development of primary soil particles and voids into naturally or artificially formed structural units. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Soil Survey - A program of the Natural Resource Conservation Service to inventory soil resources as a basis for determining land capabilities and conservation treatments that are needed, provide soil information to the public (primarily through maps), and provide technical support to those who use soils information. About 90% of the private lands have been mapped. In FY1996, maps were prepared or updated on more than 17 million acres.
Soil survey - The systematic examination, description, classification, and mapping of soils in an area. The USDA- NRCS Soil Survey Program produces Soil Survey Reports, which generally consist of four principal parts: (1) maps, (2) a map legend, (3) a description of the soils in the survey area, and (4) a use and management report. The survey area commonly is a single county but may comprise parts of counties, physiographic regions, or other management areas. - National Resources Inventory
Soil Test - A chemical, physical, or microbiological operation that estimates a property of a soil.
Soil Texture - The physical nature of soil according to the relative proportions of sand, clay, and silt.
Soil Water Percolation - the downward movement of water through soil, especially the downward flow of water in saturated or nearly saturated soil.
Soil Water Zone - The soil water zone extends from the land surface down through the major root zone. Therefore, its total depth is variable and is dependent upon soil type and vegetation. This zone is unsaturated except during periods of heavy infiltration and percolation.
Soil and water resource improvements (acres) - This includes acres treated with improvement measures to increase the quality and quantity of water, and maintain or improve soil productivity. The reestablishment of vegetation on streambanks and the placement of gabions to halt streambank erosion are two examples of soil and water improvement activities. - FS
SOL - Standards Of Learning
SOL - Standard Of Living
SOLACE - Sacred On Line Active Communal Environment
SOLAS - The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (UN)
Sole-Source Aquifer - An aquifer that supplies fifty percent or more of the drinking water of an area, as defined by the Environmental Protection Agency.
SOLEC - State of the Lakes Ecosystem Conference
Solid Waste - Non-liquid, non-soluble materials ranging from municipal garbage to industrial wastes that contain complex and sometimes hazardous substances. Solid wastes also include sewage sludge, agricultural refuse, demolition wastes, and mining residues. Technically, solid waste also refers to liquids and gases in containers. The disposal of solid waste is regulated by EPA.
Solid waste - Anything that doesn't easily decompose (glass, plastic etc.). - UNEP Children's Glossary
Solifluction - Downhill movement of unconsolidated materials that have become saturated with water. (NPS)
Solitary (plants) - Occurring singly, not as part of a group or cluster. (NPS)
Solitary male - An unpaired male that is the sole resident of a cluster. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf
Soluble vs. insoluble - Soluble substances, such as the preservatives used in wood treatment, may dissolve in particular liquids. However, when certain preservatives (such as inorganic arsenicals) are applied to wood under pressure, the preservatives become fixed to the wood cells and insoluble. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary
Solum - The upper part of a soil profile, above the C horizon, in which the processes of soil formation are active. The solum in soil consists of the A, E, and B horizons. Generally, the characteristics of the material in these horizons are unlike those of the underlying material. The living roots and plant and animal activities are largely confined to the solum. - USDA
Solute Potential - The amount of work an infinitesimal quantity of water will do in moving from a pool of free water the same composition as the soil water to a pool of pure water at the same location. The effect of dissolved substances. Usually very small.
Solvent Extraction-Electrowinning (SX-EW) - A metallurgical technique, so far applied only to copper ores, in which metal is dissolved from the rock by organic solvents and recovered from solution by electrolysis.
Solution Target - A Solution Target does not exist until an identified barrier, boundary, or opportunity is paired with a proposed solution. The Solution Target becomes the objective for an initiative. - GWOB
SOM - Speak Out Model
SOM - Surplus Organic Material
SOMOT - Safe and Outstanding Memories Of Time (spent at Federal Sites - DOI)
SON - Scope Of Negotiations
SONCC - Southern Oregon/Northern California Coastal (DOI/BLM)
Sonic meter - A device using sound waves to determine relative density. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
SONREEL - Section of Natural Resources, Energy and Environmental Law (American Bar Association)
SONY - Standard Oil of New York
The Soo Locks - connecting Lake Superior to Lake Huron - were built when Congress passed an act in 1852 granting 304,000 hectares of public land (the subsidy) to the State of Michigan as compensation to the company that would build it (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, undated§). When the Soo Locks, in combination with local railroads to carry ore to Lake Superior ports, opened, the products of the rich copper and iron deposits in Michigan and Minnesota became available. By 1898, large-scale iron production from these regions wiped out the New Jersey iron properties (R.E. Deery, U.S. Bureau of Land Management, written communiqué, 2002). The Soo Locks, improvements included, opened up the iron ore deposits of Michigan in 1870, and later, Minnesota's in the 1890s for development. This made possible the development of, what was for a time, the largest steelmaking industry in the world. With iron ore feedstock from the Lake Superior deposits, American steel mills were built along the shores of the Great Lakes, the Ohio River and its tributaries in Pennsylvania and Ohio (The Great Lakes Information Network, 2000).
SOP - The Socialization Of Property
SOPA - Schedule of Proposed Actions
SOPA - Society of Professional Archeologists
SORM - System Of Research Operative Measures
SOS - Save Open Space (.com)
SOS - Save Our Schools
SOS - Shovels Of Solidarity
SOSS - Saving Our Sacred Sites
SOTA - State Of The Art
SOTE - Salt Of The Earth
SOTIA - Southern Oregon Timber Industry Association
SOTR - Stewards Of The Range
Sound Wood - Timber that is solid, whole, and in good condition. Sound wood is free from damage, decay, or defects.
Source Emission Reduction Plan (SERP) - A contingency plan developed to reduce emissions during an air quality emergency. - Bioenergy Glossary
Source material - Uranium or thorium, or any combination thereof, in any physical or chemical form or ores which contain by weight one-twentieth of one percent (0.05%) or more of: (1) uranium, (2) thorium or (3) any combination thereof. Source material does not include special nuclear material. - Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Source Water Assessment - A process, required by the Safe Drinking Water Act, whereby the State or designated Tribe or agency, identifies the areas that provide surface and ground water to public drinking water systems; inventories existing contaminants; and determines vulnerability of the system to contamination. http://cleanwater.gov/ufp/glossary.html
Sources of Water - House connection/yard tap: Piped water from the public water distribution system that reaches the home or yard. When people have house connections, they usually have indoor plumbing as well; if they have yard taps, they have to go outside to get water. Shallow well: A well dug on public or private property for public consumption. Public wells usually provide water for little or no cost; water from private wells is usually more expensive. Shallow wells are not always reliable sources of water because they can become contaminated by run off in the rainy season or dry up in the dry season. Yard well: A shallow well in a yard usually intended for private use. Standpost: An outside tap to which a number of households can go to get water. Public standposts are connected to the public water distribution system and controlled by the water company. Private standposts are not connected to the public water distribution system nor controlled by the water company. Private borehole and electric pump: A very deep well drilled into the ground using specialized machinery. Boreholes are used when the water is far below the surface or when the ground is too hard to dig a well by conventional means. Because they are so deep, they require an electric pump to bring water to the surface. (WB-UN)
South Florida Ecosystem - An area consisting of the lands and waters within the boundary of the South Florida Water Management District, including the built environment, the Everglades, the Florida Keys and the contiguous near-shore coastal waters of South Florida (also shown under Greater Everglades Ecosystem). - EvergladesPlan glossary
South Platte Enhancement Board - A nonprofit coordinating forum established to decide expenditures from the Endowment Fund. - FS
South Platte Protection Plan (a.k.a. SPPP and Alternative A2) - Developed by a group of parties interested in the South Platte River; purpose of SPPP is to protect the river-related values identified by the Forest Service and preserve water supply functions without designating the river under the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. - FS
Southwest REAP Zone - In Southwest North Dakota, USDA has undertaken a pilot program entitled, Rural Economic Area Partnership (REAP) to implement new and innovative approaches to community economic development that are based on cooperation, partnership and sustainability. Generally, over the last decade rural limited resource areas have had a steady decline in both public/private business and service. Also, these areas are low in population density, have limited economic diversification and have above average out-migration. One intent of the REAP pilot project is to utilize federal, state and local public and private resources in cooperation and partnership to efficiently and effectively address the problem of out-migration. The resources provided will target new wealth creation through economic diversification and the development of primary sector job opportunities.
SOV - Single Occupancy Vehicle
Soviet Active Measures - Political influence operations. The "Cold War" is partly a continuous series of Marxist active measures from 1918 to the present because political war is war just as much as military war. The class enemies of Marxist revolution must officially recognize this.
SOW - The Socialization Of the Will
SOWS - Save Our Wild Salmon
SP - Shared Parenting
SP - Site Plan
SP - Social Promotion
SP - Statistic Pattern
SP - Strategic Planning
SP - Study Permit (DOI)
SP - Suburban Pattern
SPA - Special Project Area (DOI/USFWS)
SPA - State Planning Agency
SPA - The Surrounding Protected Area (DOI)
SPACE - Special Political Agricultural Community Education
SPACE - Statewide Program of Action to Conserve our Environment (New Hampshire) http://nhspace.org
Spall - The flaking off of a material caused by expansion and contraction, or by material decomposition. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
SPAR - Stream Plethodontid Assemblage Response http://www.cas.psu.edu/docs/CASDEPT/FOREST/wetlands/Research/Survey.htm
SPARE - Smart growth Preservation, Acquisition, Restoration, End commercial logging (Sierra Club)
SPAS - Special Project Area Status (DOI/USFWS)
Spawning Gravel(s) - Stream-bottom gravels where fish deposit and fertilize their eggs. The covering of these gravels with silt can block the supply of oxygen to the eggs or serve as a cementing agent to prevent fry from emerging. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs. 2. Sorted, clean gravel patches of a size appropriate for the needs of resident or anadromous fish. - Bioenergy Glossary
SPC - Save the Peaks Club
SPC - Social Policy Corporation (now the Fund for Independent Publishing)
SPC - Society for the Prevention of Childbirth (a link on the VHEMT Links page) " … open to everyone, from misanthropic environmentalists to ... " Links and essays.
SPCC - Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure Plan
SPCP - The Sustainable Production and Consumption Program (UN)
SPD - Summary Plan Description
SPDES - State Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
Speaking tube - A metal tube, either imbedded in the body of concrete or suspended from the ceiling, through which voice communication could be had between various parts of an emplacement or battery. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
SPEC - Systems and Procedures Exchange Center
Special and Differential Treatment (S&D) - A set of GATT provisions (in Article 18) that exempts developing countries from the same strict trade rules and disciplines of more industrialized countries. In the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture, for example, developing countries are given longer time periods to phase in export subsidy and tariff reductions than the more industrialized countries.
Special Areas - Areas that may need special management, which may include management as an Area of Critical Environmental Concern, Research Natural Area, Outstanding Natural Area, Environmental E Education Area, or other special category. (BLM)
Special aquatic sites - Those sites identified in 40 CFR 230 Subpart E (i.e., sanctuaries and refuges, wetlands, mud flats, vegetated shallows, coral reefs, and riffle and pool complexes). They are geographic areas, large or small, possessing special ecological characteristics of productivity, habitat, wildlife protection, or other important and easily disrupted ecological values. These areas are generally recognized as significantly influencing or positively contributing to the general overall environmental health or vitality of the entire ecosystem of a region. 40 CFR § 230.3(q-1).
Special Attention Species - a term which incorporates the "Survey and Manage" and "Protection Buffer" species from the Northwest Forest Plan. - BLM
Special Exception Use - A use deemed appropriate in certain zoning districts by the City Council who authorizes the Zoning Board of Adjustment to consider each request on its own merit. The Board must consider the appropriateness of these uses based on the location or relation to the neighborhood and whether such use would promote the public health, safety, and general welfare.
Special expertise - Special expertise means statutory responsibility, agency mission, or related program experience. 40 CFR § 1508.26.
Special Forest Products - Firewood, shake bolts, mushrooms, ferns, floral greens, berries, mosses, bark, grasses etc., that could be harvested in accordance with the objectives and guidelines in the proposed resource management plan. (BLM)
Special Habitat - A forested or non-forested habitat which contributes to overall biological diversity within the District. Special habitats may include: ponds, bogs, springs, sups, marshes, swamps, dunes, meadows, balds, cliffs, salt licks, and mineral springs. (BLM)
Special Habitat Features - Habitats of special importance due to their uniqueness or high value. (BLM)
Special nuclear material - Includes plutonium, uranium-233, or uranium enriched in the isotopes uranium-233 or uranium-235. - Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Special Recreation Management Area (SRMA) - An area where a commitment has been to provide specific recreation activity and experience opportunities. These areas usually require a high level of recreation investment and/or management. They include recreation sites but recreation sites alone do not constitute Special Recreation Management Areas. (BLM)
Special Review - Formerly known as Rebuttable Presumption Against Registration (RPAR), this is a regulatory process through which existing pesticides suspected of posing unreasonable risks to human health, non-target organisms, or the environment are referred for review by EPA. Such review requires an intensive risk/benefit analysis with opportunity for public comment. If risk is found to outweigh social and economic benefits, regulatory actions ranging from label revisions and use-restriction to cancellation or suspended registration can be initiated.
Special Status Areas - Areas where under the proposed regulations (Alternative 3, the Proposed Action and Preferred Alternative) BLM would require Plans of Operations for all operations exceeding casual use. Such areas consist of (1) lands in the California Desert Conservation Area (CDCA) designated by the CDCA Plan as "controlled" or "limited" use areas; (2) areas in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System and designated for potential addition to the system; (3) areas of critical environmental concern (ACECs); (4) designated wilderness areas administered by BLM; (5) areas "closed" to off-road vehicle use; (6) areas identified in BLM land use or activity plans where BLM has determined that a Plan of Operations is required to provide detailed review of project effects on unique, irreplaceable, or outstanding historical, cultural, recreational, or natural resource values, such as threatened or endangered species or their critical habitat; (7) national monuments and national conservation areas administered by BLM; and (8) areas segregated in anticipation of a mineral withdrawal and all withdrawn areas, except for areas segregated or withdrawn under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, and the Alaska Statehood Act. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Special Status Species - Plant or animal species falling in any of the following categories: - Threatened or Endangered Species - Proposed Threatened or Endangered Species - Candidate Species - State Listed Species - Bureau Sensitive Species - Bureau Assessment Species
Special Status Species - Wildlife and plant species either Federally listed or proposed for listing as endangered or threatened; state-listed or BLM determined priority species. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary 2. Special status species include all species of plants and animals that are federally listed as threatened, endangered or candidates for listing; species proposed for listing as threatened or endangered; species listed by the State for reasons of endangerment or extinction; and species identified by the BLM as sensitive. - BLM
Special Use Permit (SUP) - A type of short-term agreement. CVNP (Cuyahoga Valley National Park) uses these permits to lease farm buildings primarily for residential purposes, although a few barns, garages, or other outbuildings are specifically leased for agricultural purposes. SUP land use is typically for agricultural fields. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/
Special Use Permit - A permit for an additional use of land or structures not allowed by right in the applicable zoning district recommended by the Planning and Zoning Commission and authorized by the City Council and being in accordance with the provisions in the Zoning Ordinance. A SUP may be granted if the proposed use is compatible with the surrounding uses, will promote the welfare of the area, is not detrimental to the public health, safety, general welfare, and conforms in all other respects to applicable regulations and standards. The granting of a SUP does not waive the regulations of the local underlying zoning district. Typically, a concept plan is required with this process. A permit issued under established laws and regulations to an individual, group, organization or company by the USDA Forest Service for use of National Forest land for some special purpose. Examples might be a Boy Scout Jamboree or a mountain bike race.
Specialization Ratio - Aids in the assessment of the homogeneity of categories within a classification. Specialization ratios measure the extent to which observations contained within a category are representative of the population of those observations as a whole (e.g. in industry statistics, the specialization ratio is the output by an industry of goods and services characteristic to that industry in proportion to its total output). (UN)
Specialty Biocides - Estimates are provided for end uses as follows: swimming pools, spas and industrial water treatment (excludes chlorine/hypochlorites which are reported separately); disinfectants and sanitizers (including industrial/institutional applications and household cleaning products); and other specialty biocides (including biocides for adhesives and sealants, leather, synthetic latex polymers, metal working fluids, paints and coatings, petroleum products, plastics and textiles). These are categories of end usage which are covered by FIFRA. There are other end uses of specialty biocides which are regulated under FFDCA. (such as hospital/medical antiseptics, food/feed preservatives and for cosmetics/toiletries). - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary
Specialty Crops - Usually refers to crops covered by marketing orders that generally are not fruits or vegetables. Specialty crops have included almonds, filberts, walnuts, spearmint oil, hops, dates, raisins, and prunes.
Species - A certain type of plant or animal. - UNEP Children's Glossary 2. Any subspecies of fish or wildlife or plants, and any distinct population segment of any species of vertebrate fish or wildlife which interbreeds when mature. - ESA
Species - Any member of the animal or plant kingdom that is described as a species in a peer reviewed scientific publication and is identified as a species by the responsible official pursuant to a plan decision -- must include all species listed under the Endangered Species Act as threatened, endangered, candidate or proposed for listing by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service or National Marine Fisheries Service (Proposed Planning Rule, Section 219.36, August 2000). http://www2.srs.fs.fed.us/strategicplan/view_and_submit_comment.asp?ID=52
Species - Species represent the lowest and most important of the primary groupings used in classifying plants, animals, and microorganisms. While no single definition applies to all organisms, biologists rely principally on (1) morphological and genetic similarities and (2), for sexually reproducing organisms, the capability of interbreeding with one another but not other groups. If different species do interbreed, the offspring, if any, are often sterile. Biologists give species unique, binomial names: a generic name that includes closely related species, and a species-specific name. The horse, for example, is Equus caballus; the donkey or ass is Equus asinus. (Their offspring, the mule, is sterile.) As populations of organisms vary geographically and change over time (becoming extinct, or splitting or evolving into new species), species classifications are neither absolute nor immutable; where some biologists see variations within a species (and may designate subspecies), others may see separate species. About 1.5 to 2 million species have been named, but scientists estimate the total number of species could be 5 to 100 million, many of them probably undiscovered microorganisms. The Endangered Species Act (ESA) protects species designated as endangered or threatened with extinction; these protections prohibit taking endangered species and can include restrictions on habitat alterations, such as logging or water pollution. Because of the way 'species' is defined in the ESA, policy debates have arisen over whether certain groups of organisms qualify for listing (e.g., northern goshawks and the Alexander Archipelago wolf). A distinctive kind of plant or animal having distinguishable characteristics and that can interbreed and produce young. A category of biological classification.
Species at Risk - Federally listed threatened, endangered, candidate or proposed species and other species for which loss of viability, including reduction in distribution or abundance, is a concern within the plan area. Other species at risk may include sensitive species and State listed species. A species at risk also may be selected as a focal species (Proposed Planning Rule, Section 219.36, August 2000). http://www2.srs.fs.fed.us/strategicplan/view_and_submit_comment.asp?ID=52
Species of Concern - Species being federally monitored because populations are low, declining, or otherwise in a condition that suggest that they could become candidates for Federal threatened or endangered status.
Species Diversity - The number, different kinds, and relative abundance of species. (BLM)
Species Diversity - A function of the distribution and abundance of species. Approximately synonymous with Species Richness. In more technical literature, includes considerations of the evenness of species abundances. An ecosystem is said to be more diverse, according to the more technical definition, if species present have equal population sizes and less diverse if many species are rare and some are very common. - UNDP/WRI
Species Richness - The number of species within a region. A term commonly used as a measure of Species Diversity, but technically only one aspect of diversity. - UNDP/WRI 2. A measure of the number of species in relation to the total number of individuals in a particular community. - EPA
Species Viability - A species consisting of self-sustaining and interacting populations that are well distributed through the species' range. Self-sustaining populations are those that are sufficiently abundant and have sufficient diversity to display the array of life history strategies and forms to provide for their long-term persistence and adaptability over time (Proposed Planning Rule, Section 219.36, August 2000). http://www2.srs.fs.fed.us/strategicplan/view_and_submit_comment.asp?ID=52
Speciesism - Discrimination in favor of one species over another.
Specific Gravity - The relative weight of a mineral as compared to the weight of an equal volume of water.
Specific Plan - A detailed document that specifically implements a general plan (such as this plan), usually -- but not always -- focused on a specific development project. Specific plans are legally required to detail regulations and programs to implement a general plan. These regulations and programs must include: the location and size of certain land uses and public facilities; streets and other transportation facilities; standards for land use densities, and public services; standards for water and other natural resources; and implementation of open spare lands.
Specification - A description of an item for which a price comparison is to be made. The description is designed to ensure that goods of equivalent quality are compared. The terms "item" and "specification" are used interchangeably. (UN)
Specimen - A selected piece of rock or ore taken for examination or display.
Spelter - The zinc of commerce, more or less impure, cast from molten metal into slabs or ingots.
SPER - Social, Political and Educational Requirements
SPF - Special Purpose Foundation
SPF - The Lower Mississippi Standard Project Flood (SPF) design and bank stabilization
SPF - Strategic Policy Formulation
SPFS - Special Program for Food Security (FAO-UN)
SPGA - Stewardship Program Geographical Area
Sphalerite - A sulphide mineral of zinc; a common ore mineral of zinc.
SPHRP - Suburban Pattern Historic Resource Protection
SPI - Sierra Pacific Industries (timber company)
SPI - Significant Public Issue
SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering
SPIKE - Specially Prepared Individuals for Key Events
SPIL - State Plan for Independent Living
SPINES - Science and Technology Policies Information Exchange System (UNESCO)
Spiral Concentrator - A revolving drum or pan with an interior section made of spiral riffles, used for gravity concentration of heavy minerals.
Spirit of the Convention - The term spirit of the Convention refers to the special qualities of the Convention as an international heritage protection instrument reliant on collective international protection, the notion of outstanding universal value, and the conservation of both natural and cultural heritage in a single protective instrument. See Convention - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
SPLC - Southern Poverty Law Center
Splinterproof - A heavy concrete roof designed to protect against shell fragments. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Split Estate - Land whose surface rights and mineral rights are owned by different entities. Such a condition commonly occurs when surface rights are owned by the Federal Government and the mineral rights are privately or state owned. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Splitting - Separations of the wood through the piece to the opposite surface or to an adjoining surface; caused by the tearing apart of wood cells. - EPA Office of Pesticide Programs Glossary
SPLS - Society of Professional Land Surveyors
SPN - Social-Psychological Needs
SPN - State Policy Network
SPNHF - The Society for the Protection of New Hampshire Forests
SPNI - Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel
SPNIPMA - The Strategic Plan for Noxious and Invasive Plants Management in Alaska : Philip Kaspari and Marta Mueller of the ... Alaska Farm Bureau, Robert Franklin, President The Nature Conservancy in Alaska ... http://www.cnipm.org/strategic.pdf (21 pages)
SPNIPMA - Strategic Plan for Noxious and Invasive Plants Management in Alaska http://www.cnipm.org/strategic.pdf "…Philip Kaspari and Marta Mueller of the ... Alaska Farm Bureau, Robert Franklin, President The Nature Conservancy in Alaska..."
Spodosol - A type of soil layer with precipitated (solid) organic matter, aluminum, and iron. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary
Sodium Cyanide - A chemical used in the mill of gold ores to dissolve gold and silver.
Split - The shareholder-approved division of a company's outstanding common shares into a larger number of new common shares.
Split Estate - An area of land where the surface is non-federally owned and the subsurface mineral resources are federally owned or vice versa. (BLM)
SPO - Soundscape Program Office (DOI/NPS)
Spoil - Overburden or waste excavated and redeposited in surface mining. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Spoils - Refuse mined material typically discarded near the entrance of a mine because it was not rich enough to process profitably.
Spotted owl habitat - A. Dispersal habitat - Forest vegetation with at least 40% canopy closure and an average stand diameter of 11". These stands are used by the owls to disperse or move from one area of nesting or foraging habitat to another. B. Foraging habitat - Forest vegetation with the age class, species of trees, structure, sufficient area, and adequate food source to meet the needs of foraging spotted owls. This type of habitat includes nesting habitat, but it also includes younger stands, generally greater than 18" DBH with some of the structural components of nesting habitat. C. Nesting habitat - Forest vegetation with the age class, species of trees, structure, sufficient area, and adequate food source to meet the needs of a nesting pair of spotted owls. This type of habitat is found generally in older forests with multiple canopies, large diameter trees, and abundant large standing and down woody debris. - Bioenergy Glossary
SPP - Social Policy Principles
SPPP - South Platte Protection Plan
SPR - Scientific Peer Review
SPR - State Planning and Research
SPR - Strategic petroleum reserve
Sprawl - A pattern of development characterized by inefficient access between land uses or to public facilities or services and a lack of functional open space. Typically sprawl is an auto-dependent, single use, often discontinuous, low-density development pattern.
Spread - The layout of seismometer or geophone groups from which data from a single shot (the explosive charge) are recorded simultaneously. - USGS Earthquake glossary
Spreading Center - An elongated region where two plates are being pulled away from each other. New crust is formed as molten rock is forced upward into the gap. Examples of spreading centers include the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the East African Rift. - USGS Earthquake glossary
SPREP - South Pacific Regional Environment Program (IUCN)
SPRFDP - Second Phase Recreation Fee Demonstration Program
Spring - A surface water body created by the natural emergence of ground water to the Earth's surface.
Spring turnover - Period of complete or nearly complete vertical mixing in the spring after ice-out and prior to thermal stratification. - Shoreland Mgmt. Glossary
SPRPMA - South Platte River Protection Management Area
SPS - Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (WTO)
SPS - Strategic Planning Session
SPWG - Strategic Planning Work Group
SQ - Status Quo
SQEDs - Squirrel excluder devices. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf
SQI - Soil Quality Improvement
SQL - Structured Query Language
SQPI - Systems for Quantified Planning Inquiry
Squalor - State of extreme poverty. - UNEP Children's Glossary
SR - Sagebrush Rebellion
SR - Secondary Rights
SR - Senior Recreation
SR- Slope Restriction
SR - Socialist Revolution
SR - Speculative Resources
SR - State Route
SR - Storage Reservoir
SR - Sub-economic Resources
SR - Subsidized Rates
SR - Surface Roughening
SR - Symbiotic Relationship
SRA - Safe Resting Area (wildfowl)
SRC - Senior Recreation Centers
SRD - Survey Research Data
SREL - Savannah River Ecology Laboratory http://www.uga.edu/srel/
SRES - The Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (UN/IPCC)
SREP - Siskiyou Regional Education Project
SRF - Salmon Restoration Foundation
SRF - Shared Roadway Facility
SRF - State Revolving Fund
SRLHL - State Rural Leasehold Land - Australia
SRM - Seasonal Residue Management
SRM - Society for Range Management
SRMA - Scenic Resource Management Area
SRMA - Special Recreation Management Area (DOI/BLM)
SRMA - Special Recreation Management Areas
SRMP - Stormwater Runoff Management Plan
SRP - Self-Restricting Policy
SRR - Site Readiness Review (DOI)
SRS - Statistical Reporting Service
SRTG - State Regional Trade Groups
SRTM - Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (USGS)
SRII- Sagebrush Rebellion II
SS - Safe Schools
SS - Sagebrush Steppe
SS - Sea Shepherd
SS - Settled Science (Kyoto Protocol)
SS - Shell Shock
SS- Sky Shield
SS - Slide Show
SS - Social Services
SS- Social Stresses
SS - Social Studies
SS- Spoil Spreading
SS- Solar Sunscreen
SS- Spraying Squadron (based in Youngstown, OH)
SS - State Statute
SS- State Subsidies
SS- Successional Species
SS - Support Structure
SS- Surviving Spouse
SS - Sustainable Sources
SSA - Sewer Service Agency
SSA - Social Security Administration
SSA - Sole Source Aquifer
SSAL - Southern Area Sea Angling League
SSBG - Social Services Block Grant
SSC - Sacramento Safari Club (a hunting group)
SSC - Species Survival Commission (UN/IUCN) http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc
SSC - Stream Segment of Concern
SSCS - Sea Shepherd Conservation Society
SSD - Statewide Stormwater Database
SSD - Subsurface Drain
SSE - Service Sector Employment
SSE - Small-Scale (industrial) Enterprise
SSF - State Strategies Fund
SSF - Synthetic Silk Fiber
SSG - special safeguard (provisions)
SSHIA - Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Inventory and Assessment
SSI - Safe Schools Initiative
SSI - Sound Science Initiative (Union of Concerned Scientists) BEWARE the deception!
SSI - Synthesizing Scientific Information
SSIS - Statewide Student Identifier System (Ohio - Sets up an identification number for all 1.8 million students in public schools. Those in private schools would not be part of the system. - In effect 4-30-2002)
SSL - Secure Socket Layer
SSL - Steep Slopes Legislation
SSL - Sustainable St. Louis
SSM - Single Species Management
SSNR - Subsurface Natural Resources
SSP - Sky Shield Patent (Hughes Aircraft Corporation)
SSP - Streambank and Shoreline Protection
SSP - Sunlight Scattering Particles
SSPI - State Supervisor of Public Instruction
SSRC - Social Science Research Council
SSS - Seeking of Sound Solutions
SSS - Special Status Species - DOI/NPS/BLM
SSS - Survey Study Site
SSSA - Soil Science Society of America
SSSR - Standard, Self-sufficiency Ratios
SSSRA - Salton Sea State Recreation Area (California)
SST - Scrub-Shrub Thicket (USFWS - DOI)
SSW - State Scenic Waterway
ST - Sediment Toxicity
ST - Social Tolerance
ST - Statistical Table(s)
ST - Student Transitions
ST - Subsidence Treatment
ST - Systematic Thinking
ST - Systems Theory
ST - Systems Thinking
STA - Short-term Arrangement
Stability - A function of several characteristics of community or ecosystem dynamics, including the degree of population fluctuations, the community's resistance to disturbances, the speed of recovery from disturbances, and the persistence of the community's composition through time. - UNDP/WRI
Stabilization - To reestablish the structural equilibrium of an historic building or structure, or, to arrest further deterioration to an historic property or site, generally. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Stable - The condition of little or no perceived change in plant communities that are in relative equilibrium with existing environmental conditions; describes persistent but not necessarily culminated stages (climax) in plant succession. Implies a high degree of resilience to minor perturbations. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho
Stable population - A population that exhibits neither an increasing or decreasing population trend. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf
Stage - The height of a water surface above an established datum plane; also gage height. - USGS
Stage-capacity curve - A graph showing the relation between the surface elevation of the water in a reservoir, usually plotted as ordinate, against the volume below that elevation, plotted as abscissa. - USGS
Stage-discharge curve (rating curve) - A graph showing the relation between the gage height, usually plotted as ordinate, and the amount of water flowing in a channel, expressed as volume per unit of time, plotted as abscissa. - USGS
Stage-discharge relation - The relation expressed by the stage-discharge curve. - USGS
Stage, flood - See Flood stage. - USGS
STAGES - Swine Testing And Genetic Evaluation System
Stake - Something that stands to be gained or lost.
Stakeholder - An individual or group with an interest in the success of an organization in delivering intended results and maintaining the viability of the organization's products and services. Stakeholders influence programs, products, and services. Examples include congressional members and staff of relevant appropriations, authorizing, and oversight committees; representatives of central management and oversight entities such as OMB (Office of Management and Budget) and GAO (General Accounting Office); and representatives of key interest groups, including those groups that represent the organization's customers and interested members of the public. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm
Stakeholder - An organization or individual that is concerned with or has an interest in water resources and that would be affected by decisions about water resources management. (FAO-UN)
Stakeholders - People or organizations having a personal or enterprise interest in the results of a project, who may or may not be involved in completing the actual work on that project. - EvergladesPlan glossary
Stakeholder(s) - The holder(s) of the stakes in a wager. Major stakeholders (or partners) are defined as those who stand to gain the MOST in an economic change. Minor stakeholders are defined as those who stand to LOSE the most in an economic change.
Stakeholder Guidelines - Companies may consider standards proposed by international, regional or local stakeholder groups. Several human rights organizations have engaged in dialogue with companies in recent years, and the output of some of these conversations has been proposed standards for business. A global example is Amnesty International's Human Rights Principles for Companies. Amnesty's ten Principles are based on international standards and are designed "to assist companies in developing their role in situations of human rights violations or the potential for such violations." Human Rights Watch and Global Witness, amongst others, have developed country specific recommendations for oil companies operating in Nigeria and Angola, respectively, and a coalition of US-based companies and NGOs, led by the International Labor Rights Fund and Global Exchange, have established draft principles for companies operating in China.
Stanchion - An upright bar, beam, post, or support, as in a window, stall, or compartment. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
STAND - Seeking Truth And New Dimensions
Stand - A community or group of trees or other vegetation uniform in composition, constitution, spatial arrangement, or condition that occupies a specific area and is similar in species, age, and condition, to be distinguishable from other adjacent communities.
Stand attributes - The components of a forest stand. - Biodiversity Guidebook Glossary
Stand conversion - The conversion of a noncommercial stand of timber to a commercial stand. - Bioenergy Glossary
Stand Density - An expression of the number and size of trees on a forest site. May be expressed in terms of numbers of trees per acre, basal area, stand density index, or relative density index. (BLM)
Stand Initiating Events - Events that occur when natural disturbances such as wildfire, wind, landslides and avalanches significantly alter an ecosystem. In most cases there is considerable mortality of plant species, some degree of site disturbance and the initiation of successional processes that will form a new plant community with a different structure and likely a different composition than its predecessor.
Stand level - The level of forest management at which a relatively homogeneous land unit can be managed under a single prescription, or set of treatments, to meet well-defined objectives. - Biodiversity Guidebook Glossary
Stand-maintaining events - The fairly frequent occurrence of wildfires, either as surface or surface and crown fires, which serve to maintain an ecosystem at a particular successional stage. This may result in a "fire climax," such as is found in the Ponderosa pine or interior Douglas-fir types, or in a coastal forest of mid-seral tree species in relatively even-aged stands. - Biodiversity Guidebook Glossary
Stand Replacing Fire - A fire that consumes an entire stand of trees. These fires are generally quite hot and can burn hundreds of acres.
Standard - A description of the physical and biological conditions or degree of function required for healthy, sustainable lands (e.g., land health standards). - DOI/BLM
Standard Classifications - Those classifications that follow prescribed rules and are generally recommended and accepted. The aim is to ensure that the information is classified consistently regardless of the collection, source, point of time etc. (UN)
Standard of living - The level of well-being (of an individual, group or the population of a country) as measured by the level of income (for example, GNP per capita) or by the quantity of various goods and services consumed (for example, the number of cars per 1,000 people or the number of television sets per capita). See also quality of life. - WB
Standards and Guidelines - Requirements found in a Forest Plan which impose limits on natural resource management activities, generally for environmental protection.
Standards and guidelines - Bounds or constraints within which all practices in a given area will be carried out, in achieving the goals and objectives for that area. Standards and guidelines provide environmental safeguards and also describe constraints prescribed by law. - Bioenergy Glossary
Standing - Because Federal Courts only have Constitutional authority to resolve actual disputes (see Case or Controversy) legal actions cannot be brought simply on the ground that an individual or group is displeased with a government action or law. Only those with enough direct stake in an action or law have "standing" to challenge it. A decision that a party does not have sufficient stake to sue will commonly be put in terms of the party's lacking "standing". For Supreme Court decisions focusing on the "standing" issue, see, e.g., County of Riverside v. McLaughlin, 500 U.S. 44 (1991), Northeastern Fla. Chapter of the Associated Gen. Contractors v. City of Jacksonville, 508 U.S. 656 (1993) and Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife, 504 U.S. 555 (1992). - Supreme Court glossary
Staple - A commodity that is widely and regularly produced and consumed (i.e., wheat, rice, and potatoes). A term used to designate the length of fiber in cotton and wool.
STAR - Science To Achieve Results program (EPA)
Star Chamber or Star Chamber Court - Star Chamber, named after the star-spangled ceiling of the room where it met in the old palace of Westminster, was effectively the judicial arm of the King's Council. It became a separate court of law after 1485, but was abolished in 1641. Its judges were normally privy councilors and the judges of the common law courts: they were responsible for administering justice directly and supervising other courts. Its business expanded significantly under the Tudors; in the 1530s Star Chamber dealt with about 150 cases a year but by 1600, over 700. Many Star Chamber cases, which frequently allege public disorder, riot, forcible entry and assault, were really private disputes about property rights. The court also investigated corruption in administration by officials and in the administration of justice, including corruption of juries, municipal and trade disputes, fraud, and disputes over the enclosure of land.
STARS - CSG's (The Council of State Governments) State Archives and Research Service
STARS - State Archives and Research Service. STARS is available on a subscription basis to the public and private sector companies and organizations. An annual subscription to STARS is $300. A CSG Associate member annual subscription is $150. http://www.csg.org/CSG/Products/state+archive+and+research+service/default.htm
START - System for Analysis, Research and Training
Start - An incomplete cavity. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf
State - A political entity.
State - Often synonymous with "country"; a group of people permanently occupying a fixed territory having common laws and government and capable of conducting international affairs. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary 2. Any of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. - ESA
State agency - Any State agency, department, board, commission, or other governmental entity, which is responsible for the management and conservation of fish, plant, or wildlife resources within a State. - ESA
State Agricultural Development Committee (SADC) - A committee established pursuant to the Farmland Retention and Development Act to aid in the coordination of State policies which affect the agricultural industry and to promote the interests of productive agriculture and farmland retention.
State Agricultural Experiment Stations (SAES) - The Hatch Act of 1887 established an agricultural experiment station to be affiliated with the land grant college of agriculture in each state. Research done at these stations underpins the curriculum of the colleges, as well as the programs of the Cooperative Extension System.
State, County, and Municipal Land - Land owned by States, counties, and local public agencies or municipalities or land leased to these governmental units for 50 years or more. - USDA/FS
State of conservation - State of conservation reports for natural and cultural properties included in the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger are examined by the World Heritage Committee and its Bureau. State of Conservation reports are prepared by the advisory bodies IUCN and ICOMOS, the World Heritage Centre and States Parties as part of the system of monitoring of World Heritage properties. See Monitoring, Reactive monitoring, Systematic monitoring and reporting - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
State Director Review (SDR) - An appeal of the DR\FONSI, CE, or other agency action to the state director of the BLM. - Bioenergy Glossary
State and Private Forestry - A branch of the Forest Service providing technical and financial assistance to states and to private landowners for forest management and for forest health.
State Highway System - The following, which shall be facilities to which access is regulated: (a) The interstate system; (b) All rural arterial routes and their extensions into the through urban areas; (c) All urban principal arterial routes; and (d) The urban minor arterial mileage on the existing State Highway System as of July 1, 1987, plus additional mileage to comply with the two percent requirement. NPS - DOI
State Implementation Plan (SIP) - A state document, required by the Clean Air Act. It describes a comprehensive plan of action for achieving specified air quality objectives and standards for a particular locality or region within a specified time, as enforced by the state and approved by the Environmental Protection Agency. (BLM)
State Inspection Programs - Often refers to the state-run meat and poultry inspection programs to which USDA contributes 50% of the cost. State programs (about half the states use them) must be certified by USDA to be at least equal to federal inspection requirements. However, products from state-inspected plants (most of them are relatively smaller operations) cannot be sold outside of the state. Small plants and many state officials have endorsed bills in Congress that would permit state-inspected products to be sold into interstate and foreign commerce, but large meat and poultry companies (most of them already under federal inspection) generally oppose such a change.
State Listed Species - Plant or animal species listed by the State as threatened or endangered. (BLM)
State Open Space and Outdoor Recreation Plan - The State's Open Space and Outdoor Recreation Plan that serves as the State's functional plan for recreation and public open space.
State Plan or The Plan - The State Development and Redevelopment Plan prepared and adopted pursuant to the State Planning Act. A long-range vision of how growth should occur throughout a state, with defined goals and implementation processes that, optimally, must be reflected in communities' comprehensive plans.
State Planning Rule or The Rule - An administrative rule promulgated pursuant to the State Planning Act, to establish an orderly and efficient process for the preparation, adoption and implementation of the State Plan.
State Rural Development Block Grant - Under provisions of the Rural Community Advancement Program (RCAP), each state may receive, for direct administration, up to 10% of the funds allocated to the state. These funds may be used to establish a state administered block grant. The first 5% of the state block grant allocated does not require the community to make a matching fund contribution. A state may receive the additional 5% if it provides $2 in matching funds for every $1 in RCAP funds it would receive.
State Rural Development Councils - A collaborative partnership comprised of representatives of the federal, state, local, and tribal governments, the private sector, and the nonprofit sector. Councils are created by a memorandum of understanding between USDA and the state Governor. The councils' purpose is to promote rural development within the state.
State Section 305(b) Reports - Water quality reports submitted every 2 years by each State to EPA that indicate the status of water quality within the state; EPA submits a report to Congress based on these state reports. - USDA/FS
State Technical Committee - Advisory groups to state conservationists (coordinators of all Natural Resource Conservation Service activities within a state) created in the FACT Act of 1990 and amended in the FAIR Act of 1996. These groups can include representatives from agencies, agriculture, agribusiness, and non-profits, as well as individuals with a demonstrated expertise. Responsibilities assigned by the FAIR Act include establishing procedures for evaluating petitions on new conservation practices and identifying priority areas for the Environmental Quality Incentive Program and Wetland Reserve Program.
State transportation improvement program (STIP) - A staged, multiyear, statewide, intermodal program of transportation projects which is consistent with the statewide transportation plan and planning processes and metropolitan plans, TIP's, and processes. 23 CFR § 450.104.
State Water Project (SWP) - The water transportation system in California owned and operated by the State, reaching from northern Lake Oroville to Perris Lake in Southern California. - Bureau Of Reclamation -- BOR Water Acquisition Glossary
Statement 34 (also known as GASB -- The Governmental Accounting Standards Board -- Statement 34) - Statement 34 is also known as the "financial reporting model." It describes significant changes in the content and format for the annual financial report. GASB is the private, nonpartisan, nonprofit organization that works to create and improve the rules U.S. state and local governments follow when accounting for their finances and reporting them to the public. While the GASB does not have the power to enforce compliance with the standards it promulgates, the authority for its standards is recognized under the Rules of Conduct of the AICPA. Also, legislation in many states requires compliance with GASB standards, and governments usually are expected to prepare financial statements in accordance with those standards when they issue bonds or notes or otherwise borrow from public credit markets. GASB is the primary authority for accounting rules for governments. The GASB's statements make up the "Generally Accepted Accounting Principles" (GAAP) for state and local government. GASB is a part of the organization that includes the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) that creates the accounting rules for business. More information is available at www.gasb.org. Governments with revenues between $10 million and $100 million must prepare the new financial statements for all fiscal years ending after June 15, 2003; for most, this means beginning July 1, 2002.
States Party(ies) - Those countries that have Ratified a Covenant or a Convention and are thereby bound to conform to its provisions. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary
States Parties - States Parties are those Member States of UNESCO who have ratified, accepted or acceded to the World Heritage Convention. There were 146 States Parties to the Convention as of 19 March 1996 (UNESCO 19 March 1996). - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan (SCORP) - A plan prepared by the state, which describes and analyzes the organization and function of the outdoor recreation system of the state. The plan provides an analysis of the roles and responsibilities of major outdoor recreation suppliers; an analysis of demand, supply and needs; issue discussions; an action program to address the issues; and a project selection process. (BLM)
Station - An enlargement of a shaft made for the storage and handling of equipment and for driving drifts at that elevation.
Statistical Classification - Refers to a classification constructed for the collection and presentation of numerical facts systematically collected (i.e. statistics). The usefulness of a statistical classification is enhanced if based on or representing a standard classification. (UN)
Status of UN Treaties - The status of multilateral treaties for which the Secretary-General functions as depositary can be researched in printed format or via the Internet. The printed publication, entitled Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary-General, gives the status as at 31 December of a given year. In addition to ratification information, it also reprints the declarations, reservations and objections which States Parties have lodged with respect to certain instruments. The Internet version of the printed publication provides the same information with the advantage of being more up-to-date.
Status review - A status review is a review of all the available information on a species or subspecies to determine if it should be protected under the Endangered Species Act. A status review must be initiated for a species or subspecies when there is a positive 90-day finding that the petition requesting federal protection contains enough information to require a review. - DOI/USFWS
Statutory - Legal.
Statutory Authority - The legal authority for an action or plan.
STB - Surface Transportation Board http://www.stb.dot.gov/
STC - Schools To Careers
STC - Shade Tree Commission
STC - State Technical Committee
STCW - The International Maritime Organization's International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (1978) (United Nations)
STCW 78/95 - The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978, amended, 1995 (UN)
STE - Sales Tax Exemptions
Stemflow - Rainfall or snowmelt led to the ground down the trunks or stems of plants. (Hoover, 1953, p. 1). - USGS
STEP - Save The Earth's People
Step-out Drilling - Holes drilled to intersect a mineralization horizon or structure along strike or down dip.
Sterile - Non-fertile; structure lacking reproductive parts or abilities. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)
Stewardship - The management of a property, site, or historic resource. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Stewardship - Caring for the land and its resources to pass healthy ecosystems to future generations. 2.The concept of adopting a caretaker role to the environment. (UNESCO)
Stewardship Incentives Program (SIP) - A program administered by the Forest Service through the Farm Service Agency that provides up to 75% cost sharing for practices implementing approved renewable resource plans. Payments are limited to $10,000 annually per landowner, and practices must be maintained for 10 years. Through FY1993, practices had been implemented on more than 670,000 acres by more than 7,000 landowners.
Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act - P.L. 100- 77 (July 22, 1987). Enacted in response to concerns about increasing hunger, homelessness, and unemployment, this Act provided federal funding to support housing, food assistance, and job training.
STF - Stakeholder Task Force
STFB - Slow Trigger, Fast Bullet
STI - Spokane Tribe of Indians
Stile - A vertical member in a wainscot, window, paneled door, or other piece of framing; paired with rail. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Stirrup - A shaped piece of reinforcing steel designed to tie two (top and bottom) horizontal rows of reinforcing. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
STIP - State Transportation Improvement Program
STIWMP - Spokane Tribe of Indians Wildlife Management Plan
STMA - Sports Turf Managers Association
STOA - Scientific and Technical Options Assessment program (Australia)
Stochasticity - Random events. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf
Stock (Fish) - A group of fish that is genetically self-sustaining and isolated geographically or temporally during reproduction. Generally, stock refers to a local population of fish. More specifically, stock refers to a local population, especially of salmon, steelhead, or other anadromous fish, that originates from specific watersheds as juveniles and generally returns to its birth streams to spawn as adults. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Stock Exchange - An organized market concerned with the buying and selling of common and preferred shares and warrants by stock brokers who own seats on the exchange and meet membership requirements.
Stock market - The system of buying and selling stocks and shares in public companies. - UNEP Children's Glossary
The Stock Raising Homestead Act of 1916 - Authorized mineral location and claims on homestead claims.
The Stock Raising Homestead Act of 1916 - This Act separated the mineral rights from the surface rights for new public land homesteads and retained them for the government. Any future miners were prohibited from injuring, damaging or destroying the surface owner's permanent improvements and were required to pay for damage to crops caused by prospecting.
Stock Raising Homestead Lands - Lands patented under the Stock Raising Homestead Act of December 29, 1916. These lands were not considered suitable for cultivation but were considered suitable for stock grazing. All minerals on these lands were retained by the United States. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Stocker Cattle - Calves or older animals maintained, often on pasture or rangeland, to increase weight and maturity before being placed in a feedlot.
Stocking - The act of placing livestock on rangeland or fish in aquatic habitats. The degree to which trees occupy the land, measured by basal area and/or number of trees by size and spacing, compared with a stocking standard; that is, the basal area and/or number of trees required to fully utilize the land's growth potential.
Stocking Level - The number of trees in an area as compared to the desirable number of trees for best results, such as maximum wood production.
Stocking Rate - The number of specific kinds and classes of livestock grazing or using a unit of land for a specified time. Not the same as carrying capacity.
Stockpile - Broken ore heaped on a surface, pending treatment or shipment.
Stoichiometric condition - That condition at which the proportion of the air-to-fuel is such that all combustible products will be completely burned with no oxygen remaining in the combustion air. - Bioenergy Glossary
STOP - Stop Taking Our Property
Stop-loss Order - An arrangement whereby a client gives his broker instructions to sell a stock if and when it drops to a specified figure on the market.
Stope - An excavation in a mine from which ore is being or has been extracted.
Stone line - A concentration of coarse fragments in a soil. Generally, it is indicative of an old weathered surface. In a cross section, the line may be one fragment or more thick. It generally overlies material that weathered in place and is overlain by recent sediment of variable thickness. - USDA
Stony - Refers to a soil containing stones in numbers that interfere with or prevent tillage. - USDA
Storage - 1. Water artificially impounded in surface or underground reservoirs, for future use. The term regulation refers to the action of this storage in modifying streamflow. See also Conservation storage, Total storage, Dead storage, and Usable storage. 2. Water naturally detained in a drainage basin, such as ground water, channel storage, and depression storage. The term "drainage basin storage" or simply "basin storage" is sometimes used to refer collectively to the amount of water in natural storage in a drainage basin. - USGS
Storage, bank - See Bank storage. - USGS
Storage, conservation - See Conservation storage. - USGS
Storage, dead - See Dead storage. - USGS
Storage, depression - See Depression storage. - USGS
Storage ratio - The net available storage divided by the mean flow for 1 year. (Hazen, 1930, p. 1446.) (See also Thomas and Harbeck, 1956, p. 14.) - USGS
Storage-required frequency curve - A graph showing the frequency with which storage equal to or greater than selected amounts will be required to maintain selected rates of regulated flow. - USGS
Storage, total - See Total storage. - USGS
Storage, usable - See Usable Storage. - USGS
Storm - A disturbance of the ordinary average conditions of the atmosphere which, unless specifically qualified, may include any or all meteorological disturbances, such as wind, rain, snow, hail, or thunder. - USGS
Stormflow - See Direct runoff. - USGS
Storm seepage - That part of precipitation which infiltrates the surface soil, and moves toward the streams as ephemeral, shallow, perched ground water above the main ground-water level. Storm seepage is usually part of the direct runoff. - USGS
Stormwater Treatment Area (STA) - A human constructed wetland area to treat urban and agricultural runoff water before it is discharged to the natural areas. - EvergladesPlan glossary
Stormwater Drain - Urban infrastructure of roadside gutters connected to a system of underground pipes that collect run off from roads, parks and people's lawns and roofs and deposits it into a local waterway. This water is not usually treated hence it is important for people to be responsible with toxic chemicals, including paint, they use around their homes so as to prevent these substances from being washed into stormwater drains and ending up polluting the local waterway. (UNESCO)
STP - Save The Planet
STP - Shovel Test Pit
STP - Surface Transportation Program
STR - Special Representative for Trade Negotiations
Stranding - An event in the wild in which a dead marine mammal is on a U.S. beach or shore or in U.S. waters; or an alive marine mammal is on a U.S. beach or shore and either is unable to return to the water or is in need of apparent medical attention, or is in U.S. waters and unable to return to its natural habitat without assistance. - MMPA
Strata - The plural form of stratum, which is a single sedimentary layer or bed, regardless of thickness. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary
Strategic - Military art and science applied on the large scale to the employment of nations, their resources, armies and fleets. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Strategic and Critical Minerals - Minerals which supply military, industrial and essential civilian needs of the United States during a national defense emergency. They are not found nor produced in this country in sufficient quantities to meet such needs. Nickel, cobalt and chromium are examples of such minerals occurring in western Oregon. (BLM-DOI)
The Strategic and Critical Minerals Production Act of 1950 - Authorized government stockpiling of "strategic" minerals, effecting production subsidies for many.
The Strategic and Critical Minerals Production Act (SCMSPA) - In 1950, during the Korean War, Congress passed the Strategic and Critical Minerals Production Act, which was designed to store quantities of materials sufficient to sustain the United States for a period of not less than three years during a national emergency situation (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2000§). Many commodities were purchased under the Act, but the levels in the strategic stockpile of most commodities have been sharply reduced by planned sales in the 1990s.
Strategic farmland - "Strategic farmland" refers to farmland that has been defined both by its importance and by its vulnerability to development. Some of the criteria that can be used to define strategic farmland include: agricultural characteristics or those characteristics that make the land strategic from a food production standpoint; environmental characteristics or those characteristics that make it strategic from the standpoint of protecting environmental quality and amenities valued by the public; and economic characteristics or those characteristics of farmland that are responsible for its contribution to the economy. - USDA
Strategic Grain Reserve - National grain stocks held in reserve intentionally by government programs for the purpose of meeting future domestic and international needs. Strategic Minerals - Minerals essential to the national defense for the supply of which during war we are wholly or partly dependent upon sources outside the continental limits of the United States, and for which strict measures are needed to control conservation and distribution. See Critical Minerals. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
The Strategic Minerals Act of 1939 - Under this Act, the Bureau of Mines and the Geological Survey commenced a search for new and marginal sources of supply for seven strategic metals: antimony, chromium, manganese, mercury, nickel, tin, and tungsten. The study was expanded through the war years to 39 minerals, exclusive of many common industrial minerals, and reported out a set of minerals on which the U.S. would continue to have foreign dependency, including: chromite, ferro-grade manganese, nickel, platinum, tin, industrial diamonds, quartz crystal, and asbestos (U.S. Bureau of Mines and U.S. Geological Survey, 1948).
Strategic Plan (BLM Strategic Plan) - A plan that establishes the overall direction for the BLM. This plan is guided by the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993, covers a 5-year period, and is updated every 3 years. It is consistent with FLPMA and other laws affecting the public lands. - BLM
Strategic Plan - A plan describing what a park staff hopes to achieve within the next six years. These plans, required by the Government Performance and Results Act, should include measurable results-oriented goals that the park staff can use to prioritize work and measure progress. (DOI/NPS)
Strategic recruitment - Placement of recruitment clusters in locations strategically chosen to enhance the spatial arrangement of breeding groups. Breeding groups aggregated in space -- rather than isolated -- are beneficial to population dynamics and viability. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf
Strategic Revitalization Plan - A plan by a neighborhood, municipality, group of municipalities or an Urban Complex that identifies key issues, both physical and social, assesses capabilities and allocates resources, leading to a program of realistic actions. It should demonstrate a coordinated approach to revitalization to ensure the most effective utilization of State, county, municipal and private resources. A Strategic Revitalization Plan should be consistent with the Goals, Strategies and Policy Objectives of the State Plan.
Strategic Straits - Strategic straits include the Dover Strait, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The Sound (Oresund), and Windward Passage; north Atlantic shipping lanes subject to icebergs from February to August; the Equator divides the Atlantic Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean. - CIA
Strategy - A set of chosen short-, medium- and long-term actions to support the achievement of development goals and to implement water-related policies. (FAO-UN)
Strategy - Specific management instructions to achieve an objective; should be measurable where possible.
Stratification, Lake - In a lake the presence of two or more horizontal layers of water of differing characteristics, such as density. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Stratified - A formation having banded layers, or beds.
Stratified - Arranged in strata, or layers. The term refers to geologic material. Layers in soils that result from the processes of soil formation are called horizons; those inherited from the parent material are called strata. - USDA
Stratigraphy - Strictly, the description of bedded rock sequences; used loosely, the sequence of bedded rocks in a particular area.
Stratigraphy - The branch of geology which treats the formation, composition, sequence, and correlation of stratified rocks as part of the Earth's crust. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary
Stratum - A single sedimentary bed or layer, regardless of thickness. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary
Streak - A physical characteristic of minerals determined by scratching a sample of the mineral on a piece of unglazed porcelain.
Stream - A natural water course; an ephemeral stream flows briefly only in direct response to precipitation; an intermittent or seasonal stream is one that is on or in contact with the groundwater table and that flows only at certain times of the year when the groundwater table is high; a perennial stream flows continuously throughout the year. - Everglades Plan glossary
Stream - A general term for a body of flowing water. In hydrology the term is generally applied to the water flowing in a natural channel as distinct from a canal. More generally as in the term stream gaging, it is applied to the water flowing in any channel, natural or artificial. Streams in natural channels may be classified as follows (after Meinzer, 1923, p. 5658): Relation to time. Perennial. One which flows continuously. Intermittent or seasonal. One which flows only at certain times of the year when it receives water from springs or from some surface source such as melting snow in mountainous areas. Ephemeral. One that flows only in direct response to precipitation, and whose channel is at all times above the water table. Relation to space. Continuous. One that does not have interruptions in space. Interrupted. One which contains alternating reaches, that are either perennial, intermittent, or ephemeral. Relation to ground water. Gaining. A stream or reach of a stream that receives water from the zone of saturation. Losing. A stream or reach of a stream that contributes water to the zone of saturation. Insulated. A stream or reach of a stream that neither contributes water to the zone of saturation nor receives water from it. It is separated from the zones of saturation by an impermeable bed. Perched. A perched stream is either a losing stream or an insulated stream that is separated from the underlying ground water by a zone of aeration. - USGS 2. A flow of water in a channel or bed, as a brook, rivulet, or small river. - National Resources Inventory
Stream Buffer - An area of undisturbed vegetation, (except in the case of agricultural areas utilizing Acceptable Management Practices) maintained along the bank of any surface water body to protect stream corridors from impacts of development.
Stream Class - A system of stream classification established in the Oregon Forest Practices Act. Class I streams are those which are significant for: 1) domestic use, 2) angling, 3) water dependent recreation, and 4) spawning, rearing or migration of anadromous or game fish. All other streams are Class II. Class II special protection streams (Class II SP) are Class II streams which have a significant summertime cooling influence on downstream Class I waters which are at or near a temperature at which production of anadromous or game fish is limited. Revised Forest Practices Act may produce a new system in the future. (BLM)
Stream Corridor - Any river, stream, pond, lake, or wetland, together with adjacent upland areas, including the 100-year flood plain and areas that support protective bands of vegetation that line the waters' edge.
Stream Energy - The potential of flowing water, at a given time and place, to detach and transport solid particles.
Stream gaging - The process and art of measuring the depths, areas, velocities, and rates of flow in natural or artificial channels. (see Corbett and others, 1943.) - USGS
Stream-gaging station - A gaging station where a record of discharge of a stream is obtained. Within the Geological Survey this term is used only for those gaging stations where a continuous record of discharge is obtained. - USGS
Stream Operation and Maintenance - Maintenance practices along canoeable streams will ensure passage during the canoeing season. Log jams and individual trees will be removed as necessary for safe and unrestricted travel. Maintenance will be planned in conjunction with integrated resource management planning and will incorporate guidelines found in Department of Natural Resources (DNR) publication "Stream Management Guide." - USDA Forest Service
Stream Order - It is often convenient to classify streams within a drainage basin by systematically defining the network of branches. Each non-branching channel segment (smallest size) is designated a first-order stream. A stream which receives only first-order segments is termed a second-order stream, and so on. The order of a particular drainage basin is determined by the order of the principle or largest segment.
Stream order - A method of numbering streams as part of a drainage basin network. The smallest unbranched mapped tributary is called first order, the stream receiving the tributary is called second order, and so on. It is usually necessary to specify the scale of the map used. A first-order stream on a 1:62,500 map, may be a third-order stream on a 1:12,000 map. (After Leopold and Miller, 1956, p. 16.) Tributaries which have no branches are designated as of the first order, streams which receive only first-order tributaries are of the second order, larger branches which receive only first-order and second-order tributaries are designated third order, and so on, the main stream being always of the highest order. (Horton, 1932, p. 356.) - USGS 2. A stream classification system based on the number of tributaries a stream has. The smallest unbranched tributary in a watershed is designated an Order 1 stream. A stream formed by the confluence of two Order 1 streams is designated an Order 2 stream. A stream formed by the confluence of two Order 2 streams is designated an Order 3 stream, and so on. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Stream Reach - A segment of a stream. - USDA/FS
Stream Reach - An individual first order stream or a segment of another stream that has beginning and ending points at a stream confluence. Reach end points are normally designated where a tributary confluence changes the channel character or order. Although reaches identified are variable in length, they normally have a range of 1/2 to 1-1/2 miles in length unless channel character, confluence distribution, or management considerations require variance. (BLM)
Stream riparian frequency - A measure of how many streamside riparian areas are in this Natural Disturbance Type relative to other NDTs. - Biodiversity Guidebook Glossary
Stream Segment of Concern - Designation of streams identified for special emphasis as part of the State Anti-degradation Policy. Local working committees are charged with development of site-specific Best Management Practices for the stream and associated watershed.
Streambed Particle Size Distribution - A graphical representative of the size and class composition of the streambed at a cross section of a stream reach. The composition is determined by statistically valid sampling of the particles comprising the streambed in the cross section. It is not based on the area covered by the individual particles.
Streamflow - The discharge that occurs in a natural channel. Although the term discharge can be applied to the flow of a canal, the word streamflow uniquely describes the discharge in a surface stream course. The term "streamflow" is more general than runoff, as streamflow may be applied to discharge whether or not it is affected by diversion or regulation. - USGS
Streamflow depletion - The amount of water that flows into a valley, or onto a particular land area, minus the water that flows out the valley or off from the particular land area. (Blaney, 1951a, p. 4.) - USGS
Streams and lakes restored or enhanced for fish habitat (miles/acres) - This measures miles of rivers and streams and acres of lakes (fish bearing) that were restored or enhanced using structural or nonstructural improvements accomplished with appropriated funds. Examples of stream or river improvements include the placement of large woody debris and the placement of boulders to provide spawning habitat. Examples of lake improvements might include construction of an aerator or liming to counteract high pH levels. - FS
Streamside Management Zone (SMZ) - A designated area that consists of the stream itself and an adjacent area of varying width where management practices that might affect water quality, fish, or other aquatic resources are modified. The SMZ acts as a filter and absorption zone for sediments, maintains shade, protects riparian and terrestrial riparian habitat; protects channels and stream banks, and promotes floodplain stability. - USDA/FS
Street Certificate - A certificate representing ownership in a specified number of shares that is registered in the name of some previous owner who has endorsed the certificate so that it may be transferred to a new owner without referral to transfer agent.
Street Hierarchy - The system by which roads are classified according to their purpose and the travel demand they serve, beginning with local streets at the bottom of the hierarchy.
Streetscape - The combination of physical features that make up a road and the combination of surrounding buildings and open space that overlook and are visually linked to a road or street when viewed from the street itself. (UN)
Stressor - Pressure or change brought upon an ecosystem by pollution sources such as contaminants and toxins. - USDA/FS
"Stretch" Goal - A goal that requires a significant change in the performance (quality, quantity, time, cost) of a process. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm
Striations - Prominent scratches left on bedrock by advancing glaciers.
Strike - The direction, or bearing, from true north of a vein or rock formation measured on a horizontal surface.
Stringer - A narrow vein or irregular filament of mineral traversing a rock mass. A strip of vegetation different from surrounding vegetation, such as a stringer of aspen in an area of spruce.
Strip - To remove the overburden or waste rock overlying an orebody in preparation for mining by open pit methods.
Strip Mine - An open pit mine, usually a coal mine, mined by removing overburden, excavating the coal seam, then returning the overburden.
Strip Mining - A form of surface mining in which relatively shallow overburden is stripped off the surface and the ore extracted. Usually designed for shallow, tabular deposits that are longer than they are wide, strip mines typically are located in areas of rugged topography where the deposit is interbedded between uneconomic rock units. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Strip Tillage - Planting and tillage operations that are limited to a strip not to exceed one-third of the distance between rows; the area between is left untilled with a protective cover of crop residue on the surface for erosion control.
Stripcropping - Growing crops in a systematic arrangement of strips or bands, usually parallel to the land's contours, that serve as barriers to wind and water erosion.
Stripping Ratio - The ratio of tons removed as waste relative to the number of tons of ore removed from an open pit mine.
Stripping Ratio - In open pit mining, the ratio of the total waste removed to the total ore mined. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Structure - Anything constructed, installed, or portable for occupancy, use, or ornamentation on, above, or below the land, either permanently or temporarily.
Structure - A legally authorized building larger than 200 square feet in area, regardless of the number or size of housing units it contains. - DOI
Structure (Stream Channel) - Any object, usually large, in a stream channel that controls water movement. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs. 2. An arrangement of components in a forest. Vertical structural layers include overstory trees, understory trees, snags, shrubs, and herbs. Horizontal structural layers include number and species of trees, spacing of trees, and number and species of shrubs and herbs. Forest structure affects ecological processes and biodiversity. - Bioenergy Glossary
Structural attributes - Components of a forest stand (including living and dead standing trees, canopy architecture, and fallen dead trees) which together determine stand structure. - Biodiversity Guidebook Glossary
Structural Diversity - The diversity of the composition, abundance, spacing, and other attributes of plants in a community.
Structural Diversity (Of a Stream Channel) - Within a stream channel the diversity of objects that control water movement. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Structural Links - Are correspondence links where opportunities for (direct) correspondence between the categories of different classifications are difficult or not possible to establish, owing to significant structural differences in the defined value sets that do not allow for common correspondence at a similar hierarchical level in the structure. In some circumstances, an approximate or truncated correspondence may be made by aggregating subclasses of one classification to different structural levels of the other classification. (UN)
Structure - How the parts of ecosystems are arranged, both horizontally and vertically. Structure might reveal a pattern, or mosaic, or total randomness of vegetation. The general form and type of rock formation.
Structure (tree) - Provides the means for identifying relationships, usually hierarchical, between categories. A hierarchical classification is based on a tree structure where each set of its detailed categories are subsets of categories at the level about the one in which they contained. (UN)
Structure of Agriculture - The set of characteristics dealing with how the farm sector is organized, who controls it, and where it is heading.
STS - Science and Technology Studies
STS - Set the stage
Stubble mulch - Stubble or other crop residue left on the soil or partly worked into the soil. It protects the soil from soil blowing and water erosion after harvest, during preparation of a seedbed for the next crop. and during the early growing period of the new crop. - USDA
Stubble-mulching - Leaving the stubble or crop residue essentially in place on the land as a surface cover during a fallow period. Stubble-mulching can prevent erosion from wind or water and conserve soil moisture.
Study Area - A geographic area selected and defined at the outset of engineering or environmental evaluations, which is sufficiently adequate in size to address all pertinent project matters occurring within it. (Author's note: Should defined boundaries be part of a Study Area, and each of the Alternatives?)
Study (or Project) Limits - The physical end points of a proposed project or study usually designated at geographic or municipal boundaries, at intersections, at roadway segments where cross sections change, or at the beginning or end of numbered state traffic routes.
Stumpage Price (or stumpage rate) - The agreed-upon price, usually in dollars per thousand board feet (MBF), between a private timber purchaser and the federal agency for the right to cut and remove trees and/or logs from the federal lands.
Stumpage Price - The price paid by a logger to a landowner for standing timber. - USDA/FS
STURAA - Surface Transportation and Uniform Relocation Act
STW - Schools-to-Work
S20TESM - Signup 20 Threatened and Endangered Species Matrix (NRCD, USDA)
SU - Single Use
SU - Sufficiently Unique
Subalpine - Region lying below the alpine. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)
Sub-bituminous - A black coal, intermediate between lignite and bituminous.
Sublevel - A level or working horizon in a mine between main working levels.
Subdivision - The division of a lot, tract, or parcel of land into two or more lots, tracts, parcels or other divisions of land for sale or development. 2. Refers to a breakdown of a division in a hierarchical classification. Two or more subdivisions form a division. (UN)
Subdivision - A tract of land divided by means of a map into lots or lots and blocks for the purpose of resale, generally for residential or agricultural purposes. - Cadastral Data glossary
Subdrainage - A land area (basin) bounded by ridges or similar topographic features, encompassing only part of a watershed. - Bioenergy Glossary
Subduction - The process in which one lithospheric plate collides with and is forced down under another plate and drawn back into the Earth's mantle. - USGS Earthquake glossary
Subduction zone - An elongated region along which a plate descends relative to another plate, for example, the descent of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate along the Peru-Chile Trench. - USGS Earthquake glossary
Subgrantee - The entity to which a grantee gives authority for undertaking a specific part of the work for a grantee.
Submeander - Small meander contained with banks of main channel, associated with relatively low discharges. - USGS
Submerged Lands Act - 43 U.S.C. §§ 1301-1315, May 22, 1953, as amended 1986. The Act grants coastal states title to offshore lands within their historic boundaries, generally up to three miles from the coastline, as well as the rights to the natural resources on or within those lands. The federal government relinquishes its claims to the lands and resources, but maintains the right to regulate offshore activities for national defense, international affairs, navigation, and commerce. Congress declared that it is in the public interest that title to and ownership of the lands beneath navigable waters within the boundaries of the respective states, and the natural resources within these lands and waters, be recognized, confirmed, vested in and assigned to the respective states or the persons who were, on June 5, 1950, entitled to the land and resources under state law. The right and power to manage, lease, develop, and use these lands and resources should also be established in the states. § 1311. Exceptions. Exceptions from the confirmation and establishment of states' title, power and rights include: all tracts or parcels of land, together with all accretions, resources or improvements, to which title has been acquired by the U.S. from a state or a person with vested title; all lands which the U.S. holds under state law; lands expressly retained or ceded to the U.S. when the state entered the union; lands acquired by the U.S. by eminent domain proceedings, purchase, cession, gift or otherwise in a proprietary capacity; all lands filled in, built up or otherwise reclaimed by the U.S. for its own use; any rights the U.S. has in lands presently and actually occupied by the U.S. under claim of right; lands beneath navigable waters which are held by the U.S. for the benefit of a tribe, band, or group of Indians or for individual Indians; all structures and improvements constructed by the U.S. in the exercise of its navigational servitude. § 1313. Rights and Powers Retained. The U.S. retains its navigational servitude and its rights in and powers of regulation and control of lands and navigable waters for the constitutional purposes of commerce, navigation, national defense and international affairs, all of which shall be paramount to the proprietary rights of ownership, management, administration, leasing, use, and development of lands and natural resources recognized and vested in the states and others under the Act. In time of war or when necessary for national defense, the U.S. shall have the right of first refusal to purchase natural resources at the prevailing market rate or to acquire land with due process of law and paying just compensation. § 1314. http://ipl.unm.edu/cwl/fedbook/sublands.html
Submergent Vegetation - Aquatic plants that grow only within water and do not break the water's surface. See Emergent Vegetation. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Subordinate - Landscape features that are inferior to, or placed below, another in size, importance, brightness, and so on. Features that are secondary in visual impact or importance. - FS
Subpermit - A written agreement, whereby the permittee grants to an individual or entity a right to possession (i.e., pasturing authorization), no greater than that held by the permittee under the permit. - DOI-BIA Glossary
Subprocess - A collection of related activities and tasks within a process. - Forest Service http://svinet2.fs.fed.us/recreation/permits/final1.htm
Subregional Timber Supply (SRTS) Model - A model developed by Robert C. Abt, North Carolina State University, Durham, NC. The model uses a timber supply framework consistent with the RPA models but tracks inventory and growth trends by individual FIA survey unit or subregion as well as by ownership category (forest industry and nonindustrial private forest). - USDA/FS
Subset - Refers to a secondary or subordinate set whose elements belong to a larger given set. In classifications a group of categories which are defined for a given purpose and can be defined at a given level. In a hierarchical classification, for example, a subset could be those detailed categories below the broad category of the set. Refer also to Partition. (UN)
Subsidies - Money given by governments to keep down prices of vital goods and services. - UNEP Children's Glossary
Subsidence - The lowering of the soil level caused by shrinkage of organic layers. This shrinkage is due to desiccation, consolidation and biological conditions. - Everglades Plan glossary
Subsistence minimum - Another term for poverty line. - WB
Subsistence Resources - Food and other items obtained through hunting, fishing, firewood and other resource gathering, timbering, grazing or agricultural activities undertaken by the Claimant without financial remuneration. - FEMA
Subsidiary Company - A company in which the majority of the shares (a controlling position) is held by another company.
Subsidy - A direct or indirect benefit granted by a government for the production or distribution (including export) of a good or to supplement other services. Generally, subsidies are thought to be production- and trade-distorting, resulting in an inefficient use of resources. Arguably, subsidies may be justified on grounds that they adjust for non-market considerations that are as important as market values. This term also is used to refer to federal reimbursements for meals served through child and elderly nutrition programs.
Subsistence Farm - A low-income farm where the operator is producing primarily for the family's needs rather than for sale.
Subsistence Farming - A level of farming or agriculture that provides a family group, tribe or village with only enough food for everyday survival. There may be some surplus for storing for when the harvest is poor and to use in trade for other essential items not produced by the people themselves in the local area, but there is generally no surplus to sell in exchange for cash. Subsistence farming forms the basis of the livelihood of shifting cultivators, pastoralists and nomads, and other groups of people. (UNESCO)
Subsoil - The B horizon of soils with distinct profiles, or the soil below the plowed soil (or its equivalent of surface soil) in soils with weak profile development. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs. 2. Technically, the B horizon; roughly, the part of the solum below plow depth. - USDA
Subsoiling - Breaking up a compact subsoil by pulling a special chisel through the soil. - USDA
Subspecies - A subdivision of a species; a population or series of populations occupying a discrete range of differing genetically from other subspecies of the same species. - UNDP/WRI
Substrata - Layers of earth or rock lying beneath soil or other layers (strata). - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary
Substrate - The foundation upon which things exist, such as the soil, which is the foundation for plants.
Substrate - A raw, base material (wood substrate to paint); underlying layer. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Substrate - Any object or material upon which an organism grows or to which an organism is attached. (NPS Rare Plant glossary) 2. The mineral or organic material that forms the bed of a stream; the base upon which an organism lives. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Substrate anoxia - Total deprivation of oxygen in the substrate.
Substratum - The part of the soil below the solum. - USDA
Subsurface Drainage - The removal of excess water from the soil profile by means of drain tiles, perforated pipes, or other devices.
Subsurface layer - Any surface soil horizon (A, E, AB, or EB) below the surface layer. - USDA
Subsurface runoff - See Storm seepage. - USGS
Suburban - An area with predominately low-density residential development, detached housing and significant areas of private open space and vegetation. (UN)
Suburban - A way of life characterized by living in an area -- often adjacent to urban development -- that is noted for its low density, single-family neighborhoods with local-serving commercial uses. A full range of urban improvements and land uses is not available; high intensity commercial or business centers are examples of urban development not found in suburban areas.
Suburban Amenity Values (SAV) - (UN)
Suburban Infill - The addition of another house or houses to a site with an existing house or to a vacant site or reserve land surrounded by low-density residential housing. (UN)
SUCCEED - Southeastern University and College Coalition for Engineering Education
Succession - The natural, sequential change associated with plant and animal species in a given area (e.g., grassy field to shrubby field to young forest to mature forest). - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/ 2. The natural progressive replacement of plant communities on a site, which leads to the 'potential natural plant community.' - - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho
Succession - The progressive changes in plant communities toward climax habitat. The natural replacement, in time, of one plant community with another. Conditions of the prior plant community (or successional stage) create conditions that are favorable for the establishment of the next stage.
Succession - The more or less predictable changes in the composition of communities following a natural or human disturbance. For example, after a gap is made in a forest by logging, clearing, fire, or treefall, the initial (or "pioneer") species are often fast-growing and shade-intolerant. These species are eventually replaced by shade-tolerant species that can grown beneath the pioneers. If a community is not further disturbed, the outcome of the successional sequence may be a so-called climax community whose composition is unchanging. In practice, many communities are frequently disturbed and may never reach a climax composition. - UNDP/WRI 2. A naturally occurring, progressive replacement of plant species and vegetation types due to competitive differences and environmental development. - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary
Successional Stage - A stage or recognizable condition of a plant community which occurs during its development from the bare ground to climax habitat. For example, the grass-forb stage of succession precedes the woody shrub stage.
Suction Dredge - A dredge in which material is lifted by being pumped through a suction pipe. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Suction spotting - Inconsistent absorption by a porous substrate caused by inconsistent surface preparation; volatile solvents evaporate at different rates. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
SUEDE - Solar Utilization for Economic Development and Employment
SUI - the IUCN Sustainable Use Initiative, an interdisciplinary initiative founded in 1995 to enhance and share knowledge of the social and biological factors affecting the sustainable use of wild renewable resources. SUI's mission was to conserve biological diversity and benefit people by: Improving the understanding of the social and biological factors that enhance the sustainability of uses of wild living resources; Promoting that understanding to IUCN's members, decision-makers, and others; and Assisting IUCN members, partner organisations, and governments in the application of that understanding. The SUI was composed of three parts: An Advisory Group, the Sustainable Use Specialist Group, and an IUCN Secretariat (the Global Support Team), that focussed on providing technical and financial support to regional SUSG networks, and enhancing communication of information about sustainable use to, from and between regional networks of the SUSG. The Secretariat also supported the functioning of the Advisory Group, coordinated the communication of lessons learned to wider audiences, and sought to incorporate such lessons in the global policies of the IUCN Council. Effective 1 January 2001, the IUCN Social Policy Programme, IUCN Economics Programme, and the secretariat component of the Sustainable Use Initiative (i.e., the Global Support Team) were merged to form a new Socio-Economics Group. One year later this Group had been disbanded. http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/susg/aboutove.html
Suitability - The appropriateness of certain resource management to an area of land. Suitability can be determined by environmental and economic analysis of combined management practices. The adaptability of a particular plant or animal species to a given ecological site. Each management area has a specific set of standards and guidelines used in determining suitable lands. Alternatives vary in the allocation of management areas to achieve the goals and objectives for that alternative. (USDA-FS)
Suitability Criteria - In protecting a site from resource damage, the standards for judging whether a rangeland should be accessible to a specific kind of animal.
Suitable Commercial Forest Land - Commercial forestland capable of sustained long-term timber production. (BLM)
Suitable Forest Land - Forest land (as defined in CFR 219.3, 219.14) for which technology is available that will insure timber production without irreversible resource damage to soils, productivity, or watershed conditions; for which there is a reasonable assurance that such lands can be adequately restocked (as provided in CFR 219.4); and for which three is management direction that indicates that timber production is an appropriate use of that area.
Suitable Range - Rangeland that is accessible to a specific kind of animal and that can be grazed on a sustained yield basis without damage to the resource.
Suitable River - A river segment found, through administrative study by an appropriate agency, to meet the criteria for designation as a component of the National Wild and Scenic Rivers system, specified in Section 4(a) of the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. (BLM)
Suitable Woodland - Forest land occupied by minor conifer and hardwood species not considered in the commercial forest land ASQ determination and referred to as noncommercial species. These species may be considered commercial for fuelwood, etc. under woodland management. Also included are low site and non-suitable commercial forest land. These lands must be biologically and environmentally capable of supporting a sustained yield of forest products. (BLM)
Sulphide - A compound of sulphur and some other element. Example: iron sulphide.
Sulphide Dust Explosions - An underground mining hazard involving the spontaneous combustion of airborne dust containing sulphide minerals.
Sulfide Ore - Ore in which sulfide minerals predominate. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Sullivan-Wawarsing REAP Zone - Sullivan County and the Town of Wawarsing (including the Village of Ellenville) located in the Southern tier of New York, was selected as one of the locations to put in place a pilot program to search for ways to revitalize rural areas under the REAP program. Sullivan County suffers from reduced employment opportunities resulting from the decline of college/entrant worker populations as well as geographic isolation. Sullivan County 's unemployment rate is higher than the national average. Sullivan County has lost over 1,370 jobs from 1994 to1997. From 1985 to 1995 the hospitality industry alone experienced over a 50 percent decrease in the number of jobs available. Sullivan County is in need of programs, activities and education efforts that support sustainable development and establish a mechanism to coordinate these efforts across the region. The Town of Wawarsing's economic base has declined significantly since the early 1980's. In 1985, the Channel Master Corporation (the largest antenna manufacturer in the world) left the area, eliminating over 1,000 jobs. In the late 1980's, several other manufacturers closed, including a broom/mop handle and nut bowl company, eliminating several hundred jobs. Additionally, since the early 1980's, approximately 70 percent of hotels/hospitality-related business jobs have been lost (from 2000 to 600). This has also impacted the other service/support businesses substantially. The Town of Wawarsing is in need of activities, such as tax incentives, training programs and education efforts which support sustainable development and establish a mechanism for coordinating these efforts across the town to assist in retaining businesses and help existing businesses expand. The Rural Economic Area Partnership (REAP), as a pilot program, is established to mitigate the negative effects of a lack of employment opportunities and job losses. This REAP is also established to create an environment for communities to find strategies to solve their own problems. The outcomes and lessons learned will help USDA to assist other communities throughout rural America experiencing similar problems.
Sulphur Dioxide - A gas liberated during the smelting of most sulphide ores; either converted into sulphuric acid or released into the atmosphere in the form or a gas.
Summative Assessment - This form of assessment usually occurs towards the end of learning in order to describe the standard reached by the learner. Often this takes place in order for appropriate decisions about future learning or job suitability to be made. Judgments derived from summative assessment are usually for the benefit of people other than the learner. (UNESCO)
Summer Fallow - Cropland in semi-arid regions that is purposely kept out of production during a cropping season mainly to conserve moisture for the next season. It is common for wheat producers in semi-arid regions to rotate half their cropland to summer fallow each year.
Summer fallow - The tillage of uncropped land during the summer to control weeds and allow storage of moisture in the soil for the growth of a later crop. A practice common in semiarid regions, where annual precipitation is not enough to produce a crop every year. Summer fallow is frequently practiced before planting winter grain. - USDA
Summer Range - Range that is grazed during the summer months. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho
Summer Range - Range that is grazed mainly during the summer growing season. See Winter Range. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
Summit - A general term for the top or highest level of an upland feature such as a ridge or hill. - USDA
Sump - An underground excavation where water accumulates before being pumped to surface.
SUP - Special Use Permit
SUP - Specific Use Permit
Superfund - The hazardous substance cleanup program created by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA, P.L. 99- 499, December 11, 1980), as amended.
Superfund - The program operated under the legislative authority of CERCLA and SARA to update and improve environmental laws. The program has the authority to respond directly to releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances that may endanger public health, welfare, or the environment. The "Superfund" is a trust fund that can be used to finance cleanup actions at hazardous waste sites. - EPA Community Relations Plan Glossary
The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) amended the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) on October 17, 1986. SARA reflected EPA's experience in administering the complex Superfund program during its first six years and made several important changes and additions to the program. SARA: stressed the importance of permanent remedies and innovative treatment technologies in cleaning up hazardous waste sites; required Superfund actions to consider the standards and requirements found in other State and Federal environmental laws and regulations; provided new enforcement authorities and settlement tools; increased State involvement in every phase of the Superfund program; increased the focus on human health problems posed by hazardous waste sites; encouraged greater citizen participation in making decisions on how sites should be cleaned up; and increased the size of the trust fund to $8.5 billion. SARA also required EPA to revise the Hazard Ranking System (HRS) to ensure that it accurately assessed the relative degree of risk to human health and the environment posed by uncontrolled hazardous waste sites that may be placed on the National Priorities List (NPL).
Superfund Enhanced State and Tribal Role Initiative (STROLE) - A comprehensive plan that encourages states and tribes to share in Superfund program responsibilities, thus enabling the cleanup of more sites. - EPA
Supernatural - Events or circumstances above the agency of the forces of nature. Often has spiritual connotations. (UNESCO)
SuperNOFA - Super Notice of Funding Availability
Supplemental irrigation - Commonly, irrigation as carried on in humid areas. The term means that the irrigation water is supplementary to the natural rainfall rather than being the primary source of moisture as in the arid and semiarid West. Supplementary irrigation is used generally to prevent retardation of growth during periods of drought. (Huffman, 1953, p. 231.) - USGS
Supplemental sources - When irrigation water supplies are obtained from more than one source, the source furnishing the principal supply is commonly designated the primary source, and the sources furnishing the additional supplies, the supplemental sources. (Houk, 1951, p. 396. ) - USGS
Supply Control Programs - Any of several government programs to influence the supply of farm products on the market. Some, such as acreage allotments and marketing quotas, are considered mandatory, in that farmers who produce or market in excess of assigned levels can be legally penalized. Others, such as cropland set-asides, acreage reductions and diversions, and farmer-held grain reserves, are considered voluntary, in that farmers are usually encouraged to participate through financial incentives.
Support population - All known populations, not designated a primary or secondary core, are designated support populations. Support populations (other than essential supports) are defined by ownership rather than biological boundaries. There are three classifications for support populations: 1. Essential support populations are those populations, identified in recovery criteria that represent unique or important habitat types that cannot support a larger, core population. They are located on federal and state lands and two private properties. 2. Significant support populations are populations, identified in recovery criteria that contain and/or have a population goal of 10 or more active clusters. They are located on federal and state lands and on private lands enrolled in agreements with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 3. Important support populations are populations not identified in recovery criteria that contain and have a population goal of less than 10 active clusters. They are located on federal and state lands and on private lands enrolled in agreements with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. - DOI/USFWS http://rcwrecovery.fws.gov/finalrecoveryplan.pdf
Support Price - A legislated minimum price for a particular commodity, maintained by USDA through a variety of mechanisms, such as non-recourse loans and purchase programs.
Surety - One who guarantees the performance of another. - DOI-BIA Glossary
Surf Washer - A small sluice that is placed so that the incoming surf can run up and down the trough, washing material from a hopper down over riffles.
Surface bonding - Chemical or friction connection between a substrate and applied finish surface. - NPS Architecture, Fortifications, and Preservation glossary
Surface Disturbing Activities (or Surface Disturbances) - The physical disturbance and movement or removal of the land surface and vegetation. It ranges from the very minimal to the maximum types of surface disturbance associated with such things as off-road vehicle travel or use of mechanized, rubber-tired, or tracked equipment and vehicles; some timber cutting and forest silvicultural practices; excavation and development activities associated with use of heavy equipment for road, pipeline, power line and other types of construction; blasting; strip, pit, and underground mining and related activities, including ancillary facility construction; oil and gas well drilling and field construction or development and related activities; range improvement project construction; and recreation site development. BLM-DOI
Surface Drainage - The diversion or orderly removal of excess water from the surface of the land by means of improved natural or constructed channels, supplemented when necessary by the sloping and grading of land surfaces to these channels.
Surface Drains - Ditches or swales that are designed to help remove excess water from the land surface to a conveyance channel. These are usually constructed as broad, shallow channels that can be crossed with field machinery.
Surface Erosion - The detachment and transport of soil particles by wind, water, or gravity. Surface erosion can occur as the loss of soil in a uniform layer (sheet erosion), in many rills, or by dry ravel. (BLM)
Surface layer - The soil ordinarily moved in tillage, or its equivalent in uncultivated soil, ranging in depth from about 4 to 10 inches (10 to 25 centimeters). Frequently designated as the "plow layer," or the "Ap horizon." - USDA
Surface Mining Control And Reclamation Act Of 1977 (SMCRA): A federal act that set rules for surface mining and reclamation of mined land, providing for transfer of much authority to states with approved programs. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 - Requires reclamation of land mined for coal.
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (1977) - As amended (Public Law 95-87) (SMCRA): Regulates surface mining activities and reclamation of coal-mined lands. Further regulates the coal industry by designating certain areas as unsuitable for coal mining operations.
Surface of the Earth - The value given is the depth below the surface of the mean spheroid. The mean spheroid is a uniform approximation to the true shape of the Earth. No adjustment is made to the depth due to any differences between the true Earth and the mean spheroid. For example, the minimum depth that will be given is 0 kilometers, even though a quake directly under Mount Everest (elevation 8848 meters) could legitimately have a depth of -6 kilometers and still be 2 kilometers underground. On the other hand, a depth of 10 kilometers would actually be more than 1 kilometer above the ocean floor of Challenger Deep (elevation -11,033 meters) in the Marianas Trench of the Pacific Ocean. - USGS Earthquake glossary
Surface Resources - Renewable resources that are on the surface of the earth, such as timber and forage, in contrast to ground water and minerals which are located beneath the surface.
Surface Runoff - Precipitation, snow melt, or irrigation water in excess of what can infiltrate the soil surface and be stored in small surface depressions; a major cause of erosion and transporter of non-point source pollutants.
Surface runoff - That part of the runoff which travels over the soil surface to the nearest stream channel. It is also defined as that part of the runoff of a drainage basin that has not passed beneath the surface since precipitation. The term is misused when applied in the sense of direct runoff. See also, Runoff, Overland flow, Direct runoff, Ground-water runoff, and Surface water. - USGS
Surface soil - The A, E, AB, and EB horizons. It includes all subdivisions of these horizons. - USDA
Surface Water - An open body of water such as a stream or lake. - USDA/FS
Surface Water - The water from all sources that occurs on the Earth's surface either as diffused water or as water in natural channels, artificial channels, or other surface water bodies.
Surface Waves - Waves that move over the surface of the Earth. Rayleigh waves and Love waves are surface waves. - USGS Earthquake glossary
Surficial Aquifer - An aquifer that is closest to the surface and is unconfined; the water level of a surficial aquifer is typically associated with the groundwater table of an area. - EvergladesPlan glossary
Surficial Deposit - Unconsolidated, residual alluvial or glacial deposits lying on bedrock. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary
SURS - Surveillance Utilization Review Subsystem
Survey - The act or operation of making measurements for determining the relative positions of points on, above, or beneath the earth's surface; also, the results of such operations. Photogrammetric Survey: A method of surveying that uses either ground photographs or aerial photographs; Aerial Surveys: - A survey using aerial photographs; Ground Survey: - A survey made by ground methods. Ground surveys may or may not include the use of photographs. - Cadastral Data glossary
Survey (geodetic) - A survey that takes into account the size and shape of the earth (as distinguished from a plane survey, in which the surface of the earth is considered a plane). - Cadastral Data glossary
Survivor Growth - The merchantable volume increment on trees 5.0 inches d.b.h. and larger in the inventory at the beginning of the year and surviving to the end of the year. - USDA/FS
SUSG - Sustainable Use Specialty Group, also known as IUCN - International Union for the conservation of Nature, which is also known as the World Conservation Union. The IUCN SSC Sustainable Use Specialist Group (SUSG) comprises 17 decentralised networks of Regional SUSGs who analyse and compare local use systems through case studies, regional reviews, workshops, and symposiums. The regional groups function under the auspices of IUCN's Species Survival Commission (SSC). Each volunteer group decides its own membership, leadership, activities, and priorities -- within a global framework adopted by the SUSG Steering Committee. (UN) http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/susg/aboutove.html
Suspended - Term used when describing an administrative state of mining operations or oil, gas, and mineral leases, whereby the operation or lease is "suspended" or on standby while an administrative action is contemplated. When mineral leases are suspended, the lessee cannot explore, develop, or otherwise enjoy the benefits of the lease. Also, the term (time period) of the lease is suspended. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary
Suspended Sediment - Sediment suspended in a fluid by the upward components of turbulent currents or by colloidal suspension. (BLM)
Suspended Sediment - The very fine soil particles that are maintained in suspension in water for a considerable time by the upward components of turbulent currents or because they are fine enough to form a colloidal suspension. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.
SUSTA - Southern United States Trade Association
Sustainability - Meeting the needs of the current generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Ecological sustainability entails maintaining the composition, structure and processes of a system, as well as species diversity and ecological productivity. The core element of sustainability is that it is future-oriented. (Committee of Scientists Report, 1999.) - www.fireplan.gov glossary
Sustainable - The yield of a natural resource that can be produced continually at a given intensity of management is said to be sustainable.
Sustainable Agriculture - A generic term used to identify a diverse set of farming practices, including organic, biointensive, biodynamic, permaculture, holistic, civic, integrated, and low-input practices. It advocates more and smaller farms; limited capitalization and limited use of credit; selective appropriate mechanization; replacement of most agricultural chemicals with biological, cultural and mechanical alternatives; and grass-based, free-range livestock systems. Equally importantly [sic, should be 'important'], sustainable agriculture rejects the assumption that maximizing short-term economic profit is an overriding end that constrains all decision-making. To be truly sustainable, agriculture must be economically profitable, socially responsible and ecologically healthy. - DOI/NPS http://www.nps.gov/cuva/management/rmprojects/ruraleis/
Sustainable Agriculture - A systematic approach to agriculture that focuses on ensuring the long-term productivity of human and natural resources for meeting food and fiber needs. The FACT Act of 1990 defines sustainable agriculture as 'an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will, over the long term (A) satisfy human food and fiber needs; (B) enhance environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the agricultural economy depends; (C) make the most efficient use of non-renewable resources and on-farm resources and integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls, (D) sustain the economic viability of farm operations, and (E) enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole.' Sustainable agriculture and alternative agriculture share overall goals, with the latter focusing attention more on non-conventional practices. 2. Method of growing crops and raising livestock based on organic fertilizers, soil conservation, biological control of pests, and minimal use of nonrenewable fossil-fuel energy. This type of agriculture does not destroy soil quality so the land remains fertile and arable. (UNESCO)
Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN) - Outreach arm of SARE, SAN is dedicated to the exchange of scientific and practical information on sustainable agriculture systems using a variety of printed and electronic communication tools, also funded by the USDA.
The Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) program in USDA, first authorized by the Food Security Act of 1985 and originally called the Low-Input Sustainable Agriculture (LISA) program, provides assistance to farmers interested in sustainable practices such as less chemical-intensive methods of pest control and soil fertility. Grants are available to farmer-scientist teams for on-farm experiments. The program also trains Cooperative Extension personnel in sustainable practices in order to encourage more widespread adoption.
Sustainable Development - Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987). It assumes the conservation of natural assets for future growth and development. Industrial development that does not detract from the potential of the natural environment to provide benefits to future generations.
Sustainable development - According to the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (1987), sustainable development is "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." According to the more operational (practice-oriented) definition used by the World Bank, sustainable development is "a process of managing a portfolio of assets to preserve and enhance the opportunities people face." Sustainable development includes economic, environmental, and social sustainability, which can be achieved by rationally managing physical, natural, and human capital. - WB 2. Meeting the needs of today while ensuring that the future generation can meet their needs. - UNEP Children's Glossary
Sustainable Farming Practices - The animal husbandry, crop growing and harvesting techniques used in sustainable agriculture. (UNESCO)
Sustainable Forest Management - Sustainable forest management is the forest component of sustainable development -- "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." (The Bruntland Commission Report, Oxford University Press, 1987, p. 43.) Taken together, the Montreal Process Criteria and Indicators (see Appendix C) also provide an implicit definition of what is meant by sustainable forest management at the national level. (United Nations) http://www2.srs.fs.fed.us/strategicplan/view_and_submit_comment.asp?ID=52
Sustainable Living - Living based upon the effect to be had seven generations into the future.
Sustainable Mobility - Brussels/Nairobi, 6 March 2001 - "In response to growing greenhouse gas and other vehicle emissions, and the expectation that worldwide growth in vehicle ownership and kilometers driven will continue to increase, we must radically rethink our approach to road transportation," Klaus Toepfer, Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), said today. Speaking at "CleanEnergy WorldTour 2001 - the launch of the BMW Hydrogen Fleet in Belgium" - Toepfer will say that "sustainable transport strategies need to be developed and should include three elements: increased fuel efficiency of vehicles, alternative fuel vehicles and changed transport patterns. In this regard, alternative fuels, such as hydrogen and biofuels, can be part of the solution. Mr. Toepfer will say that vehicles running on hydrogen represent a technology that can help bring down CO2 emissions from the transport sector. But, the environmental friendliness of this technology depends on how the hydrogen fuel is provided. Hydrogen can be extracted from methane, natural gas, methanol, ethanol or even gasoline in the fuel preparation stage. "Only if the hydrogen is produced from renewable fuels or through electrolysis via solar-generated electricity can we speak about a truly clean alternative," he said. According to the UNEP Executive Director, to create a sustainable transport strategy, policies to overcome existing financial, economic and technological barriers must be developed and implemented on the international and national level, by both the public and the private sector. "The private sector has invested heavily in research and development regarding alternatively fueled vehicles, "said Toepfer. "Now the related infrastructure problems need to be tackled, and pricing systems need to be developed to bring down the high production and purchase costs in order to allow the market uptake once these vehicles are mass produced." A quarter of the world's energy is used for transport. Vehicular transport represents 80% of this energy use and accounts for about 30% of total carbon dioxide emissions. Local and regional air pollution, congestion in urban areas and land use for road-building are key transport-related problems. With the growing demand for mobility in developed and developing countries, these problems will get more and more serious if action is not taken. In response to these problems UNEP is expanding its transport-related activities.
Sustainable Yield - The yield that a renewable resource can produce continuously at a given intensity of management.
Sustained yield - Perpetual achievement and maintenance of a high level of annual (or regular periodic) output of the various renewable resources of the public lands. Sustained yield is a concept consistent with "Mulitple Use". - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary and BLM
Sustainability - Meeting the needs of the current generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Ecological sustainability entails maintaining the composition, structure and processes of a system, as well as species diversity and ecological productivity. The core element of sustainability is that it is future-oriented. (Committee of Scientists Report, 1999.) - USDA Forest Service
Sustainability - The ability of an ecosystem to maintain ecological processes and functions, biological diversity, and productivity over time. A concept generally defined as meeting the current needs of society without compromising the ability of future generations to meet theirs.
Sustained Yield - A 'high-level' output of renewable resources that does not impair the productivity of the land. The continuation of a healthy desired plant community.
Sustained Yield Unit (SYU) - An administrative division for which an allowable sale quantity is calculated. (BLM)
SUT - Sustainable Use Team, formerly known as GST - The Global Support Team. (UN/IUCN) "The IUCN Sustainable Use Team was a two-member team that acted as SUSG's secretariat. Based in the IUCN Multilateral Office in Washington, D.C., U.S.A., the team comprised Ruth Barreto (Coordinator) and David Beamont (Administration and Communications). In March 2003 this Team was shut down due to budgetary constraints." http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/susg/suteam.html
SUTW - Southern Utah Wilderness Alliance
SUV - Special Use Valuation
SUV - Sport Utility Vehicle
SV - Shared Values
SVAP - Stream Visual Assessment Protocol
SVO - Subjectivity Versus Objectivity
SVP - Strategic Visioning Plan
SVR - Scientifically Valid Reason
SVRC - State Vocational Rehabilitation Council
SVRP - Sycamore Valley Regional Park
SW - Socialized Will
SW - Static Wick
SWA - Solid Waste Agency
SWA - State Wildlife Agency
Swale - A shallow depression in the land's surface which may be filled with water. - Everglades Plan glossary
Swamp - A generally wet, wooded area where standing water occurs for at least part of the year. - Everglades Plan glossary
Swampbuster - A provision of the Food Security Act of 1985 that discourages the conversion of wetlands to cropland use. Producers converting a wetland area to cropland lose eligibility for several federal farm program benefits. Benefits are lost from when water levels are lowered to facilitate agricultural production until they have been restored. Several types of wetlands and wetlands in specified situations are exempt. Exceptions include conversions that began before December 23, 1985, conversions of wetlands that had been created artificially, crop production on wetlands that became dry through drought, and conversions that USDA has determined have minimal effect on wetland values. Swampbuster provisions were amended in the FAIR Act of 1996 to provide greater flexibility for producers and landowners.
SWAN - Superior Wilderness Action Network
SWAT - Special Weapons And Tactical Platoon
SWAT - Special Weapons And Tactical Team
SWAW - Shallow Water Areas for Wildlife
SWC - Structure for Water Control
SWCB - Southwest Center for Biodiversity
SWCBD - (Southwest) Center for Biological Diversity (Kieran Suckling - Tucson, Arizona, but offices in several locations) "Protecting endangered species and wild places through science, policy, education, and environmental law." http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/
SWCD - Soil and Water Conservation District
SWCS - Soil and Water Conservation Society
SWCS - The Soil and Water Conservation Society. A bounty of information on soil resources in one Web site http://www.swcs.org/ This special site: http://www.swcs.org/t_resources.htm features an outstanding array of information on soils. You'll be just a click or two away from interesting and useful facts and figures on the history of soil and water conservation, soil surveys, soil and its place in the environment, the state of the soil, plus a variety of resources for kids and teachers. Professional conservationists will love it, too!"
SWD - Smart Watershed Development
SWE - Strong Work Ethic
SWFWMD - Southwest Florida Water Management District
SW4WDA - Southwest Four Wheel Drive Association
SWG - Scientific Working Group
SWG - State Wildlife Grant
SWIFTMUD - Southwest Florida Water Management District
SWK - Subjected to Without Knowledge
SWM - Sound Water Management
SWM - Sustainable Watershed Management
SWMM - Stormwater Management Model
SWMW - Shallow Water Management for Wildlife
SWOP - South West Organizing Project
SWP - Southeast Wildlands Program
SWPAC - Southwest Washington Provincial Advisory Committee
SWR - Shared Watershed Resources
SWR - Significant Wetlands Resources
SWRCB - State Water Resources Control Board
SWRR - Siskiyou Wild Rivers Region
SWSRGW - Stratospheric WELSBACH Seeding for Reduction of Global Warming
SYBOS - School Yard Bullies On Steroids
Syenite - An intrusive igneous rock composed chiefly of orthoclase.
Syllabus - Concise statement of the main objectives, content, learning experiences, resources and assessment strategies to be used in teaching a specific subject or field of knowledge. (UNESCO)
Sylvite - The principal ore of potassium.
Symbiosis - The living together in intimate association of two dissimilar organisms, the cohabitation being mutually beneficial, such as Rhizobia legume bacteria with the host leguminous plant.
Symbiotic - The intimate relationship between two organisms often resulting in mutualism (win-win), parasitism (win-lose), or commensalism (win-no harm). - NPS Ecology and Restoration Glossary
Sympatric - Applied to species that occupy similar habitats or whose habitats invariably overlap. (NPS Rare Plant glossary)
Syncline - A down-arching fold in bedded rocks.
Syngas - A syntheses gas produced through gasification of biomass. Syngas is similar to natural gas and can be cleaned and conditioned to form a feedstock for production of methanol. - Bioenergy Glossary
Syngenetic - A term used to describe when mineralization in a deposit was formed relative to the host rocks in which it is found. In this case, the mineralization was formed at the same time as the host rocks. (The opposite is epigenetic).
SYRCL - The South Yuba River Citizens League http://www.amrivers.org/groupoftheweek/syrcl.htm
System Capacity - The ability of natural, infrastructure, social and economic systems to accommodate growth and development without degrading or exceeding the limits of those systems, as determined by a carrying capacity analysis.
System Integrity - The ability of an infrastructure system to function throughout its extent at a given Level of Service. It refers to the condition and capacity of the entire system or network, and the effect that changes to a part have on the function of the whole.
Systematic monitoring and reporting - One of the essential functions of the World Heritage Committee is to monitor the state of conservation of properties inscribed in the World Heritage List. The Operational Guidelines describe systematic monitoring and reporting and reactive monitoring. 69. Systematic monitoring and reporting is the continuous process of observing the conditions of World Heritage sites with periodic reporting on its state of conservation (UNESCO February 1996: 26, Paragraph 69). Guidance concerning the objectives, process and importance of systematic monitoring and reporting is included in Paragraphs 69 to 74 of the Operational Guidelines (UNESCO February 1996: 26-27). See Monitoring, Reactive monitoring, State of Conservation - Glossary of World Heritage Terms
Systematics - The study of the historical evolutionary and genetic relationships among organisms and of their phenotypic similarities and differences. - UNDP/WRI
System Life Cycle Strategy - Plan for managing an application system and fulfilling system objectives under Federal, USDA, and agency regulations and guidance. System Life Cycle Strategy contains method of acquisition, development, test, and operation throughout the life of the application system. - USDA
SYW - Surf Your Watershed
SZ - Shoreland Zoning
SZP - The Shoreland Zoning Program