UA - Unclassified Area

UA - Urban Amenities

UAC - Up And Coming

UAE - United Arab Emirate

U-AHEAD - Utah Chapter of the Association for Higher Education and Disabilities

UAL - United Agribusiness League

UALC - Utah Academic Library Consortium (Libraries from Accredited Institutions in higher education in the State of Utah)

UAR - United Arab Republic

UARC - Utah Animal Rights Coalition

UBBMP - The Urban Boating and Baywater Management Program

UBRWP - Upper Broad River Watershed Project, Lake Lure, North Carolina

UBC - Union-Belt Communities

U&CF - Urban and Community Forestry http://www.na.fs.fed.us/ucf2001rpt/Earmarks.htm 

UC - Unification Church

UC - Unified Credit

UC - Unified Incident Command

UCANR - University of California - Agriculture and Natural Resources http://www.ucanr.org 

UCAPAWA - United Cannery, Agricultural, Packing, and Allied Workers of America

UCAR - University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (NOAA)

UCC - Ultra Clean Coal

UCC - Universal Copyright Corporation

UCCG - United Coalitions for a Constitutional Government

UCD-ICE - University of California Davis, Information Center for the Environment http://ice.ucdavis.edu/ 

UCEA - Uniform Conservation Easement Act (the core document for conservation easements)

UCG - Urban County Government

UCLA - University of California at Los Angeles

UCMJ - Uniform Code of Military Justice

UCOWR - The Universities Council on Water Resources (Carbondale, Illinois)

UCRLA - Upper Catawba River Landowners Alliance

UCS - Union of Concerned Scientists www.ucsusa.org (reader beware of language deception!)

UCSPP - The Upper Colorado and South Platte Project (Denver, CO)

UD - Urban Design

UDAG - Urban Development Action Grant

UDAP - User Defined Areas Program

UDHR - Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UN - 1998 - WIPO)

UD - Udic moisture regime.

UDI - User-Driven Involvement

UDLU - Urban Design and Land Use

UE - United Educators

UE - Urban Ecology

UE - Use Exclusion

UEC - Utah Environmental Congress

UEE - Under the Eagle's Eye (U.S. Postal Service's customer surveillance program) (similar to the KYC - Know Your Customer - surveillance of banking customers)

UEL - Upland Ecological Landscape

UEML - To define, to validate and to disseminate a set of core language constructs to support a Unified Language for Enterprise Modelling, named UEML, to serve as a basis for interoperability within a smart organization or a network of enterprises.

UEN - Utah Education Network

UEP - Urban Ecology Program

UESF - United Educators of San Francisco

UEZ - Urban enterprise zones

UF - Urban Forestation

UF - User Fee

UFAS - Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (1991)

UFCACEP - Using Federal Courts to Attack Community and Environmental Protections

UFE - United for a Fair Economy

UFE - Utilization Focus Evaluation

UFFVA - United Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Association

UFI - United Foods, Inc.

UFI - Urban Fishing Initiative

UFP - Unified Federal Policy

UFW - United Farm Workers

UFW - un-accounted-for water (FAO)

Un-accounted-for water (UFW) - The volume of water lost through leakage or irregular practices between entering a distribution system and reaching the users. (FAO-UN)

U4WDA - United Four Wheel Drive Associations

UG - Units of Government

UGA - Urban Growth Area

UGLE - Urban Growth and Land Use (Modeling Research)(USGS)

UIC - Urban Influence Code - measuring rurality (USDA)

UIPPR - Unconstitutional Infringement of Private Property Rights

UIRRTD - University of Idaho Resource Recreation and Tourism Department

UK - United Kingdom

UKBWG - Upper Klamath Basin Working Group

UK-CEED - United Kingdom (UK) Center for Economic and Environmental Development

ULDC - Uniform Land Development Code

ULSF - University Leaders for a Sustainable Future. ULSF is the Secretariat for signatories of the Talloires (pronounced Tal-Whar) Declaration. http://www.ulsf.org/ 

UM - Unilateral Measures

UMI - University Microfilms International

UMIMRA - Upper Mississippi, Illinois and Missouri Rivers Association http://www.umimra.org 

UMIS - Unified Management Information System

UMIS - Upper Mississippi Study Unit (yes, this is the correct acronym) http://mn.usgs.gov/umis/cits.dir/Bio.refs.all.html 

UMP - Unknown Mineral Potential

UMP - Upward Mobility Program

UMP - Urban Master Plan

UMRA - Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995

UMTA - Urban Mass Transportation Administration

UL - Unmanaged Lands

UL - Urban Legends

ULI - Urban Land Institute

ULP - Unfair Labor Practice

Ultimate analysis - A description of a fuel's elemental composition as a percentage of the dry fuel weight. - Bioenergy Glossary

Ultra Basic - Igneous rocks containing less than 35% silica.

Ultra vires - Beyond the scope of, or in excess of, legal power or authority.

Umbric Horizon - A dark-colored, high-organic matter, diagnostic epipedon similar to mollic, but more acidic.

Umpire Sample or Assay - An assay made by a third party to provide a basis for settling disputes between buyers and sellers of ore.

UMRGLRJVIP - Upper Mississippi River and Great Lakes Region Joint Venture Implementation Plan

UMRGLRJVP - Upper Mississippi River and Great Lakes Region Joint Venture Plan

UMTA - Urban Mass Transportation Administration

UMW - United Mine Workers

UN - United Nations

UN/ACC - UN Administrative Committee for (or on) Coordination (FAO-UN)

UNA-USA - United Nations Association of the United States of America

Unalienable (inalienable) rights - Fundamental rights belonging to people, which cannot be taken away. The phrase "unalienable rights" was used in the Declaration of Independence (1776).

UNANCA - United Nations Association of the National Capital Area. "UNANCA and its members work with foreign policy makers, political decision makers, schools, colleges, and universities, and non-profit and other organizations in the National Capital Area to build knowledge, understanding, informed opinion, and new ideas, on the United Nations and its specialized agencies. UNA-NCA concerns and projects touch peace and security, conflict resolution and culture, nuclear non-proliferation, global health, sustainable development, and human rights. Our vision is a strong and dynamic United Nations working in close and collaborative fashion with a strong and widely accepted United States foreign policy supporting the United Nations. Our vision in the National Capital Area is increasing engagement of the general public and local organizations in making the United States and the United Nations effective partners." http://www.unanca.org/  Also: "UNA-NCA is a very lively organization, and nothing makes this clearer than the accounts in this annual report of the many activities in which we've been engaged in the past year. ... activities for the year 2001. Ambassador Jonathan Dean (past president) and Dr. George Garland (Executive Director) participated in an inaugural meeting of UNA at Shepherdstown, West Virginia [guess the location: USFWS' National Conservation Training Center] in November 2001. http://www.unanca.org/about/images/ANLRPT.htm 

UNC - United Nations Chronicle (periodical)

UNCAPS - United Nations System Shared Cataloguing and Public Access System

UNCBD - United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity

UNCC - The United Nations Conciliation Commission

UNCCD - United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification

UNCED - United Nations Conference on Environment & Development (also known as Earth Summit II) (1992)

UNCEDAW - United Nations Convention to Eliminate All Forms of Discrimination Against Women

Uncharacteristic Wildfire Effects - An increase in wildfire size, severity and resistance to control, and the associated impact to people and property, compared to that which occurred in the native system. - www.fireplan.gov glossary

UNCHS - United Nations Center for Human Settlements

UNCITRAL - United Nations Commission on International Trade Law

UNCITSALW - United Nations Conference on Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons (2001)

Unclassified Road - A road that is not constructed, maintained, or intended for long-term highway use, such as, roads constructed for temporary access and other remnants of short-term use roads associated with fire suppression, timber harvest, and oil, gas, or mineral activities, as well as travel ways resulting from off-road vehicle use.

UNCLOS - United Nations Conference on the Law Of the Sea

Unconfined Aquifer - An aquifer without an upper confining layer of impermeable soil or rock material. The water table is exposed to the atmosphere through a series of interconnected openings in the overlying permeable soil and/or rock layers and is in equilibrium with atmospheric pressure.

Uncommon Variety Minerals - On the public lands stone, gravel, pumice, pumicite, and cinder deposits that have distinct and special properties making them commercially valuable for use in a manufacturing, industrial, or processing operation. Such minerals are locatable under the Mining Law of 1872, as amended. In determining a deposit's commercial value, the following factors may be considered: quality and quantity of the deposit, geographic location, accessibility to transportation, and proximity to market or point of use. See Common Variety Minerals. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

Unconsolidated - Loosely arranged, not cemented together, so particles separate easily. - USGS Earthquake glossary

Unconsolidated Formation (geologic) - A formation composed of loose, unsorted earthen materials, or particles such as clay, silt, sand, gravel, or stones.

UNCPD - United Nations Commission on Population and Development

UNCRC - United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

UNCSTD - United Nations Conference on Science and Technology for Development

UNCSW - United Nations Conference on Small Arms (2001)

UNCTAD - United Nations Conference on Trade And Development

UNCTC - United Nations Centre on Transnational Corporations http://www.benchpost.com/unctc 

Uncut Value - The actual assay value of a core sample as opposed to a cut value that has been reduced by some arbitrary formula.

UNDDA - United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs

UNDDSMS - United Nations Department of Development Support and Management Services

Underflow - The downstream flow of water through the permeable deposits that underlie a stream and that are more or less limited by rocks of low permeability. - USGS

Undertaking - A project, activity, or program funded in whole or in part under the direct or indirect jurisdiction or a federal agency, including those carried out by on behalf of a federal agency; those carried out with federal assistance; those requiring a federal permit, license or approval; and those subject to state or local regulation administered pursuant to a delegation or approval by a federal agency. - SPRPMA

UNDEP - United Nations Decade for the Eradication of Poverty

Underburn - A burn by a surface fire that can consume ground vegetation and "ladder" fuels.

Underserved - Underserved means " all potential customers [should have] full access to all USDA programs and services," including women, minorities, and limited- resource customers (Secretary's memorandum creating the Office of Outreach). http://www2.srs.fs.fed.us/strategicplan/view_and_submit_comment.asp?ID=52 

Undeveloped Coastal Barrier - (A) a depositional geologic feature (such as a bay barrier, tombolo, barrier spit, or barrier island) that - (i) is subject to wave, tidal, and wind energies, and (ii) protects landward aquatic habitats from direct wave attack; and (B) all associated aquatic habitats including the adjacent wetlands, marshes, estuaries, inlets, and nearshore waters; but only if such features and associated habitats contain few manmade structures and these structures, and man's activities on such features and within such habitats, do not significantly impede geomorphic and ecological process. - DOI

Undisbursed - Describes amounts committed but not yet spent. See also COMMITMENT, DISBURSEMENT. - Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) Glossary

Under stocked - The condition when a plantation of trees fails to meet the minimum requirements for number of well-spaced trees per acre. (BLM)

Understory - Plants growing beneath the canopy of other plants, usually grasses, forbs, and low shrubs growing under a forest canopy. The trees and woody shrubs growing beneath the overstory in a stand of trees. Vegetation growing under the canopy formed by taller trees.

UNDESA - United Nations Division for Sustainable Development

Undivided interest - A fractional share in the surface estate of Indian land, where the surface estate is owned in common with other Indian landowners or fee owners. - DOI-BIA Glossary

UNDP - United Nations Development Program

UNDPI - United Nations Department of Public Information

UNDSD - United Nations Division for Sustainable Development

UNDTCD - United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development

UNEC - United Nations Economic Council

UNEF - United Nations Emergency Force (United Nations General Assembly, established on 11-7-1956; first example in human history of an international police force)

Unenumerated rights - Rights not listed in the Constitution or constitutional amendments; but either implied or, for some other reason, recognized and protected by the Supreme Court.

UNEP - United Nations Environmental Program

UNEPDTIE - United Nations Environment Programme Division of Technology, Industry and Economics

UNEPWCIC - United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre

UNESA - United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs http://www.un.org/esa 

UNESASUSTDEV - United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs - Division for Sustainable Development http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/ 

UNESC - United Nations Economic and Social Council

UNESCAP - United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

UNESCO - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

UNESSD - United Nations Earth Summit on Sustainable Development (2002)

Uneven-Aged Management - Actions that maintain a forest or stand of trees composed of intermingling trees that differ markedly in age. The application of a combination of actions needed to simultaneously maintain continuous high-forest cover. Cutting methods or harvest systems that develop and maintain uneven-aged stands are single-tree selection and group selection.

Uneven-Aged Management - Timber management method that results in forest stands characterized by trees of many ages or sizes intermingled singly or in groups. - USDA/FS

UNF - Unified Federal Policy

UNF - United Nations Foundation

Unfair Competition (general intellectual property) - Commercial conduct that the law views as unjust, giving a civil claim against a person who has been injured by the conduct. Trademark infringement has long been considered to be unfair competition. Other recognized legal categories of unfair competition are false advertising, trade libel, infringement of a trade secret, infringement of the right of publicity, and misappropriation.

UNFCCC - The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

Unforeseen circumstances - Any significant, unanticipated adverse change in the status of the species addressed under the HCP -- Habitat Conservation Plan -- or in its habitat; or any significant unanticipated adverse change in impacts of the project or in other factors upon which the HCP is based. The term "unforeseen circumstances" as defined is intended to have the same meaning as "extraordinary circumstances" as used in the "No Surprises Policy" of the SERVICE (USFWS). - DOI/USFWS

UNFPA - United Nations Fund for Population Activities

Unfunded mandates - Actions imposed by the federal or state government on lower levels of government which are not accompanied by the money needed to fund the action required.

UNGA - United Nations General Assembly

UNGASS - United Nations General Assembly Special Session

UNGC - United Nations Global Compact http://www.unglobalcompact.org/ 

UNGEF - United Nations Global Environment Facility

Ungulate - A mammal having hooves, i.e. deer, elk, and moose.

Ungulates - Hoofed animals, including ruminants but also horses, tapirs, elephants, rhinoceroses, and swine. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

UNHRC - United Nations Human Rights Commission

UNHCR - United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

UNIATF - United Nations Inter-Agency Task Force http://www.un.int/malaysia/CC/CC1Feb00.html 

UNIC - United Nations Information Center

Unicameral ("one room") - Refers to a legislature that has only one body, such as the Israeli Knesset or the German Bundestag.

UNICFD - United Nations International Conference on Financing for Development (Mexico, 2002)

UNICEF - United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund

UNIDO - United National Industrial Development Organization

UNIFEM - United Nations Fund for Women

Unified Federal Policy for Ensuring a Watershed Approach to Federal Land and Resource Management - What are the goals and principles of the Unified Federal Policy for Ensuring a Watershed Approach to Federal Land and Resource Management? We have proposed the following goals and principles for Federal agencies as their programs and resources allow: Use a consistent and scientific approach to managing lands and resources and for assessing, protecting, and restoring watersheds. Identify specific watersheds in which to focus our budgetary and other resources and accelerate improvements in water quality and watershed condition. Use the results of watershed assessments to guide planning and management activities. Work closely with States, Tribes, local governments, and stakeholders to implement this policy. Meet our Clean Water Act responsibility to adhere to Federal, State, Tribal, interstate, and local water quality requirements to the same extent as non-governmental entities. Take steps to ensure that Federal land and resource management actions are consistent with Federal, State, Tribal, and, where appropriate, local government water quality management programs. (EPA) http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-WATER/2000/February/Day-22/w4113.htm 

Unified Watershed Assessment - The Clean Water Action Plan asked Tribes and States to assess their watersheds and identify all watersheds as being in one of four categories: Not meeting, or facing an imminent threat of not meeting, clean water or other natural resource goals; Meeting goals but needing action to sustain water quality; Having pristine/sensitive aquatic system conditions on Federal, State, or Tribal lands; or Needing more information to assess watershed condition. http://cleanwater.gov/ufp/glossary.html 

Uniform Building Code (UBC) - A building code published by the International Conference of Building Officials, adopted and amended. The UBC covers the fire, life and structural safety aspects of all buildings and related structures. - Bioenergy Glossary

Uniform Mechanical Code (UMC) - A code sponsored by the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials and the International Conference of Building Officials, adopted and amended. The UMC contains requirements for the installation and maintenance of heating, ventilating, cooling, and refrigeration systems. - Bioenergy Glossary

Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Act (1970) (URARPA) - (Public Law 91-646) as amended: Provides for uniform and equitable treatment of persons who sell their homes, businesses, or farms to the Service. The Act requires that any purchase offer be no less than the fair market value of the property.

Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practices (USPAP) - The standards promulgated by the Appraisal Standards Board of the Appraisal Foundation to establish requirements and procedures for professional real property appraisal practice.

Unilateral Acts - Those purporting to create "international legal effects" and not merely declarations of a political nature. (UN)

Unintentional introduction - An unintended introduction made as a result of a species utilising humans or human delivery systems as vectors for dispersal outside its natural range. - IUCN

Unit (fuel or pulp) - A bulk measure of hog fuel or pulp chips containing 200 cubic feet. A unit contains varying amounts of solid material depending on the amount of compaction. It is customary to weigh material, correct for moisture, and calculate the number of bone dry tons. - Bioenergy Glossary

Unit (timber) - A timber harvest area with defined boundaries. The area is managed as a unit for harvest and subsequent management activities. - Bioenergy Glossary

Unit hydrograph - The hydrograph of direct runoff from a storm uniformly distributed over the drainage basin during a specified unit of time; the hydrograph is reduced in vertical scale to correspond to a volume of runoff of 1 inch from the drainage basin. (After Am. Soc. Civil Engineers, 1949, p. 105.) The hydrograph of surface runoff (not including ground-water runoff) on a given basin due to an effective rainfall falling for a unit of time. (Sherman, 1949, p. 514.) (See also Hoyt and others, 1936, p. 124.) - USGS

UNITAR - UN Institute for Training and Research http://www.unitar.org/ 

Unitary government - A system of government in which all authority is placed in a central government. Countries with unitary governments, such as Great Britain and France, have regional and local governments that derive their power from the central government.

Unitary system - A system of government in which constitutional authority lies in the hands of the national government. In such a system, political subdivisions created by the central government take responsibility for much of the everyday administration of the government. Great Britain is an example.

UN-I-QUE - United Nations Info Quest

Unique Farmland - Land other than prime farmland that is used for production of specific high-value food and fiber crops, as determined by the Secretary of Agriculture. Unique farmland possesses a special combination of soil quality, location, growing season, and moisture supply needed to economically produce sustained high quality or high yields of specific crops when treated and managed according to acceptable farm methods. Examples of such crops include citrus, tree nuts, olives, cranberries, fruits, and vegetables.

UNISIST - UNESCO's World Science Information System

UNITAR - United Nations Institute for Training and Research

Untied Aid - Official Development Assistance for which the associated goods and services may be fully and freely procured in substantially all countries. - Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) Glossary

United Nations Charter - Initial document of the UN setting forth its goals, functions, and responsibilities; adopted in San Francisco in 1945. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary

The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) - In June 1992, the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development focused world attention on the importance of sustainable forest management as a key component of sustainable development. In adopting the Statement of Forest Principles and Chapter 11 of Agenda 21, UNCED recognized the importance of sustainably managing all types of forests, including temperate and boreal forests, to meet the needs of present and future generations.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) - A UN agency that focuses attention on international economic relations and on measures that might be taken by developed countries to accelerate economic development in developing countries.

"United Nations Day" - Observance that was instituted on October 24th, 1958, thirteen years after the formation of the United Nations.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - The Constitution of UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) was signed in London on 16 November 1945 and came into force with the twentieth ratification on 4 November 1946. The purposes of UNESCO as stated in the Constitution are: To contribute to peace and security by promoting collaboration among nations through education, science and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, for the rule of law and for the human rights and fundamental freedoms which are affirmed for the peoples of the world, without distinction of race, sex, language or religion, by the Charter of the United Nations (UNESCO 1945). The Article 14 of the Convention notes that the World Heritage Committee "shall be assisted by a Secretariat appointed by the Director-General" of UNESCO. Since 1992 the UNESCO World Heritage Centre has functioned as this Secretariat (UNESCO 1972). - Glossary of World Heritage Terms

United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) - A five-year review of progress after UNCED, in June 1997.

United Nations General Assembly - One of the principal organs of the UN, consisting representatives of all member states. The General Assembly issues Declarations and adopts Conventions on human rights issues, debates relevant issues, and censures states that violate human rights. The actions of the General Assembly are governed by the United Nations Charter. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary

United Nations Participation Act (UNPA) - The United Nations Participation Act (UNPA) had its passage in December 1945. It specifies, "The President shall not be deemed to require the authorization of the Congress" to make American troops and military assets available for use in military ventures authorized by the UN Security Council -- as if Congress could surrender its constitutional power to a foreign entity. Since UNPA was passed more than 50 years ago, Congress has never carried out its constitutionally mandated role of declaring war -- yet Americans have died in undeclared wars in Korea, Vietnam, and the Persian Gulf, and have been dispatched in UN-authorized invasions of Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia, and Rwanda. All of this fulfills a dire 1945 prediction by Representative Clare Hoffman (R-MI), who warned his colleagues during the UNPA debate that the measure would require Congress to surrender "at least a portion, not only of our sovereignty, but of our freedom of action, and be bound by the decision of the Security Council." During that debate, several representatives suggested that the UN represented the fulfillment of Christ's teachings. Representative Howard Buffett (R-NE) pierced the dense fog of sanctimony by pointing out that "it was probably the first international police force of all times that crucified the lonely Nazarene. It was the Roman legions that were in this land foreign to their own that crucified the lonely Nazarene whom we revere as the founder of Christianity." Far from advancing the sacred cause of Christianity, Buffett continued, the creation of a UN military would lead to "the spectacle 2,000 years later of an international police force crucifying Christianity that the lonely Nazarene died for years ago." Whatever damage the UNPA eventually does to Christianity, it has done immense damage to America's constitutional system. Representative Frederick Smith (R-OH) pointed out that the UNPA "strikes at the very heart of the Constitution. It provides that the power to declare war shall be taken from Congress and given to the President. Here is the essence of dictatorship, and dictatorial control over all else must inevitably tend to follow." (Author's note: This explanation is included only to clarify the immense scope of UN agreements.)

The United Nations Treaty Database (registration required) - An online storage and retrieval system for the United Nations Treaty Series. It currently contains information relating to treaties and subsequent actions registered up to December 1986 (which is, in fact, less material than what is available in printed form). It is important to keep in mind that there might be a substantial gap between the adoption date and the registration date of a treaty. Because of technical problems, not all printed volumes falling within the given time period have been converted into computer records (see list of volumes). In order to provide access to recently adopted treaties, a special section has been added to the Internet site which contains the full text of treaties deposited with the Secretary-General but not yet published in the Treaty Series. In addition to giving online access to the full text of treaties and their status, the United Nations Treaties site -- http://untreaty.un.org  -- also provides definitions of key terms used in the database as well as a glossary of terms relating to treaty actions. These two listings define terms such as accession or ratification and clarify the distinctions between, for example, declarations and memoranda of understanding.

United Nations Treaty Series (UNTS) - The printed volumes of the United Nations Treaty Series reproduce the text of treaties and international agreements registered or filed and recorded with the Secretariat since 1946 in the authentic treaty language(s), together with translations into English and French, as required. A cumulative index provides access to the volumes by subject, participants and date. All treaties in the online system are only available as computer images so downloading of the treaties in text format or full-text searching is not possible. The following fields can be searched in the database:

United Nations World Heritage Treaty (UNWHT) - A treaty enacted in 1972 that created World Heritage Sites and Biosphere Reserves. Chosen for their cultural, historical or natural significance, national governments are obligated to protect these landmarks under U.N. mandate. 68 percent of all U.S. national parks, monuments and preserves have been designated as World Heritage Sites. 51 million acres of wilderness in America are World Heritage Sites or Biosphere Reserves and are under the control of the U.N. These include the Statue of Liberty, Thomas Jefferson's Monticello, the Washington Monument, the Brooklyn Bridge, Yellowstone National Park, Yosemite, the Florida Everglades, the Grand Canyon and so forth. Through an international treaty, the United States is allowing the United Nations and its member countries access to and control of American soil -- in particular, our historic buildings and treasured wilderness. Selected for their cultural, historical or natural significance, national governments are obligated to protect these landmarks under U.N. mandate. Twenty important symbols of national pride are World Heritage Sites or Biosphere Reserves now falling under the control of the U.N. Most ironic of all is the listing of Philadelphia's Independence Hall. The birthplace of our Republic is now an official World Heritage Site. The very place where our Founding Fathers signed both the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution - the documents that set America apart from other nations and created the world's longest-standing democracy - is no longer fully under the control of our government and the American people. Protection of our treasured places is a sound undertaking, but doing so by ceding control of our sovereign territory to a foreign power is wrong and threatens our rights and freedoms. In 1995, Crown Butte Mines in the New World Mining District in Montana was forced to abandon a mine development project after the U.N. listed Yellowstone National Park as a "World Heritage Site in Danger."3 Crown Butte proposed to mine a medium-size underground operation on private property three miles from the boundary of Yellowstone. The project would have employed 280 people and generated $230 million in revenue. This mining project was not unique. The area had been mined for 150 years before Yellowstone National Park was established. Crown Butte had worked along with the U.S. Forest Service to ensure that all of the necessary precautions were being taken to ensure that the project would be environmentally responsible. Crown Butte had won an award for excellence in 1992 and was considered to be a "showcase operation." None of these factors mattered to the U.N.'s World Heritage Committee. Citing the project as a potential threat, the U.N. exerted its authority to force the abandonment of the project. It did not matter to the U.N. that this violated Crown Butte's exercise of its private property rights under the U.S. Constitution. Nor did the U.N. care that its action also went against U.S. federal law prohibiting the inclusion of non-federal property within a U.S. World Heritage Site without the consent of the property owner. Although it has not happened yet, under the World Heritage Treaty the U.N. has the legal right to someday restrict us, as American citizens, from visiting our national treasures. Many environmentalists believe that the mere presence of humans disturbs the environment. As such, it is not farfetched to wonder when the politically-correct U.N. will ban the American public from Yellowstone, the Grand Canyon, Yosemite, the Florida Everglades and other precious natural wonders now visited annually by millions of tourists. Ironically, banning generations of young people from visiting our natural wonders would undermine the public's appreciation for the spectacular gifts of nature, and undercut support for environmental protection.

United States - When used in a geographical context, includes all States. - ESA

United States Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) - The Federal agency which, along with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the authority, under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act and Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act, to regulate development activities that affect the waters of the United States. The Corps administers the wetland permit process.

United States Bureau of Mines - Founded in 1910, part of the Department of the Interior. The Bureau of Mines conducts research and issues reports on various aspects of mining activity, including: mining techniques, mine health and safety, environmental pollution, and solid waste recycling.

United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act of 1988 - P.L. 100-449 (September 28, 1988) implemented the bilateral trade agreement between the United States and Canada, including agricultural trade. The agreement would phase out tariffs between the two countries over 10 years and revise other trade rules.

United States Fish & Wildlife Service - This agency is an arm of the U.S. Department of the Interior, which is the nation's principal conservation agency. The USFWS is the chief agency which conserves, protects, and enhances the nation's fish and wildlife and their habitats, particularly migratory birds, certain marine mammals, and freshwater and anadromous fish. USFWS identifies threatened and endangered species of fish and wildlife that are placed on the agency's official "List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants." It also manages America's Wildlife Refuges.

United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA) of 1916 - P.L. 64-190 (August 11, 1916), as amended, authorizes the Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration to establish official marketing standards (not health and safety standards) for grains and oilseeds, and requires that exported grains and oilseeds be officially weighed and inspected. Domestically marketed grain and oilseeds may be, but is not required to be, officially inspected. Export inspections are carried out by federal inspectors or by federally supervised state inspection agencies, called delegated official inspection agencies. Official inspections of domestically traded grain are done by federally supervised state agencies and private companies called designated official inspection agencies. Typically, marketing standards describe the physical characteristics (such as weight, damaged kernels, foreign material, shrunken and broken kernels, and defects) of the commodity and serve as contract language to facilitate marketing. Official weighing and inspection is paid for on a fee-for-service basis, not with federal funds. Major changes to the law were adopted in the USGSA Amendments of 1968, the USGSA of 1976 (P.L. 94-582), and the Grain Quality Improvement Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-641).

United States Information Agency - An independent federal agency that reports directly to the President of the United States and is, thus, part of the Executive branch of the federal government. The USIA serves to coordinate educational, cultural and media programs that project a positive image of the United States to foreign nations.

United States Trade Representative (USTR) - The Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, originally Office of the Special Trade Representative (STR), is responsible for developing and coordinating international trade, commodity, and direct investment policy, and leading or directing negotiations with other countries. It is headed by the United States Trade Representative (also USTR), a Cabinet-level official with the rank of Ambassador. The agency provides trade policy leadership and negotiating expertise on all matters within the World Trade Organization (WTO); trade, commodity, and direct investment matters dealt with by international institutions such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD); export expansion policy; industrial and services trade policy; international commodity agreements and policy; bilateral and multilateral trade and investment issues; trade-related intellectual property protection issues; and import policy. The agency has administrative responsibility for the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), Section 301 complaints against foreign unfair trade practices, unlawful and unfair import competition under Section 337, and import relief cases under Section 201. Five Members from each of the House and Senate are formally appointed under statute as official congressional advisors on trade policy, and additional Members may be appointed as advisors on particular issues or negotiations.

United States Travel and Tourism Administration - Established in 1981, part of the Department of Commerce. This administration supports the travel industry, in the United States and abroad, in their attempts to attract tourists and other foreign visitors to the United States for study, business, vacation, and other miscellaneous purposes.

United States Trust Territories - Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, and the Virgin Islands.

UNPAN - UN Online Network in Public Administration and Finance http://www.unpan.org/ 

U.S. Code - Federal statutes enacted by Congress and signed by the President (or passed over the President's veto) are compiled into the United States Code (U.S.C.). The U.S. Code, organized by topics into a series of titles, numbered from 1 (General Provisions) through 50 (War and National Defense) [for the full list click here], contains nearly all statutes of general effect at the time of its compilation. The most recent version of the Code released by the U.S. Government Printing Office in digital form carries a cutoff date of January 16, 1996. For more recent enactments one must turn to the uncompiled statutes in the form passed by Congress. They are available on the Internet via the "Thomas" server. To facilitate updating, the LII has created forms that implement three types of updating search of the "Thomas" site: (1) update by Title Number, (2) update by Subject, and (3) update by Key Word. In sum, to be sure of an up-to-date picture of the statutes dealing with a topic one must consult both a version of the U.S. Code and also determine whether there have been pertinent amendments or additions to the law since its date of compilation. Some commercially published editions of the U.S. Code include useful editorial notes detailing the changes over time that lie behind current provisions and summarizing court decisions and regulations interpreting them. References to U.S.C.A. or U.S.C.S. rather than U.S.C. alone indicate the use of such an edition. When a judicial opinion or other legal document refers to a particular statutory provision, it will normally cite to its location in the U.S. Code. See, for example, Things Remembered, Inc. v. Petrarca dealing with a statute addressing jurisdiction by Federal and state courts in situations of bankruptcy. The decision focuses on the language of "28 U.S.C. 1452(a)" -- which is subsection a, of section 1452, of title 28 of the U.S. Code. - Supreme Court glossary

U.S. Code, Sec. 312. - Rights-of-way for railway, telegraph, and telephone lines; town-site stations. - A right of way for a railway, telegraph, and telephone line through any Indian reservation in any State or Territory, except Oklahoma, or through any lands reserved for an Indian agency or for other purposes in connection with the Indian service, or through any lands which have been allotted in severalty to any individual Indian under any law or treaty, but which have not been conveyed to the allottee with full power of alienation, is granted to any railroad company organized under the laws of the United States, or of any State or Territory, which shall comply with the provisions of sections 312 to 318 of this title and such rules and regulations as may be prescribed thereunder: Provided, That no right of way shall be granted under said sections until the Secretary of the Interior is satisfied that the company applying has made said application in good faith and with intent and ability to construct said road, and in case objection to the granting of such right of way shall be made, said Secretary shall afford the parties so objecting a full opportunity to be heard: Provided further, That where a railroad has heretofore been constructed, or is in actual course of construction, no parallel right of way within ten miles on either side shall be granted by the Secretary of the Interior unless, in his opinion, public interest will be promoted thereby: Provided, also, That as a condition precedent to each and every grant of a right of way under authority of said sections, each and every railway company applying for such grant shall stipulate that it will construct and permanently maintain suitable passenger and freight stations for the convenience of each and every town site established by the Government along said right of way.

U.S. EPA Pesticide Chemical (PC) Code - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) assigns a unique chemical code number to a particular pesticide active ingredient or mixture of active ingredients. The U.S. EPA PC (Pesticide Chemical) Code is sometimes referred to as the Shaugnessy Number.

The U.S. Geological Survey (under the Department of Interior) - The USGS serves the nation by providing reliable scientific information to: describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life. From http://www.usgs.gov 

US v. Braunstein, No. 00-10505 (9th Cir. February 25, 2002) Hyde Amendment Appeals are governed by Federal Rule of Appellate Procedure 4(a), and the defendant, as the prevailing party in criminal prosecution, was entitled to an award of attorney fees because the government's prosecution was "frivolous." To read the full text of this opinion: http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/data2/circs/9th/0010505p.pdf  [attorney's fees, civil procedure]

Units (classified) - Refer to entities, respondents to a survey or things used for purpose of calculation or measurement. Their statistics are collected, tabulated and published. They include, among others, businesses, government institutions, individual organizations, institutions, persons, groups, geographical areas and events. They form the population from which data can be collected or upon which observations can be made. (UN)

Unity - Refers to how well the landscape and its resources blend together to form a "single, coherent and harmonious visual experience." [Jones & Jones, 1974]. NPS - DOI

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) - Adopted by the general assembly on December 10, 1948. Primary UN document establishing human rights standards and norms. All member states have agreed to uphold the UDHR. Although the declaration was intended to be Nonbinding, through time its various provisions have become so respected by States that it can now be said to be Customary International Law. - United Nations Charter / Human Rights Glossary

Universal Design - Design which facilitates adaptation to changing uses and changing users over time by providing maximum flexibility in spatial layout and the location of systems.

Universal Soil Loss Equation - A formula used to estimate erosion rates by considering climate, soils, and topographic conditions at a site, as well as any degree to which the use and management of the soil reduce erosion. It is being replaced by a revised universal soil loss equation.

Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) - An equation developed to predict soil losses due to runoff from specific field areas in specified agricultural cropping and management systems. The equation consists of a rainfall and runoff factor, soil erodibility factor, slope-length factor, slope-steepness factor, cover and management factor, and support practice factor. - USDA/FS 2. An erosion model designed to predict the long-term average soil losses in runoff from specific field areas in specified cropping and management systems. The equation is: A = RKLSCP where A = Computed soil loss per unit area R = Rainfall and runoff factor K = Soil erodibility factor L = Slope-length factor S = Slope-steepness factor C = Cover and management factor P = Support practice factor The NRI calculations use location-specific data for the field in which the NRI sample point falls or that portion of the field surrounding the point that would be considered in conservation planning. - National Resources Inventory

UNMS - United Nations Millennium Summit

Unnecessary or Undue Degradation - Surface disturbance greater than what would normally result when a mineral exploration or development activity regulated under 43 CFR 3809 is being accomplished by a prudent operator in usual, customary and proficient operations of similar character and taking into consideration the effects of operations on other resources and land uses, outside the area of operations. Failure to initiate and complete reasonable mitigation measures, including reclamation of disturbed areas; or failure to prevent the creation of a nuisance, which may constitute unnecessary or undue degradation. Failure to comply with applicable environmental protection statutes and regulations thereunder will constitute unnecessary or undue degradation. (BLM)

Unpatented Claim - Usual lode, placer or mill site claim located under the mining laws

UNPD - United Nations Procurement Division

UNPF - United Nations Population Fund

UNPFI - United Nations Pension Fund Investments

UNRC - United Nations Resident Coordinator (UN)

Unrecorded - A deed, etc., is said to be unrecorded when it has not been filed for record in the courthouse and made a matter of public record. - Cadastral Data glossary

Unregulated Harvest - Tree harvest that is not part of the allowable sale quantity (ASQ). It can include the removal of cull or dead material or non-commercial species. It also includes volume removed from non-suitable areas for research, to meet objectives other than timber production (such as wildlife habitat improvement), or to improve administrative sites (such as campgrounds).

UNRISD - United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (Geneva, Switzerland)

UNRRA - United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration

Unroaded Area - An area that does not contain classified roads.

UNRWA - United Nations Relief and Work Agency

Unsaturated Flow - Movement of water in a soil that is not filled to capacity with water. Water moves because of water-potential differences toward areas of lower water potentials (drier soil).

Unsaturated Zone - A soil or rock zone above the water table and extending to the land surface in which the pore spaces are only partially filled with water. Sometimes called the vadose zone.

UNSC - United Nations Security Council

UNSC - United Nations Statistical Commission - Promotes the development and improvement of national statistics and their comparability for international objectives.

UNSCOM - UN Special Commission

Unsheltered distance (L factor - WEQ) - The unsheltered distance along the prevailing wind erosion direction across the field or area to be evaluated. For NRI, the unsheltered distance is expressed in feet, measured through the sample point, parallel to the prevailing wind direction during the critical wind erosion period. - National Resources Inventory

UNSSD - United Nations Summit on Social Development

Unstable fill - Risk of caving or sloughing on banks of fill material. - USDA

Unsuitable areas - Areas not appropriate for timber harvest due to fragile or shallow soils, scenic values, special wildlife habitat areas, and riparian or wetland values, among other possible reasons. - Bioenergy Glossary

Unsuitable Lands - Forest land that is not managed for timber production. Reasons may be matters of policy, ecology, technology, silviculture, or economics.

Unsuitable Range - Rangeland that is not accessible to a specific kind of animal and that cannot be grazed on a sustained yield basis without damaging the resource.

UNTA - United Nations Transitional Authority

UNTAC - United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia

UNTS - United Nations Treaty Collection (yes, this is correct) http://untreaty.un.org/English/treaty.asp 

UNTS - United Nations Treaty Series http://untreaty.un.org/English/treaty.asp 

UNU - United Nations University

Unusual mortality event - A stranding that is unexpected, involves a significant die-off of a marine mammal population, and demands immediate response. 1362 and 1421h. - MMPA

UNV - The United Nations Volunteers program

UNVFVT - UN Voluntary Fund for Victims of Torture

UNVP - United Nations Volunteer Program

UNW - United Nations World (publication)

UNWFP - The United Nations World Food Program

UO - Umbrella Organization

UO - Urban Options

UOS - Urban Open Space

UOSF - The Urban Open Space Foundation

UP - Unknown Pathogen

UPARR - The Urban Parks and Recreation Recovery Program. The Urban Park and Recreation Recovery (UPARR) program was established in November 1978 by Public Law 95-625, authorizing $725 million to provide matching grants and technical assistance to economically distressed urban communities. The purpose of the program is to provide direct Federal assistance to urban localities for rehabilitation of critically needed recreation facilities. The law also encourages systematic local planning and commitment to continuing operation and maintenance of recreation programs, sites, and facilities. Only cities and urban counties meeting established criteria are eligible for assistance. http://www.nps.gov/uprr/ 

UPBB - University Press Books, Berkeley (CA)

UPC - Universal Peace Conference (1889)

Upcast - A vertical raise to the ground surface form an underground mine.

UPCONE - Upconing of a saltwater/freshwater interface below a pumping well

UPD - Unifying Policy Directive

UPEACE - The University for Peace (UN) The Earth Council Institute has moved its headquarters to the campus of the University for Peace, established in Costa Rica as a Treaty Organization in accordance with a resolution of the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1980. UPEACE has, amongst others, gained considerable experience in the area of Environment and Conflict Resolution.

Upland Game - A term used in wildlife management to refer to hunted animals that are neither big game nor waterfowl. Upland game includes such birds as grouse, turkey, pheasant, quail, and dove, and such mammals as rabbit and squirrel.

Upland: 1.) Terrestrial ecosystems located away from riparian zones, wetlands, springs, seeps, and dry washes (NPS). 2.) Ecosystems made up of vegetation not in contact with groundwater or other permanent water sources (BLM).

Uplands - Land at higher elevations than the alluvial plain or low stream terrace; all lands outside the riparian-wetland and aquatic zones. Used often in discussion of federal land management practices.

Uplands - All land not classified as wetland or deepwater habitat (see Wetlands, Cowardin et al. 1979). - National Resources Inventory

UPO - United Property Owners

UPOV - Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants

UPP - User Pays Principle (IUCN)

UPP - Urban Parks Program

Upper Lead - Pay gravel of pay streak in a gravel deposit that lies in strata well above bedrock.

Upper South Platte Watershed Protection Association - A newly-formed body coordinating development of a Source Water Protection Plan as required under the Safe Drinking Water Act. - FS

Upper-Stem Portion - That part of the main stem or fork of sawtimber trees above the saw-log top to minimum top diameter 4.0 inches outside bark or to the point where the main stem or fork breaks into limbs. - USDA/FS

UPRR - See UPARR (Urban Park & Recreation Recovery Program) http://www.nps.gov/uprr/ 

UPWP - Unified Planning Work Program

Unified Planning Work Program (UPWP) - Federally-required document outlining the planning activities to be undertaken in support of federally funded transportation projects.

UR - Unworkable Requirements (ESA)

UR - Urban Renewal

UR - Urban Revitalization

URA - Uniform Relocation Assistance (administered by the FHWA)

URA - Upper Respiratory Ailment

Uraninite - A uranium mineral with a high uranium oxide content. Frequently found in pegmatite dykes.

Uranium - A radioactive, silvery-white, metallic element.

URARPA - Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Act

URARPAR - Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Regulations (administered by the FHWA)

Urban - That area lying inside the U. S. Census urbanized boundary. - FHWA

Urban - An area characterized by high-density development and a variety of housing styles including apartments, terrace housing and semi-detached housing. Reduced areas of private open space and vegetation. (UN)

Urban And Built-Up Areas - A classification in the natural resources inventory, now called developed areas, that includes cities, villages, other build-up areas of more than 10 acres, industrial sites, railroad yards, cemeteries, airports, golf courses, shooting ranges, institutional and public administration sites, and similar areas. The 1992 national resources inventory placed over 92 million acres in this category, an increase of 14 million acres since 1982.

Urban and built-up areas - A Land cover/use category consisting of residential, industrial, commercial, and institutional land; construction sites; public administrative sites; railroad yards; cemeteries; airports; golf courses; sanitary landfills; sewage treatment plants; water control structures and spillways; other land used for such purposes; small parks (less than 10 acres) within urban and built-up areas; and highways, railroads, and other transportation facilities if they are surrounded by urban areas. Also included are tracts of less than 10 acres that do not meet the above definition but are completely surrounded by Urban and built-up land. Two size categories are recognized in the NRI: areas of 0.25 acre to 10 acres, and areas of at least 10 acres. - National Resources Inventory

Urban Area - An area having a City Center population of 50,000 or more as defined by the 2000 US Census; may also include other major population concentrations where a systems planning study is deemed necessary.

Urban and Other Areas - Areas developed for residential, industrial, or recreational purposes, schoolyards, cemeteries, roads, railroads, airports, beaches, powerlines and other rights-of-way, or other nonforest land not included in any other specified land use class. - USDA/FS

Urban Center - A city of statewide importance. An Urban Center is a large settlement that has a high intensity of population and mixed land uses, including industrial, commercial, residential and cultural uses, the historical focus for growth in major urban areas.

Urban Complex - An Urban Center and two or more municipalities within the surrounding Metropolitan Planning Area that exhibit a strong inter-municipal relationship, based on socioeconomic factors and public facilities and services, that is defined and coordinated through a Strategic Revitalization Plan. Urban Complexes are nominated jointly by a county or counties and the affected municipalities and are coterminous with municipal boundaries but not necessarily with county boundaries.

Urban design - - The general term for the design of groups of buildings and for the development of management policies for the urban physical environment. (UN)

Urban form - The three-dimensional spatial qualities resulting from the collectivity of buildings that form the urban area. (UN)

Urban growth boundary - A land use boundary surrounding a city. Urban land uses are permitted within the urban growth boundary. - Bioenergy Glossary

Urban land/Urban development - The Bureau of the Census and USDA National Resources Inventory have different definitions of "urban land." The census counts as urban land central cities, adjacent urbanized areas and unincorporated or incorporated areas of 2,500 or more people. USDA also counts built-up areas of fewer than 2,500 people. Starting with the 1982 National Resources Inventory, land is not considered "urban and built-up" unless it is completely developed. Despite counting built-up areas of fewer than 2,500 people, the NRI estimate of urban and built-up land is lower than the Census of Agriculture, which does not count all land the NRI includes as agricultural land. - USDA

Urban Landscape - Those areas that are dominated by urban land use such as city skyscrapers, retail outlets, administrative functions, freeway convergence and very little residential land use.

Urban renewal - The physical change, or change in use of intensity, of use of land and buildings, that is the inevitable outcome of the action of economic and social forces upon urban areas. (UN)

Urban Sprawl - Current development patterns, where rural land is converted to urban uses more quickly than needed to house new residents and support new businesses, and people become more dependent on automobiles. Sprawl defines patterns of urban growth, which includes large acreage of low-density residential development, rigid separation between residential and commercial uses, residential and commercial development in rural areas away from urban centers, minimal support for non-motorized transportation methods, and a lack of integrated transportation and land use planning. - Smart Growth Green Development Glossary

Urbanized Area - An area identified by the Census Bureau that contains a central place and the surrounding, closely settled incorporated and unincorporated area that has a combined population of at least 50,000. - U.S. Census Bureau

Urbanization - The process by which a country's population changes from primarily rural to urban. It is caused by the migration of people from the countryside to the city in search of better jobs and living conditions. (WB-UN)

Urbanisation - The building and growth of towns in rural areas. - UNEP Children's Glossary

URC - Undesirable Resource Condition

URE - Usual Residence Elsewhere. See UHE (Usual Home Elsewhere) and WHURE (Whole Household Usual Home Elsewhere). - U.S. Census Bureau

URI - United Religions Initiative

URISA - Urban and Regional Information System Association. Established 1963. An association interested in all aspects of information systems, including graphics, geographic information systems, data base management systems, operational analysis systems, public administration, highway and traffic information, and systems analysis and design. - U.S. Census Bureau. 2. URISA is a nonprofit association for professionals involved in improving urban and regional environments through the use of information technology. http://www.urisa.org 

URL - (Uniform Resource Locator) - The standard way to give the address of any resource on the Internet that is part of the World Wide Web (WWW).

URPE - Union for Radical Political Economics

URPP - Urban Rivers Pilot Project

URRI - Urban Rivers Restoration Initiative - EPA http://www.epa.gov/oswer/landrevitalization/urbanrivers/ 

Uruguay Round - The 8th round of multilateral trade negotiations (MTN) conducted within the framework of the GATT. Launched in Punta del Este, Uruguay, in 1986 and concluded in December 1993, the final Uruguay Round agreement signed in Marrakech in April 1994, embraces 110 participating countries ('contracting parties') and came into effect in 1995. It is being implemented over the period to 2000 (2004 in the case of developing country contracting parties) under the administrative direction of the newly created World Trade Organization (WTO). The Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture, administered by the World Trade Organization, brings agricultural trade more fully under the GATT. It provides for converting quantitative restrictions to tariffs and for a phased reduction of tariffs. The agreement also imposes rules and disciplines on agricultural export subsidies, domestic subsidies, and sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures.

Uruguay Round Agreements (URA) Act of 1994 - P.L. 103- 465 (December 8, 1994) approved and implemented the trade agreements concluded in the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations conducted under the auspices of the GATT, including the Agreement on Agriculture, the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures, and the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT). The law allowed for the reduction of tariffs and government subsidies on agricultural products and prohibits the use of Section 22 fees and quotas with respect to products of WTO members. The law also extended the authorization of funding for the Export Enhancement Program (EEP) and Dairy Export Incentive Program (DEIP) through 2001 and eliminated the requirement that the EEP be targeted to respond to unfair trade practices. The law eliminated the requirement that the Market Promotion Program be used to counter the adverse effects of unfair trade practices. The law also included a Sense-of-Congress resolution that the President should consult with other nations to discuss appropriate levels of food aid commitments to developing countries.

US - Urban Streams

US - Urban Sprawl

Us/We/Our - The BIA and any tribe acting on behalf of the BIA under 166.1 of this part. - DOI-BIA Glossary

USA - United States of America

USA - UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (the company, not the country)

USA - United Steelworkers of America

USA - United Stockgrowers of America

Usable storage - The volume normally available for release from a reservoir below the stage of the maximum controllable level. (Thomas and Harbeck, 1956, p. 13.) - USGS

USCA Title 42, Section 1983 The Civil Rights Act: Damages that occur because "State Action under color of law" deprives individuals of their civil rights can be compensated through a "1983" civil action. - Zoning (Case Law) Glossary

USCC - United States Composting Council http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/compost/ 

USACDA - United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency

USACEIWRED - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Institute for Water Resources Environmental Database

USACOE - United States Army Corps Of Engineers

USAID - United States Agency for International Development

USAIN - United States Agricultural Information Network

USAITA - United States Association of Importers of Textiles & Apparel

USBIC - United States Business and Industrial Council

USBM - United States Bureau of Mines

USBOR - United States Bureau of Reclamation

USBP - United States Border Patrol

USBP - United States Business Positions

USBR - United States Bureau of Reclamation

USBS - United States Bureau of Standards

USC - Unified Soil Classification

USC - United States Code

USC - United States Conservation

USC - United States Constitution

USCA - United States Code Annotated

USCB - United States Census Bureau

USCES - United States Congress Environmental Scorecard (LCV)

USCFC - United States Court of Federal Claims

USCG - United States Coast Guard

USCIB - United States Council for International Business

USCIB - United States Council on International Banking

USCM - U.S. Conference of Mayors

USCOE - United States Army Corps of Engineers

USCSP - United States Country Studies Program

USD - Union for Sustainable Development

USDA - United States Department of Agriculture

USDA - NRCS - United States Department of Agriculture - Natural Resource Conservation Service

USDEC - The United States Dairy Export Council

USDI - United States Department of the Interior

USDOI - United States Department of the Interior

USDOT - United States Department of Transportation

USDW - Underground Source Of Drinking water

Use - (1) The proportion of current year's forage production that is consumed or destroyed by grazing animals. May refer either to a single species or to the vegetation as a whole; the degree of use. (2) Utilization of range for a purpose such as grazing, bedding, shelter, trailing, watering, watershed, recreation, forestry, etc. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

Use areas - Represent spots that receive concentrated public-viewing use. They include visitor centers, vista points, trailheads, campgrounds, picnic areas, swim beaches, marinas, resorts, ski areas, and other recreation sites. Use areas also include urban and suburban areas, towns and villages, subdivisions, parks and golf courses public and private, or public lands within or adjacent to national forests. - FS

Use Designation - As part of the Non-point Source Assessment and Water Resource Inventory, an "Aquatic Life Use" designation is given to a stream based on the type of aquatic communities an unpolluted stream is capable of supporting. The process takes into account chemical, biological and ecological aspects of the particular region of the state in which the stream is located. This process is supported by the Administrative Code. The Assessment and Inventory also provide an estimate of the degree to which a stream is attaining its Aquatic Life Use designation as a result of NPS pollution. The indicators are: threatened, impacted and impaired. Threatened streams are those currently meeting or exceeding their designated uses, but current NPS water quality monitoring results indicate pollution potential. When biological and chemical data are insufficient, and/or NPS monitoring results are not conclusive, the stream may not have attained its use designation and is called impacted. Impaired streams are those that cannot attain their use designation based on conclusions from the analysis of biological and chemical data, modeling, and/or NPS monitoring results.

USED - United States Executive Director (of Multilateral Development Banks)

User Fees - Any of various charges and assessments levied on a specifically delineated group that is directly subject to a particular government service, program, or activity; such fees are not levied on the general public. User fees are intended to be used solely to support that service, program, or activity. For example, about 75% of the $225 million budget of the Agricultural Marketing Service, which provides a variety of inspection and grading, market news reporting, and other services to the agricultural community, comes from user fees; the other 25% is appropriated funds. Similarly, grain inspection is paid for through user fees.

USEPA - United States Environmental Protection Agency

USEPAPPIS - U.S. EPA Pesticide Product Information System

USFWS - United States Fish and Wildlife Service

USFWSDFA - U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Division of Federal Aid

USFWSESP - USFWS Endangered Species Program

USFCC - United States Fuel Cell Council

USFS - United States Forest Service

USFWS - United States Fish & Wildlife Service

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Bureau of Reclamation Cooperative Agreement - According to the 1977 cooperative agreement (Reclamation and Service contract No. 7-07-20-W0089) between the two agencies, the Service has ultimate administrative control of the refuges, but Reclamation manages the agricultural leased lands program. Agricultural crops are grown on both refuges by Service personnel, by growers under cooperative arrangements (a sharecrop arrangement), and by private growers who lease Service lands through the program operated by Reclamation. The agricultural programs are subject to limitations on the use of chemicals (and must comply with pesticide use proposals [PUPs]), timing of cultivation, and any other appropriate limitations as may be necessary. Reclamation must consult with and obtain the approval of the Service in developing the agricultural leasing program. http://library.fws.gov/Pubs1/IPM/Guide.html 

USGBC - United States Green Building Council

USGC - United States Grains Council

USGCRP - The United States Global Change Research Program also known as 'Global Change Data and Information System,' or GCDIS. "Gateway to Global Change Data and Information!" http://globalchange.gov/ 

USGS - United States Geological Survey

USGS - NMD - United States Geological Survey - National Mapping Division

USH - Unsatisfied Spiritual Hunger

USI - The U.S. Institute (In the context of the Institute's enabling legislation, Public Law 105-156, Section 4, the Morris K. Udall Foundation was directed to establish the U.S. Institute "to resolve environmental disputes involving agencies and instrumentalities of the United States.". In essence, if an instrumentality of the United States, or a stakeholder who has been involved in an environmental conflict with an instrumentality, approached the Institute with a request for neutral third party assistance, the Institute could become involved if the situation were deemed appropriate. The Institute may also become involved in issues where a federal agency has delegated responsibility for enforcement of federal laws to a state government or agency, or where a federal law, such as the Endangered Species act affects state or local jurisdictions or private property.)

USIA - United States Information Agency

USIECR - The United States Institute for Environmental Conflict Resolution

USIJI - United States Initiative on Joint Implementation

USIM - United States Institute of Medicine

USMAB - United States Man And the Biosphere program (this is printed on U.S. Geological Survey maps)

USIT - United States Insular Territories

USLE - Universal Soil Loss Equation

USMA - United States Military Academy (West Point)

USMAYORS - U.S. Conference of Mayors http://www.usmayors.org/ 

USNC - United States Network for Cairo

USNCMAB - United States National Committee for the Man and the Biosphere Program

USNHII - United States Network for Habitat II

USNOAA - United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

USNRC - United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission

USOPIC - United States Overseas Private Investment Corporation

USOTA - United States Office of Technology Assessment

USPAP - The Uniform Standards of Appraisal Practice

USPAP - Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice http://www.appraisalfoundation.org/html/USPAP2003/toc.htm 

USPHS - United States Public Health Service

USPIRG - United States Public Interest Research Groups

USPO - United States Patent Office

USPO - United States Post Office

USPP - United States Park Police

USPWPA - Upper South Platte Watershed Project Area (also is the municipal watershed for much of Denver, CO)

USRA - The United States Railroad Administration, founded December 28, 1917. The federal government -- Woodrow Wilson administration -- took over coordination of all American railroads on December 28, 1917, during the [first world] war, and did not return control until March 1, 1920.

USRAIALE - U.S. Regional Association of the International Association of Landscape Ecology

USSA - United States Sportsmen Alliance

USSS - United States Safety Standards

USSS - The United States Settlement System (USDA)

USSVCP - United States Special Virus Cancer Program (1962-1978)

UST - Underground Storage Tank

Ust - Ustic moisture regime.

USTD - United States Trade Deficit

USTR - United States Trade Representative

USTTA - United States Travel and Tourism Administration

UT - United Technologies

UT - Urban Terrorist

UT - Urban Transport

UTA - Urban Transition Area

UTAP - Universal Trail Assessment Process

Utility (patent) - The usefulness of a patented invention. To be patentable, an invention must operate and be capable of use, and it must perform some "useful" function for society.

Utility - A service provided by a public utility, such as electricity, telephone, or water. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

Utility Corridor - A linear strip of land identified for the present or future location of utility lines within its boundaries. (BLM)

Utilization - Use. - USDA DEIS Upper & Lower East Fork Cattle and Horse Allotment Management Plans glossary (Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, Custer County, Idaho

Utilization - The portion of forage that has been consumed (or destroyed) by livestock, wild horses, wildlife, and insects during a specified period. The term is also used to refer to the pattern of such use (43CFR 4100.0-5). Utilization is the proportion or degree of the current year's forage production by weight that is consumed or destroyed by animals (including insects). The term may refer either to a single plant species, a group of species, or the vegetation community as a whole. Utilization is synonymous with use. BLM-DOI

UTP - Urban Transportation Planning

UV - Ultra-Violet

UV rays - Ultraviolet rays, an invisible form of energy harmful to most living organisms. - UNEP Children's Glossary

UVLT - Upper Valley Land Trust (New Hampshire)

UW - Umpqua Watersheds

UW - United Way

UWA - United Way of America

UWHM - Upland Wildlife Habitat Management

UWIC - Urban Wildland Interface Communities (DOI)

UWSA - United We Stand America

UZM - Unsaturated Zone Monitoring

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