ZA - Zoning Authority

 

ZB - Zoning Board

 

ZBA - Zoning Board of Appeals

 

ZC - Zero Cut

 

ZC - Zoning Code

 

ZCS - Zone Command System

 

ZD - Zone District

 

ZERI - Zero Emissions Research Initiative (UN)

 

Zero Population Growth (ZPG) - Absence of population growth in which equal birth and death rates create a stable human population. (UN)

 

Zero-lot-line Development - A development option where side yard restrictions are reduced and the building abuts a side lot line. Overall unit-lot densities are therefore increased. Zero-lot- line development can result in increased protection of natural resources, reduction in requirements for road and sidewalk. - Smart Growth Green Development Glossary

 

ZEV Zero Emission Vehicle

 

Zircon - A mineral [ZrSiO4] used as a refractory and as the gem, hyacinth. The chief ore-mineral of zirconium, and a common accessory mineral in igneous rocks. Because zircon is resistant to mechanical and chemical weathering, it can occur as a detrital (sand grains) mineral in river and beach sands. - BLM (DOI) Grand Escalante Staircase National Monument DEIS Glossary

 

ZM - Zero Military

 

ZM - Zoning Management

 

ZO - Zoning Ordinance

 

ZOI - Zone of Incorporation

 

Zone of Aeration - The comparatively dry soil or rock located between the ground surface and the top of the water table.  The zone of aeration is not saturated with water because its pores are filled partly by air and partly by water.

 

Zone of aeration - The zone above the water table. Water in the zone of aeration does not flow into a well. - USGS

 

Zone of Influence (ZOI) - The area influenced by Forest Service management activities.

 

Zone of Saturation - The soil or rock located below the top of the ground water table that is saturated with water.

 

Zone of saturation (Phreatic Zone) - The zone in which the functional permeable rocks are saturated with water under hydrostatic pressure. (Meinzer, 1923, p. 21.) Water in the zone of saturation will flow into a well, and is called ground water. USGS 2. A subsurface zone in which all the interstices are filled with water under pressure greater than that of the atmosphere. - BLM Surface Mgmt. Regs.

 

Zoning - Process in physical planning or the results thereof, in which specific functions or uses are assigned to certain areas (for example, industrial zones, residential areas). (UN) One of the municipal police powers.  A municipal ordinance that defines types and locations of land uses within a community, addressing such elements as lot sizes and setbacks from the street.  Purpose is to promote the health, safety, morals, and general welfare of the community and protect and preserve places and areas of historical, cultural or architectural importance and significance.  Zoning should support the goals of a comprehensive plan.  Zoning decisions are based upon a review of the following:  appropriate use of land/compatibility with surrounding properties, traffic circulation or congestion, adequate light and air, overcrowding/density, adequate transportation, water, sewer, schools, parks, and other public requirements, conserve value of property.  Municipalities adopt zoning ordinances which may in general regulate the following:  the height, width, size, and number of stories of buildings and structures; the percentage of a lot or tract that may be occupied; the size of yards (setbacks), courts, and other open spaces; the location and use of buildings, other structures, and land; and population density.  The division of a municipality (or other governmental unit) into districts, and the regulation within those districts of 1) the height and bulk of buildings and other structures; 2) the area of a lot that can be built on and the size of required open spaces; 3) the net density of dwelling units; and 4) the use of buildings and land for trade, industry, residence, or other purposes.

 

Zoning - New York City adopted the first comprehensive zoning in the Country on July 25, 1916, with the New York City Zoning Resolution. 1) Mugler v. Kansas, (123 U.S. 623 Justice Harlan, 1887) - The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that when a regulation respecting the use of property is designed 'to prevent serious harm,' no compensation is owing under the takings clause. See Takings: Private Property and the Power of Eminent Domain by Richard A. Epstein(1) for a discussion of the Mugler and the Euclid v. Ambler decisions. Note particularly the contrast between the Supreme Court's historic attitude about the police power in property (including nuisance) and free speech cases. 2) Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Commission (U.S. Supreme Court 1992) - ... in Penn Central Transportation Co. ... in the course of sustaining New York City's landmarks preservation program against takings challenge, we rejected the petitioner's suggestion that Mugler and the cases following it were premised on, and thus limited by, some objective conception of 'noxiousness.' "  " 'Harmful or noxious use' analysis was, in other words, simply the progenitor of our more contemporary statements that 'land-use regulation does not effect a taking if it substantially advances legitimate state interests...' Nollan 484 U.S. at 834 (Quoting Agins v. Tiburon, 447 U.S. at 260); see also Penn Central Transportation Co., 438 U.S. at 127; Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co., 272 U.S. 365, 387388 (1926)." Judge Scalia goes on to describe this transition and the weakness in distinguishing between "harm-preventing" and "benefit conferring." 3) Euclid v. Ambler (272 U.S. 365 Justice George Sutherland 1926) - This is the oft-cited case where the constitutionality of zoning was ruled on by the Supreme Court.  The court upheld the general principle of zoning, which previously was the subject of varying state rulings about its constitutionality. The takings issue was undecided, because the ordinance was broadly challenged on Fourteenth Amendment and due process grounds, not on the effect of any of its specific rules on a particular party.  "If these reasons... do not demonstrate the wisdom or sound policy in all respects of those restrictions which we have indicated as pertinent to the inquiry, at least, the reasons are sufficiently cogent to preclude us from saying, as it must be said before the ordinance can be declared unconstitutional, that such provisions are clearly arbitrary and unreasonable, having no substantial relation to the public health, safety, or general welfare." The court noted that because a particular injury was not complained of it would not scrutinize and dissect provisions or matters of administration, "which, if attacked separately, might not withstand the test of constitutionality." 4) Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon (260 U.S. 393, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes 1922) - The Supreme Court ruled that despite the social desirability to prevent buildings from subsiding into mine shafts, the legislation had to provide compensation for the coal company's interest before forbidding them from mining. Yet this ruling is often cited to defend zoning, because the Court stated, "Government hardly could go on if to some extent values incident to property could not be diminished without paying for every such change in the law." 5) Agins v. Tiburon (447 U.S. 255) - In this oft-quoted ruling the U.S. Supreme Court held that a land-use regulation does not effect a taking if it "substantially advance(s) legitimate state interests" and does not "deny an owner economically viable use of his land." In Dolan v. Tigard, the Supreme Court pointed out that the Pennsylvania Coal and Agins rulings did not apply to an exaction such as that under consideration.  (1) Harvard University Press, 1985, pp130ff 0,50/85-92 provisions - Refers to the so-called 50/85 and 50/92 provisions for rice and cotton and the 0/85 and 0/92 provisions for wheat and feed grains that were in effect in various forms from 1986 through 1995. Under these provisions farmers could idle all or part of their permitted acreage, putting the idled land in a conserving use, and still receive deficiency payments for part of the acreage. A minimum planting requirement of 50 percent of maximum payment acreage had to be met in order to receive payments in the case of rice and cotton. - USDA-Economic Research Service Farm and Commodity Policy Glossary of Policy Terms. The 1866 Mining Law - R.S. 2477, or Section 8 of the 1866 Mining Act, provides simply: "The right-of-way for the construction of highways over public lands, not reserved for public uses, is hereby granted."

 

The Zoning Act of 1926 - The Zoning Act of 1926 allowed government control of property. The Supreme Court ruled that such urban control was justified under the maxim, "Use your own property in such a manner as not to injure another." Although not the original intent, some states zone rural land too.

 

Zooplankton- Small, usually microscopic animals (such as protozoans), found in lakes and reservoirs.

 

ZP - Zoning Plan

 

ZPG - Zero Population Growth

 

ZR - Zoning Restriction(s)

 

ZR - Zoning Rewrite

 

ZRL - Zero Risk Level

 

ZT - Zero Tolerance

 

ZTC - Zone Tax Credits

 

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